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Color for Television Series

By Karen Maierhofer

Several years ago I was lucky enough to see Van Gogh’s original The Starry Night oil on canvas at a museum and was awestruck by how rich and vibrant it really was. I had fallen in love with the painting years before after seeing reproductions/reprints, which paled in comparison to the original’s striking colors and beauty. No matter how well done, the reproductions could never duplicate the colors and richness of the original masterpiece.

Just as in the art world, stories told via television are transformed through the use of color. Color grading and color correction help establish a signature look for a series, though that can, and often does, change from one episode to another — or from one scene to another — based on the mood the DP and director want to portray.

Here we delve into this part of the post process and follow a trio of colorists as they set the tone for three very different television series.

Black-ish
Black-ish is an ABC series about a successful African-American couple raising their five children in an affluent, predominantly white neighborhood. Dre, an advertising executive, is proud of his heritage but fears that culture is lost when it comes to his kids.

There is no struggle, however, when it comes to color grading the show, a job that has fallen to colorist Phil Azenzer from The Foundation in Burbank starting with this past season (Season 4).

The show is shot using an Arri Alexa camera. The dailies are then produced by the show’s in-house editor. The files, including the assembly master, are sent to Azenzer, who uses the raw camera files for his color grading, which is done using Blackmagic’s Resolve.

Azenzer starts a scene by rolling into the establishing shot and sets the look there because “you can see all light sources and their color temperatures,” he says. “I get a feel for the composition of the shot and the gradation of shadow to light. I see what light each of the actors is standing in or walking through, and then know how to balance the surrounding coverage.”

In his opinion, networks, for the most part, like their half-hour comedies to be well lit, more chromatic, with less shadow and contrast than an average one-hour drama, in order to create a more inviting, light feel (less somber). “And Black-ish is no different, although because of the subject matter, I think of Black-ish as more of a ‘dramedy,’ and there are scenes where we go for a more dramatic feel,” Azenzer explains.

Black-ish’s main characters are African-American, and the actors’ skin tones vary. “Black-ish creator Kenya Barris is very particular about the black skin tones of the actors, which can be challenging because some tones are more absorbent and others more reflective,” says Azenzer. “You have to have a great balance so everyone’s skin tone feels natural and falls where it’s supposed to.”

Phil Azenzer

Azenzer notes that the makeup department does an excellent job, so he doesn’t have to struggle as much with pulling out the bounce coming off the actors’ skin as a result of their chromatic clothes. He also credits DP Rob Sweeney (with whom he has worked on Six Feet Under and Entourage) with “a beautiful job of lighting that makes my life easier in that regard.”

While color grading the series, Azenzer avoids any yellow in skin tones, per Barris’s direction. “He likes the skin tones to look more natural, more like what they actually are,” he says. “So, basically, the directive was to veer away from yellow and keep it neutral to cool.”

While the colorist follows that direction in most scenes, he also considers the time of day the scene takes place when coloring. “So, if the call is for the shot to be warm, I let it go warm, but more so for the environment than the skin tones,” explains Azenzer.

Most of the show is shot on set, with few outdoor sequences. However, the scenes move around the house (kitchen, living room, bedrooms) as well as at the ad agency where Dre works. “I have some preferred settings that I can usually use as a starting point because of the [general] consistency of the show’s lighting. So, I might ripple through a scene and then just tighten it up from there,” says Azenzer. But my preference as a colorist is not to take shortcuts. I don’t like to plug something in from another episode because I don’t know if, in fact, the lighting is exactly the same. Therefore, I always start from scratch to get a feel for what was shot.”

For instance, shots that take place in Dre’s office play out at various points in the day, so that lighting changes more often.

The office setting contains overhead lighting directly above the conference table, like one would find in a typical conference room. It’s a diffused lighting that is more intense directly over the table and diminishes in intensity as it feathers out over the actors, so the actors are often moving in and out of varying intensities of light on that set. “It’s a matter of finding the right balance so they don’t get washed out and they don’t get [too much shadow] when they are sitting back from the table,” explains Azenzer. “That’s probably the most challenging location for me.”

Alas, things changed somewhat during the last few episodes of the season. Dre and his wife, Rainbow, hit a rough patch in their marriage and separate. Dre moves into a sleek, ultra-modern house in the canyon, with two-story ceilings and 20-foot-tall floor-to-ceiling windows — resulting in a new location for Azenzer. “It was filled with natural light, so the image was a little flat in those scenes and awash with light and a cool aura,” he describes. Azenzer adjusted for this by “putting in extra contrast, double saturation nodes, and keying certain colors to create more color separation, which helps create overall separation and depth of field. It was a fun episode.”

In the prior episode, the show toggles back and forth from flashbacks of Bow and Dre from happier times in their marriage to present day. Azenzer describes the flashbacks as saturated with extremely high contrast, “pushing the boundaries of what would be acceptable.” When the scene switched to present day, instead of the typical look, it was shot with the movie Blue Valentine in mind, as the characters discussed separating and possibly divorcing.

“Those scenes were shot and color corrected with a very cool, desaturated look. I would latch onto maybe one thing in the shot and pop color back into that. So, it would be almost grayish blue, and if there was a Granny Smith apple on the counter, I grabbed that and popped it, made it chromatic,” explains Azenzer. “And Dre’s red sweatshirt, which was desaturated and cool along with the rest of the scene, I went back in there and keyed that and popped the red back in. It was one of the more creative episodes we did.”

When Azenzer first took over coloring the show, “everybody was involved,” he says. “I had a relationship with Rob Sweeney, but I was new to Kenya, the post team, and Tom Ragazzo, co-producer, so it was very collaborative at the beginning to nail the look they were going for, what Kenya wanted. Now we are at the point so when I finish an episode, I give Rob a heads-up and he’ll come over that day or whenever he can and bring lunch, and I play it back for him.”

It’s not as if the episodes are without change, though Azenzer estimates that 85 percent of the time Sweeney says, “‘Beautiful job,’ and is out the door.” When there are changes, they usually involve something nominal on just a shot or two. “We are never off-base to where we need to redo a scene. It’s usually something subjective, where he might ask me to add a Power Window to create a little shadow in a corner or create a light source that isn’t there.”

Azenzer enjoys working on Black-ish, particularly because of the close relationship he has with those working on the show. “They are all awesome, and we get along really well and collaborate well,” he says. Indeed, he has forged bonds with this new family of sorts on both a professional and personal level, and recently began working on Grown-ish, a spin-off of Black-ish that follows the family’s eldest daughter after she moves away to attend college.

The 100
Dan Judy, senior colorist at DigitalFilm Tree (DFT) in Hollywood, has been working on The CW’s The 100 starting with the pilot in 2014, and since then has helped evolve it into a gritty-looking show. “It started off with more of an Eden-type environment and has progressed into a much grittier, less friendly and dangerous place to live,” he says.

The 100 is a post-apocalyptic science-fiction drama that centers on a group of juvenile offenders from aboard a failing space station who are sent to Earth following a nuclear apocalypse there nearly a century earlier. Their mission: to determine whether the devastated planet is habitable. But, soon they encounter clans of humans who have survived the destruction.

“We have geographical locations that have a particular look to them, such as Polis (the capitol of the coalition),” says Judy of the environment set atop rolling hills lush with vegetation. “In this past season, we have the Eden environment — where after the planet incurs all this devastation, the group finds an oasis of thriving foliage and animated life. Then, gradually, we started backing off the prettiness of Eden and making it less colorful, a little more contrasty, a little harsher.”

The series is shot in Vancouver by DP Michael Blundell. The dailies are handled by Bling Digital’s Vancouver facility, which applies color with the dailies cut. As an episode is cut, Bling then ships drives containing the camera master media and the edit decision list to DFT, which assembles the show with a clip-based approach, using the full-resolution camera masters as its base source.

“We aren’t doing a transcode of the media. We actually work directly, 100 percent of the time, from the client camera master,” says Judy, noting this approach eliminates the possibility of errors, such as dropouts or digital hits that can result from transcoding. “It also gives me handles on either end of a shot if it was trimmed.”

Dan Judy

Vancouver-based Blundell sets the palette, but he conveys his ideas and concepts to Tim Scanlan, director and supervising producer on the show, with whom Judy has a longstanding relationship — they worked together years before on Smallville. “Then Tim and I will sit down and spot the show, setting looks for the scenes, and after the spotting session, I will fill in the gaps to give it a consistent look,” says Judy. Although Scanlan is in nearby Santa Monica, due to LA’s traffic, he and Hollywood-based Judy collaborate remotely, to save valuable time.

“I can remote into [Scanlan’s] system and color correct with him in full resolution and in realtime,” explains Judy. “I can play back the reference file with the dailies color on it, and I can split-screen that with him in realtime if he wants to reference the dailies color for that particular scene.”

For coloring the show, Judy uses Blackmagic’s DaVinci Resolve, which is also used to conform the series. Using Resolve’s Project Management tools, the editors and colorists “can all work on the project and contribute to it live, in realtime, simultaneously,” Judy points out. “So, I can be color correcting at the same time the editor is building the show, and getting all of his updates in mere seconds.”

Scanlan uses a remote Resolve system with a monitor that is calibrated to Judy’s, “so what he is seeing on his end is an exact replica of what I’m seeing in my room,” Judy says.

One scene in The 100 that stands out for Judy occurs early in the episode during the premiere of Season 5, which finds Clarke Griffin, one of the prisoners, trapped in a wasteland. He explains: “We had several different evolutions of what that look was going to be. I gave them a few designs, and they gave me some notes. Before the show was cut, they gave me little snippets of scenes to look at, and I did test looks. They came back and decided to go with one of those test looks at first, and then as the show progressed, we decided, collaboratively, to redesign the look of the scene and go with more of a sepia tone.”

Much of The 100 is filmed outdoors, and as everyone knows, nature does not always cooperate during shoots. “They deal with a lot of different weather conditions in Vancouver, unlike LA. They’ll get rain in the middle of a scene. Suddenly, clouds appear, and you have shadows that didn’t exist before. So, when that’s the only footage you have, you need to make it all blend together,” explains Judy. “Another challenge is making these amazing-looking sets look more natural by shadowing off the edges of the frame with power windows and darkening parts of the frame so it looks like the natural environment.”

Judy points to the character Becca’s abandoned lab — an elaborate set from last year’s season — as a scene that stands out for him. “It was an amazing set, and in wide shots, we would shape that picture with power windows and use color levels and desaturation to darken it, and then color levels and saturation to brighten up other areas,” he says. “This would make the room look more cavernous than it was, even though it was large to begin with, to give it more scope and vastness. It also made the room look dramatic yet inviting at the same time.”

All in all, Judy describes The 100 as a very edgy, dramatic show. “There’s a lot going on. It’s not your standard television fare. It’s very creative,” he says. “Tim and I did a lot of color design on Smallville, and we’re carrying on that tradition in The 100. It’s more feature-esque, more theatrical, than most television shows. We add grain on the picture to give it texture; it’s almost imperceptible, but it gives a slightly different feel than other shows. It’s nice to be part of something where I’m not just copying color for a standardized, formulaic show. This series gives me the opportunity to be creative, which is awesome.”

Dear White People
Sometimes color grading decisions are fairly standard on television shows. Black and white, so to speak. Not so for the Netflix series Dear White People, a comedy-drama spin-off from the 2014 film of the same name, which follows students of color at a predominantly white Ivy League college as they navigate various forms of discrimination — racial and otherwise.

Helping achieve the desired look for the series fell to senior colorist Scott Gregory from NBCUniversal StudioPost. Starting with Season 1, day one, “the show’s creator, Justin Simien, DP Jeffrey Waldron, executive producer Yvette Lee Bowser and I huddled in my bay and experimented with different ‘overall’ looks for the show,” notes Gregory.

Simien then settled on the “feel” that is present throughout most of the series. Once he had locked a base look, the group then discussed how to use color to facilitate the storytelling. “We created looks for title cards, flashbacks, historical footage, locations and even specific characters,” Gregory says.

Using stills he had saved during those creative meetings as a guide, he then color corrects each show. Once the show is ready for review, the executive producers and DP provide notes — during the same session if schedules permit, or separately, as is often the case. If any of the creatives cannot be present, stills and color review files are uploaded for review via the Internet.

According to Gregory, his workflow starts after he receives a pre-conformed 4:4:4 MXF video assembled master (VAM) and an EDL supplied by online editor Ian Lamb. Gregory then performs a process pass on the VAM using Resolve, whereby he re-renders the VAM, applying grain and two Digital Film Tools (DFT) optical filters. This gives the Red camera footage a more weathered, filmic look. This processing, however, is not applied to the full-frame television show inserts to better separate them from the visual palette created for the show by Simien, Bowser and DPs Waldron and Topher Osborn.

Scott Gregory

Once the VAM is processed, Gregory creates a timeline using the EDL, the processed VAM, and the temp audio, applies a one-light correction to all of the shots, and gets to work. As the color progresses, he drops in the visual effects, cleaned shots, composited elements, and some titles as they are delivered. Once the show is locked for color and VFX approval, he renders out a 3840×2160 UHD final 4:4:4 MXF color-timed master, which then goes back to the online editor for titling and delivery.

“Blue contaminated and lifted blacks, strong vignettes, film-grain emulation and warm, compressed filmic highlights are characteristics present in most of the show,” says Gregory. “We also created looks for Technicolor two-strip, sepia, black-and-white silent-era damaged print, and even an oversaturated, diffused, psychedelic drug trip scene.”

The looks for the flashback or “historical” sequences, usually somewhere in Act I, were created for the most part in Resolve. Many of these sequences or montages jump through different time periods. “I created a black-and-white damaged film look for the 1800s, Technicolor two-strip for the early 1900s, a faded-emulsion [Kodak] Ektachrome [film] look for the ’70s, and a more straightforward but chromatic look for the ’80s,” says Gregory.

Simien also wanted to use color “themes” for specific characters. This was reflected in not only the scenes that included the featured character for that particular show, but also in the title card at the head of the show. (The title card for each show has a unique color corresponding to the featured character of that episode.)

When coloring the series, Gregory inevitably encounters processing issues. “Using all the filters and VFX plug-ins that I do on this show and being in UHD resolution both eat up a lot of processing power. This slows down the software significantly, no matter what platform or GPUs are being used,” he says. In order to keep things up to speed, he decided to pre-render, or bake in, the grain and some of the filters that were to be used throughout each show.

“I then create a new timeline using the pre-rendered VAM and the EDL, and set a base correction,” Gregory explains. “This workflow frees up the hardware, so I can still get realtime playback, even with multiple color layers, composites and new effects plug-ins.”

Gregory is hardly new to color grading, having a long list of credits, including television series, full-length movies and short films. And while working on Seasons 1 and the recently released Season 2 of Dear White People, he appreciated the collaborative environment. “Justin is obviously very creative and has a discerning eye. I have really enjoyed the collaborative space in which he, Yvette, Jeffrey and Topher like to work,” he says. “Justin likes to experiment and go big. He wants the artists he works with to be a part of the creative process, and I think he believes that in the end, his final product will benefit from it. It makes for good times in the color bay and a show we are all very proud of.”


Karen Maierhofer is a longtime technical writer with more than two decades of experience in segments of the CG and post industries.

The Path‘s post path to UHD

By Randi Altman

On a recent visit to the Universal Studios lot in Los Angeles, I had the pleasure of meeting the post team behind Hulu’s The Path, which stars Aaron Paul and Hugh Dancy. The show is about a cult — or as their members refer to it, a movement — that on the outside looks like do-gooders preaching peace and love, but on the inside there are some freaky goings-on.

The first time I watched The Path, I was taken with how gorgeous the picture looked, and when I heard the show was posted and delivered in UHD, I understood why.

“At the time we began to prep season one — including the pilot — Hulu had decided they would like all of their original content shows to deliver in UHD,” explains The Path producer Devin Rich. “They were in the process of upgrading their streaming service to that format so the viewers at home, who had the capability, could view this show in its highest possible quality.”

For Rich (Parenthood, American Odyssey, Deception, Ironside), the difference that UHD made to the picture was significant. “There is a noticeable difference,” he says. “For lack of better words, the look is more crisp and the colors pop. There, of course, is a larger amount of information in a UHD file, which gives us a wider range to make it look how we want it to, or at least closer to how we want it to look.”

L-R: Tauzhan Kaiser, Craig Burdick (both standing), Jacqueline LeFranc and Joe Ralston.

While he acknowledges that as a storyteller UHD “doesn’t make much of a difference” because scripts won’t change, his personal opinion is that “most viewers like to feel as if they are living within the scene rather than being a third-party to the scene.” UHD helps get them there, as does the team at NBCUniversal StudioPost, which consists of editor Jacqueline LeFranc, who focuses on the finishing, adding titles, dropping in the visual effects and making the final file; colorist Craig Budrick; lead digital technical operations specialist Joe Ralston, who focuses on workflow; and post production manager Tauzhan Kaiser.

They were all kind enough to talk to us about The Path’s path to UHD.

Have you done an UHD workflow on any other shows?
Ralston: We have a lot of shows that shoot UHD or high resolution, but The Path was our first television show that finished UHD all the way through.

What is it shot on?
Ralston: They shoot Red 3840×2160, and they also shoot 4800×2700, so almost 5K. UHD is technically twice the height and twice the width of HD, so while it’s still 16×9, resolution-wise it’s double.

From an infrastructure perspective, were you guys prepared to deal with all that data?
Ralston: Yes. At the facility here at NBCUniversal StudioPost, not only do we do TV work, but there’s remastering work — all the centennial titles, for example.

Kaiser: We we’ve done Spartacus. All Quiet on the Western Front, The Birds, Buck Privates, Dracula (1931), Frankenstein, Out of Africa, Pillow Talk, The Sting, To Kill a Mockingbird, Touch of Evil, Double Indemnity, Holiday Inn and King of Jazz.

Ralston: The infrastructure as far as storage and monitoring were already in place here. We knew that this was coming. So slowly the facility has been preparing and gearing up for it. We had been ready, but this was really the first that requested end-to-end UHD. Usually, we do a show that maybe it’s shot UHD or 5K, but they finish in HD, so when we leave the editorial room, we’re then in an HD world. In this case, we were not.

LeFranc: Joe’s group, which is digital tech ops, doesn’t really exist in other places that I know of. They develop, train and work with everybody else in the facility to develop these kind of workflows in order to get ahead of it. So we are prepared, adequately trained and aware of all the pitfalls and any other concerns there might be. That’s a great thing for us, because it’s knowledge.

Other shows have gone UHD, but some in season two, and they were playing catch up in terms of workflow.
Ralston: We’d been thinking about it for a long time. Like I said, the difference with this show, versus some of the other ones who do it is that everyone else, when it got to color, went to HD. This one, when we got to color, we stayed UHD all the way through from there on out.

So, that was really the big difference for a show like this. The big challenges for this one were — and Jacqueline can go into it a little bit more — when you get into things like titling or creating electronic titles, there’s not a lot of gear out there that does that.

Jacqueline, can you elaborate on that?
LeFranc: There were obstacles that I encountered when trying to establish the initial workflow. So, for example, the character generator that is used to create the titles has an option for outputting 4K, but after testing it I realized it wasn’t 4K. It looked like it was just up-rezed.

So I came up with a workflow where, in the character generator, we would make the title larger than we needed it to be and then size it down in Flame. Then we needed a new UHD monitor, the Sony BVMX300. The broadcast monitor didn’t work anymore, because if you want to see UHD in RGB, it has to have a quad-link output.

Craig, did your color process change at all?
Budrick: No, there wasn’t really any change for me in color. The creative process is still the creative process. The color corrector supports a higher resolution file, so it wasn’t an issue of needing new equipment or anything like that.

What systems do you use?
Budrick: We are primarily an Autodesk facility, so we use Flame, Flame Premium and Lustre for color. We also have Avids.

Can you walk us through the workflow?
Ralston: We don’t do the dailies on this project here. It’s all done in New York at Bling. We receive all the camera master files. While they do use drones and a couple of other cameras, a large percent of the show is shot on Epic Red Dragon at 3840×2160.

We get all those camera master files and load them onto our server. Then we receive an Avid bin or sequence from the client and bring that into our Avid in here and we link to those camera master files on the SAN. Once they’re linked, we then have a high-res timeline we can play through. We take the low-res offline version that they gave us and we split it — our editor goes through it and makes sure that everything’s there and matched.

Once that part is complete, we transcode that out to the Avid codec DNX-HR444, which is basically 440Mb and a UHD file that the Avid is outputting. Once we get that UHD file out of the Avid, we flip that UHD DNX-MXF file into a DPX sequence that is a UHD 3840×2160 DPX sequence. That’s where Craig would pick up on color. He would take that DPX sequence and color from there.

Craig, in terms of the look of the show, what direction were you given?
Budrick: They shoot in New York, so the DP Yaron Orbach is in New York. Because of that distance, I had a phone conversation with them to start the look of the show. Then I do a first-day pass, and then he receives the file. Then, he just gives me notes via email on each scene. Then he gets the second file, and hopefully I’m there.

Can you give me an example of a note that he has given?
Budrick: It just might be, you know, let’s add some saturation, or let’s bring this scene down. Maybe make it more moody. Bring down the walls.

Overall, as the show has gone along and the stories have developed it’s gotten a little darker and more twisted, it’s leaned more toward a moody look and not a whole lot of happy.

Ralston: Because of the distance between us and the DP, we shipped a color-calibrated Sony HD monitor to New York. We wanted to make sure that what he was looking at was an exact representation of what Craig was doing.

Jacqueline, any challenges from your perspective other than the titles and stuff?
LeFranc: Just the differences that I noticed — the render time takes a little longer, obviously, because the files are a little bigger. We have to use certain SAN volumes, because some have larger bandwidths.

Ralston: We have 13 production volumes here, and for this particular show — like the feature mastering that we do — the volume is 156TB Quantum that is tuned for 4K. So, in other words, it performs better with these larger files on it.

Did you experiment at all at the beginning?
Ralston: For the first three episodes we had a parallel workflow. Everything we did in UHD, we did in HD as well — we didn’t want the producer showing up to a screening and running into a bandwidth issue. In doing this, we realized we weren’t experiencing bandwidth issues. We kind of underestimated what our SAN could do. So, we abandoned the HD.

Do you think finishing in UHD will be the norm soon?
Ralston: We were unofficially told that this time next year we should plan on doing network shows this way.