Tag Archives: Light Iron

Color Chat: Light Iron’s Sean Dunckley

Sean Dunckley joined Light Iron New York’s studio in 2013, where he has worked on episodic television and features films. He finds inspiration in many places, but most recently in the photography of Stephen Shore and Greg Stimac. Let’s find out more…

NAME: Sean Dunckley

COMPANY: LA- and NYC-based Light Iron

CAN YOU DESCRIBE YOUR COMPANY?
Light Iron is a Panavision company that offers end-to-end creative and technical post solutions. I color things there.

AS A COLORIST, WHAT WOULD SURPRISE PEOPLE THE MOST ABOUT WHAT FALLS UNDER THAT TITLE?
I like to get involved early in the process. Some of the most rewarding projects are those where I get to work with the cinematographer from pre-production all the way through to the final DCP.

Ongoing advances in technology have really put the spotlight on the holistic workflow. As part of the Panavision ecosystem, we can offer solutions from start to finish, and that further strengthens the collaboration in the DI suite. We can help a production with camera and lens choices, oversee dailies and then bring all that knowledge into the final grade.

Recently, I had a client who was worried about the speed of his anamorphics at night. The cinematographer was much more comfortable shooting the faster spherical lenses, but the film and story called for the anamorphic look. In pre-production, I was able to show him how we can add some attributes of anamorphic lenses in post. That project ended up shooting a mix of anamorphic and spherical, delivering on both the practical and artistic needs.

Hulu’s Fyre Fraud doc.

WHAT SYSTEM DO YOU WORK ON?
Filmlight’s Baselight. Its color management tools offer with strong paint capabilities, and the Blackboard 2 panel is very user-friendly.

ARE YOU SOMETIMES ASKED TO DO MORE THAN JUST COLOR ON PROJECTS?
Now that DI systems have expanded their tools, I can integrate last-minute fixes during the DI sessions without having to stop and export a shot to another application. Baselight’s paint tools are very strong and have allowed me to easily solve many client issues in the room. Many times, this has saved valuable time against strict deadlines.

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE PART OF THE JOB?
That’s easy. It is the first day of a new project. It feels like an artistic release when I am working with filmmakers to create style frames. I like to begin the process by discussing the goals of color with the film’s creative team.

I try to get their take on how color can best serve the story. After we talk, we play for a little while. I demonstrate the looks that have been inspired by their words and then form a color palette for the project. During this time, it is just as important to learn what the client doesn’t like as much as what they do like.

WHAT’S YOUR LEAST FAVORITE?
I think the hours can be tough at times. The deadlines we face often battle with the perfectionist in me.

IF YOU DIDN’T HAVE THIS JOB, WHAT WOULD YOU BE DOING INSTEAD?
Architecture is a field I would have loved to explore. It’s very similar, as it is equal parts technical and creative.

WHY DID YOU CHOOSE THIS PROFESSION?
I had always been interested in post. I used to cut skateboard videos with friends in high school. In film school, I pursued more of an editing route. After graduation, I got a job at a post house and quickly realized I wanted to deviate and dive into color.

Late Night with Emma Thompson. Photo by Emily Aragones

CAN YOU NAME SOME RECENT PROJECTS YOU HAVE WORKED ON?
Recent film titles I worked on include Late Night and Brittany Runs a Marathon, both of which got picked up at Sundance by Amazon.

Other recent projects include Amazon Studio’s Life Itself, and the Fyre Fraud documentary on Hulu. Currently, I am working on multiple episodic series for different OTT studios.

The separation that used to exist between feature films, documentaries and episodics has diminished. Many of my clients are bouncing between all types of projects and aren’t contained to a single medium.

It’s a unique time to be able to color a variety of productions. Being innovative and flexible is the name of the game here at Light Iron, and we’ve always been encouraged to follow the client and not the format.

WHAT IS THE PROJECT THAT YOU ARE MOST PROUD OF?
It’s impossible to pick a single project. They are all my children!

WHERE DO YOU FIND INSPIRATION?
I go through phases but right now it’s mostly banal photography. Stephen Shore and Greg Stimac are two of my favorite artists. Finding beauty in the mundane has a lot to do with the shape of light, which is very inspiring to me as a colorist.

NAME THREE PIECES OF TECHNOLOGY YOU CAN’T LIVE WITHOUT.
I need my iPhone, Baselight and, of course, my golf course range finder.

WHAT SOCIAL MEDIA CHANNELS DO YOU FOLLOW?
I follow Instagram for visuals, and I keep up with Twitter for my sports news and scores.

WHAT DO YOU DO TO DE-STRESS FROM IT ALL?
I have young children, so they make sure I leave those stresses back at the office, or at least until they go to bed. I also try to sneak in some golf whenever I can.

Senior colorist Nicholas Hasson joins Light Iron’s LA team

Post house Light Iron has added senior colorist Nicholas Hasson to its roster. He will be based in the company’s Los Angeles studio.

Hasson colored the upcoming Tiffany Haddish feature Nobody’s Fool and Season 2 of HBO’s Room 104. Additional past credits include Boo 2! A Madea Halloween, Masterminds, All About Nina and commercial campaigns for Apple, Samsung and Google. He worked most recently at Technicolor, but his long career has included time at ILM, Company 3 and Modern VideoFilm.

“Nicholas has a wealth of experience that makes him a great fit with our team,” says Light Iron GM Peter Cioni. “His background in color, online and VFX ensures success in meeting clients’ creative objectives and enables flexibility in working across both episodic and feature projects.”

Like Lightiron’s other LA-based colorists, led by Ian Vertovec, Hasson is able to support cinematographers working in other regions through virtual DI sessions in Panavision’s network of connected facilities. (Light Iron is a Panavision company.)

Hasson joins Light Iron during a time of high-profile streaming releases including Netflix’s Maniac and Facebook’s Sorry For Your Loss, as well as feature releases garnering awards buzz, such as Can You Ever Forgive Me? and What They Had.

“This is a significant time of growth for Panavision’s post production creative services,” concludes Cioni. “We are thrilled to have Nicholas with us as we enter this next chapter of expansion.”

Panavision, Sim, Saban Capital agree to merge

Saban Capital Acquisition Corp., a publicly traded special purpose acquisition company, Panavision and Sim Video International have agreed to combine their businesses to create a premier global provider of end-to-end production and post production services to the entertainment industry. Under the terms of the business combination agreement, Panavision and Sim will become wholly owned subsidiaries of Saban Capital Acquisition Corp. Upon completion, Saban Capital Acquisition Corp. will change its name to Panavision Holdings Inc. and is expected to continue to trade on the Nasdaq stock exchange. Kim Snyder, president and chief executive officer of Panavision, will serve as chairman and chief executive officer. Bill Roberts, chief financial officer of Panavision, will serve in that role for the combined company.

Panavision designs, manufactures and provides high-precision optics and camera technology for the entertainment industry and is a leading global provider of production equipment and services. Sim is a leading provider of production and post production solutions with facilities in Los Angeles, Vancouver, Atlanta, New York and Toronto.

“This acquisition will leverage the best of Panavision’s and Sim’s resources by providing comprehensive products and services to best address the ever-adapting needs of content creators globally,” says Snyder.

“We’re combining the talent and integrated services of Sim with two of the biggest names in the business, Panavision and Saban,” adds James Haggarty, president and CEO of Sim. “The resulting scale of the new combined enterprise will better serve our clients and help shape the content-creation landscape.”

The respective boards of directors of Saban Capital Acquisition Corp., Panavision and Sim have unanimously approved the merger with completion subject to Saban Capital Acquisition Corp. stockholder approval, certain regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions. The parties expect that the process will be completed in the first quarter of 2019.

Understanding and partnering on HDR workflows

By Karen Moltenbrey

Every now and then a new format or technology comes along that has a profound effect on post production. Currently, that tech is high dynamic range, or HDR, which offers a heightened visual experience through a greater dynamic range of luminosity.

Michel Suissa

So why is HDR important to the industry? “That is a massive question to answer, but to make a pretty long story relatively short, it is by far one of the recent technologies to emerge with the greatest potential to change how images are affecting audiences,” says Michel Suissa, manager of professional solutions at The Studio–B&H. “Regardless of the market and the medium used to distribute programming, irrelevant to where and how these images are consumed, it is a clearly noticeable enhancement, and at the same time a real marketing gold mine for manufacturers as well as content producers, since a premium can be attached to offering HDR as a feature.”

And he should know. Suissa has been helping a multitude of post studios navigate the HDR waters in their quest for the equipment necessary to meet their high dynamic range needs.

Suissa started seeing a growing appetite for HDR roughly three years ago, both in the consumer and professional markets and at about the same time. “Three years ago, if someone had said they were creating HDR content, a very small percentage of the community would have known what they were talking about,” he notes. “Now, if you don’t know what HDR is and you’re in the industry, then you are probably behind the times.”

Nevertheless, HDR is demanding in terms of the knowledge one needs to create HDR content and distribute it, as well as make sure people can consume it in a way that’s satisfying, Suissa points out. “And there’s still a lot of technical requirements that people have to carefully navigate through because it is hardly trivial,” he says.

How does a company like B&H go about helping a post studio select the right tools for their individual workflow needs? “The basic yet critically important task is understanding their workflow, their existing tool set and what is expected of them in terms of delivery to their clients,” says Suissa.

To assist studios and content creators working in post, The Studio–B&H team follows a blueprint that’s based on engaging customers about the nature of the work they do, asking questions like: Which camera material do they work from? In which form is the original camera material used? What platform do they use for editing? What is the preferred application to master HDR images? What is the storage and network infrastructure? What are the master delivery specifications they must adhere to (what flavor of HDR)?

“People have the most difficulty understanding the nature of the workflow: Do the images need to be captured differently from a camera? Do they need to be ingested in the post system differently? Do they need to be viewed differently? Do they need to be formatted differently? Do they need to be mastered differently? All those things created a new set of specifications that people have to learn, and this is where it has changed the way people handle post production,” Suissa contends. “There’s a lot of intricacies, and you have to understand what it is you’re looking at in order to make sure you’re making the correct decisions — not just technically, but creatively as well.”

When adding an HDR workflow, studios typically approach B&H looking for equipment across their entire pipeline. However, Suissa states that similar parameters apply for HDR work as for other high-performance environments. People will continue to need decent workstations, powerful GPUs, professional storage for performance and increased capacity, and an excellent understanding of monitoring. “Other aspects of a traditional pipeline can sometimes remain in play, but it is truly a case-by-case analysis,” he says.

The most critical aspect of working with HDR is the viewing experience, Suissa says, so selecting an appropriate monitoring solution is vital — as is knowing the output specifications that will be used for final delivery of the content.

Without question, Suissa has seen an increase in the number of studios asking about HDR equipment of late. “Generally speaking, the demand by people wanting to at least understand what they need in order to deliver HDR content is growing, and that’s because the demand for content is growing,” he says.

Yes, there are compromises that studios are making in terms of HDR that are based on budget. Nevertheless, there is a tipping point that can lead to the rejection of a project if it is not up to HDR standards. In fact, Suissa foresees in the next six months or so the tightening of standards on the delivery side, whether for Amazon, Netflix or the networks, and the issuance of mandates by over-the-air distribution channels in order for content to be approved as HDR.

B&H/Light Iron Collaboration
Among the studios that have purchased HDR equipment from B&H is Light Iron, a Panavision company with six facilities spanning the US that offer a range of post solutions, including dailies and DI. According to Light Iron co-founder Katie Fellion, the number of their clients requesting HDR finishing has increased in the past year. She estimates that one out of every three clients is considering HDR finishing, and in some cases, they are doing so even if they don’t have distribution in place yet.

Suissa and Light Iron SVP of innovation Michael Cioni gradually began forging a fruitful collaboration during the last few years, partnering a number of times at various industry events. “At the same time, we doubled up on our relationship of providing technology to them,” Suissa adds, whether for demonstrations or for Light Iron’s commercial production environment.

Katie Fellion

For some time, Light Iron has been moving toward HDR, purchasing equipment from various vendors along the way. In fact, Light Iron was one of the very first vendors to become involved with HDR finishing when Amazon introduced HDR-10 mastering for the second season of one of its flagship shows, Transparent, in 2015.

“Shortly after Transparent, we had several theatrical releases that also began to remaster in both HDR-10 and Dolby Vision, but the requests were not necessarily the norm,” says Fellion. “Over the last three years, that has steadily changed, as more studios are selling content to platforms that offer HDR distribution. Now, we have several shows that started their Season 1 with a traditional HD finish, but then transitioned to 4K HDR finishes in order to accommodate these additional distribution platform requirements.”

Some of the more recent HDR-finished projects at Light Iron include Glow (Season 2) and Thirteen Reasons Why (Season 2) for Netflix, Uncle Drew for Lionsgate, Life Itself for Amazon, Baskets (Season 3) and Better Things (Season 2) for FX and Action Point for Paramount.

Without question, HDR is important to today’s finishing, but one cannot just step blindly into this new, highly detailed world. There are important factors to consider. For instance, the source requirements for HDR mastering — 4K 16-bit files — require more robust tools and storage. “A show that was previously shot and mastered in 2K or HD may now require three or four times the amount of storage in a 4K HDR workflow. Since older post facilities had been previously designed around a 2K/HD infrastructure, newer companies that had fewer issues with legacy infrastructure were able to adopt 4K HDR faster,” says Fellion. Light Iron was designed around a 4K+ infrastructure from day one, she adds, allowing the post house to much more easily integrate HDR at a time when other facilities were still transitioning from 2K to 4K.

Nevertheless, this adoption required changes to the post house’s workflow. Fellion explains: “In a theatrical world, because HDR color is set in a much larger color gamut than P3, the technically correct way to master is to start with the HDR color first and then trim down for P3. However, since HDR theatrical exhibition is still in its infancy, there are not options for most feature films to monitor in a projected environment — which, in a feature workflow, is an expected part of the finishing process. As a result, we often use color-managed workflows that allow us to master first in a P3 theatrical projection environment and then to version for HDR as a secondary pass.”

Light-Iron-NY colorist-Steven Bodner grading music video Picture-Day in HDR on a Sony BVM X300.

In the episodic world, if a project is delivering in HDR, unless creative preference determines otherwise, Light Iron will typically start with the HDR version first and then trim down for the SDR Rec.709 versions.

For either, versioning and delivery have to be considered. For Dolby Vision, this starts with an analysis of the timeline to output an XML for the 709 derivative, explains Fellion of Light Iron’s workflow. And then from that 709 derivative, the colorist will review and tweak the XML values as necessary, sometimes going back to the HDR version and re-analyzing if a larger adjustment needs to be made for the Rec.709 version. For an HDR-10 workflow, this usually involves a different color pass and delivered file set, as well as analysis of the final HDR sequence, to create metadata values, she adds.

Needless to say, embracing HDR is not without challenges. Currently, HDR is only used in the final color process since there’s not many workflows to support HDR throughout the dailies or editorial process, says Fellion. “This can certainly be a challenge to creatives who have spent the past few months staring at images in SDR only to have a different reaction when they first view them in HDR.” Also, in HDR there may be elements on screen that weren’t previously visible in SDR dailies or offline (such as outside a window or production cables under a table), which creates new VFX requirements in order to adjust those elements.

“As more options are developed for on-set monitoring — such as Light Iron’s HDR Video Village System — productions are given an opportunity to see HDR earlier in the process and make mental and physical adjustments to help accommodate for the final HDR picture,” Fellion says.

Having an HDR monitor on set can aid in flagging potential issues that might not be seen in SDR. Currently, however, for dailies and editorial, HDR monitoring is not really used, according to Fellion, who hopes to see that change in the future. Conversely, in the finishing world, “an HDR monitor capable of a minimum 1,000-nit display, such as the Sony [BVM] X300, as well as a consumer-grade HDR UHD TV for client reviews, are part of our standard tool set for mastering,” she notes.

In fact, several months ago, Light Iron purchased new high-end HDR mastering monitors from B&H. The studio also sourced AJA Hi5 4K Plus converter boxes from B&H for its HDR workflow.

And, no doubt, there will be additional HDR equipment needs in Light Iron’s future, as delivery of HDR content continues to ramp up. But there’s a hefty cost involved in moving to HDR. Depending on whether a facility’s DI systems already had the capacity to play back 4K 16-bit files — a key requirement for HDR mastering — the cost can range from a few thousand dollars for a consumer-grade monitor to tens of thousands for professional reference monitoring, DI system, storage and network upgrades, as well as licensing and training for the Dolby Vision platform, according to Fellion.

That is one reason why it’s important for suppliers and vendors to form relationships. But there are other reasons, too. “Those leading the charge [in HDR] are innovators and people you want to be associated with,” Suissa explains. “You learn a lot by associating yourself with professionals on the other side of things. We provide technology. We understand it. We learn it. But we also practice it differently than people who create content. The exchange of knowledge is critical, and it enables us to help our customers better understand the technology they are purchasing.”

Main Image: Netflix’s Glow


Karen Maierhofer is a longtime technical writer with more than two decades of experience in segments of the CG and post industries.

Light Iron opens in Atlanta, targets local film community

In order to support the thriving Georgia production community, post studio Light Iron has opened a new facility in Atlanta. The expansion is the fourth since Panavision acquired Light Iron in 2015, bringing Light Iron’s US locations to six total, including Los Angeles, New York, New Orleans, Albuquerque and Chicago.

“Light Iron has been supporting Georgia productions for years through our mobile dailies services,” explains CFO Peter Cioni. “Now with a team on the ground, productions can take advantage of our facility-based dailies with talent that brings the finishing perspective into the process.”

Clark Cofer

The company’s Atlanta staff recently provided dailies services to season one of Kevin (Probably) Saves the World, season three of Greenleaf and the features Uncle Drew and Superfly.

With a calibrated theater, the Light Iron Atlanta facility has hosted virtual DI sessions from its LA facility for cinematographers working in Atlanta. The theater is also available for projecting camera and lens tests, as well as private screenings for up to 45 guests.

The theater is outfitted with a TVIPS Nevion TBG480, which allows for a full bandwidth 2K signal from either their LA or NY facility for virtual DI sessions. For example, if a cinematographer is working another show in Atlanta, they can still connect with the colorist for the final look of their previous show.

The Light Iron Atlanta dailies team uses Colorfront Express Dailies, which is standard across their facility-based and mobile dailies services worldwide.

Cioni notes that the new location is led by director of business development Clark Cofer, a member of Atlanta’s production and post industry. “Clark brings years of local and state-wide relationships to Light Iron, and we are pleased to have him on our growing team.”

Cofer most recently represented Crawford Media Services, where he drove sales for their renowned content services to companies like Lionsgate, Fox and Marvel. He currently serves as co-president of the Georgia Production Partnership, and is on the board of directors for the DeKalb County Film and Entertainment Advisory Board.

Panavision intros Millennium DXL2 camera with Red Monstro 8K sensor

Panavision is at the BSC Expo 2018 showing its new Millennium DXL2 8K camera. The large-format camera is the heart of a complete imaging ecosystem designed from filmmakers’ perspectives, seamlessly incorporating Panavision’s unmatched optics and camera architecture, the Red Monstro 8K VV sensor and Light Iron color science (LiColor2). The DXL2 builds on the success of the Millennium DXL and benefits from Panavision’s partnership with cinematographers, whose real-world experience and input are manifested in the DXL2’s new offerings.

The Red Monstro 8K VV sensor in the DXL2 offers 16-plus stops of dynamic range with improvements in image quality and shadow detail, a native ISO setting of 1600 and ProRes 4K up to 60 fps. Images are presented on the camera in log format using Light Iron color science. An integrated PX-Pro color spectrum filter custom-made for the DXL offers a significant increase in color separation and dramatically higher color precision to the image. Built-in Preston MDR, 24v power and expanded direct-to-edit features are also standard equipment on the DXL2. An anamorphic flare attachment (AFA) offers a convenient, controllable method of introducing flare with spherical lenses.

New to the DXL2, LiColor2 streamlines the 8K pipeline, smoothly handling the workflow and offering convenient and quick access to high-quality RAW images, accommodating direct-to-edit without delays.

Since its introduction, the DXL has been used on over 20 feature films, and countless television shows, commercials and music videos. Oscar-nominee John Schwartzman, ASC, photographed two features on the DXL and is among those who have tested the DXL2, providing input that has guided the design. He’s currently planning to shoot his next feature with it.

DXL2 cameras are available to rent exclusively from Panavision.

Richard Linklater on directing the film Last Flag Flying

By Iain Blair

Director Richard Linklater first made a name for himself back in 1991 with the acclaimed and influential independent release Slacker, an experimental narrative revolving around 24 hours in the lives of 100 characters. Since then he’s made the beloved Dazed and Confused, Before Sunrise; Before Sunset, (he got an Oscar nod for Best Adapted Screenplay) and Boyhood (which received multiple BAFTA and Golden Globe Awards, and an Oscar for actress Patricia Arquette).

He’s also directed such diverse films as the Western/gangster picture The Newton Boys, the animated feature Waking Life, the real-time drama Tape, the comedy School of Rock and Everybody Wants Some!!

L-R: Iain Blair and Richard Linklater

His new film is the timely Last Flag Flying, which deals with war, patriotism and friendship. Set in 2003, it tells the story of three soldiers — former Navy Corps medic Larry “Doc” Shepherd (Steve Carell) and former Marines Sal Nealon (Bryan Cranston) and Richard Mueller (Laurence Fishburne) — who reunite 30 years after they served together in the Vietnam War to bury Doc’s son, a young Marine killed in the Iraq War. Doc decides to forgo a burial at Arlington Cemetery and, with the help of his old buddies, takes the casket on a bittersweet trip up the East Coast to his home in suburban New Hampshire. Along the way, Doc, Sal and Mueller reminisce and come to terms with shared memories of the war that continues to shape their lives.

Linklater co-wrote the screenplay with author Darryl Ponicsan, who wrote his novel Last Flag Flying as a sequel to his book The Last Detail, which was made into the acclaimed 1973 film starring Jack Nicholson.

I spoke with Linklater —whose other film credits include Suburbia, Bad News Bears (the 2005 version), A Scanner Darkly, Fast Food Nation, Inning by Inning: A Portrait of a Coach, Me and Orson Welles, Bernie and Before Midnight — about making the film, which is getting awards buzz, and why his image as a loose, improv-heavy director is so inaccurate.

Is it fair to say this is not a war movie, but it’s about war?
Yes, I think that’s right. It’s my kind of war movie. It’s not a battlefield movie but about the effects of war — that sub-category about what happens when the war comes home and how the combat survivors deal with it.

My dad was in the navy in WW11 but he never talked about the war and his experiences.
Exactly. My dad was the same. Very stoic. They just held it all in. Now it’s even worse, I feel. The suicide rate among returning vets is so high today, and the big problem is the way the service breaks you down and trains you, but then they don’t really put you back together. When you’re done, the killing machine goes home, and you’re taught to be stoic and be a man, and you’re left with nothing. To me that’s so tragic. We should talk about it. And all these issues, along with all of the wars since Vietnam, are the subtext to this whole story. War is such a political minefield today.

Is it true you started to make a film of this a decade ago?
Yes, I tried to adapt the book, but I’m glad it didn’t happen back then. It wasn’t meant to be, and no one was really ready to deal with the war in Iraq. It takes a while to want to analyze a war and get a perspective. A little distance is very helpful.

You’ve got three great leads. What did they bring to it?
Everything — all of their intelligence, humor, experience and work ethic. They really dug in, and we spent a couple of weeks rehearsing and really talking about all the issues. Each character is very different, and the guys really found them and jumped in. The biggest contrast is probably between Sal and Doc. Sal is the life of the party type, clearly self-medicating, always talking, eating, drinking, while Doc’s very low-key and quiet. Then Mueller’s somewhere in the middle.

Technology has changed a lot since you started, with the whole digital revolution, but you still like to shoot on film? Was that the case with this one?
We shot Boyhood all on film, but we did this digitally. It was just more practical, and I think now you can get any look you want with digital. It’s pretty impossible to tell the difference between film and digital now. But I don’t think film’s dead, although economically it’s changed, obviously, but I don’t think it’s going away. I hope we always have it as a choice. Digital’s just one more tool.

Where did you do the post?
We posted in my offices in Austin, as usual, and we began cutting while I shot.

Do you like post?
I love post and all the stuff you can do to shape your film, but I actually feel the most creative in rehearsal and then shooting. That’s when I feel like I’m really making the film. I don’t feel like I’ve ever “found” the film in the edit and post, like some directors do. There’s a certain schematic at work that I’m trying to follow. I know certain kinds of films have to be deconstructed and then reconstructed in post, but mine aren’t like that. It sounds boring but I do all that in advance. I’m a big preparer.

So you’re not the big improv, loose guy people like to think you are?
(Laughs) No, no. I prepare everything. And with experience you just know what you’re going to shoot and actually use.

The film was edited by your longtime collaborator Sandra Adair. Tell us about that relationship and how it works.
She doesn’t need to be on set and we just send dailies and then we talk a bit. I don’t usually shoot more than necessary, as I tend to have pretty limited budgets and schedules. I usually have a fairly good cut done about a month into post. I used to cut my own stuff when I began, like all filmmakers, and then she cut Dazed and Confused for me 24 years ago and we’ve been a team ever since.

Linklater on set.

I think we share the same brain at this point, a certain shorthand; we have great chemistry, and she’s just really good. She can just look at the footage and know what I’m thinking. I don’t have to explain it. The big challenge on this was finding the right balance between all the heavy drama and then the moments of comedy, and keeping that tonal balance all the way down the line. So in the edit you go, “This is a bit dialogue-heavy, let’s cut to the joke,” and “this is redundant,” and so on. The re-writing never stops.

How many visual effects shots are there in the film?
A few hundred, all done by Savage VFX who’re in LA and (Pittsburgh) Pennsylvania, where we shot — mainly greenscreen, train stuff, compositing, clean-up and so on. Hopefully, you don’t notice them at all.

Can you talk about the importance of music and sound?
It’s always been huge to me, and a couple of the songs — “Not Dark Yet” by Bob Dylan, and “Wide River to Cross” by Levon Helm — are so important. Big choices, with the Levon Helm song at the graveside, and Dylan at the very end. Again, it’s a tonal thing. There aren’t that many songs, but they’re all crucial, like the Eminem song “Without Me” and its humor.

Graham Reynolds, who’s done the score for a lot of my films, composed a beautiful score and I probably used it in places I usually wouldn’t because I felt the story needed it emotionally, and I wanted to give more clues in that area, and carry things through more.

The film has a very bleak look. Talk about the DI and how that process helped?
We did it at Light Iron with colorist Corinne Bogdanowicz (using Quantel Rio), and that bleak, rainy look was baked into the whole thing and started at the conceptual level — “We’re never going to see sunlight.” We’re going to have a lot of rain, grungy locations and a sort of texture and tone that’s fundamental to telling this story. Corinne did a great job, especially in the scenes where nature didn’t give us what we wanted. (From Corinne: “The movie was shot beautifully by Shane Kelly, who conveyed in the DI that the visuals needed to emphasize cool and dark tones.  At the same time, we worked to maintain a naturalistic feel throughout.”)

What’s next?

I’m in the middle of post on my next film, Where’d You Go, Bernadette, a comedy-drama starring Cate Blanchett, out next year. And I have a big TV project that began as a film, a huge, sprawling historical thing. TV is now this really viable medium for filmmakers.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.

Millennium Digital XL camera: development to delivery

By Lance Holte and Daniel Restuccio

Panavision’s Millennium DXL 8K may be one of today’s best digital cinema cameras, but it might also be one of the most misunderstood. Conceived and crafted to the exacting tradition of the company whose cameras captured such films as Lawrence of Arabia and Inception, the Millennium DXL challenges expectations. We recently sat down with Panavision to examine the history, workflow, some new features and how that all fits into a 2017 moviemaking ecosystem.

Announced at Cine Gear 2016, and released for rent through Panavision in January 2017, the Millennium DXL stepped into the digital large format field as, at first impression, a competitor to the Arri Alexa 65. The DXL was the collaborative result of a partnership of three companies: Panavision developed the optics, accessories and some of the electronics; Red Digital Cinema designed the 8K VV (VistaVision) sensor; and Light Iron provided the features, color science and general workflow for the camera system.

The collaboration for the camera first began when Light Iron was acquired by Panavision in 2015. According to Michael Cioni, Light Iron president/Millennium DXL product manager, the increase in 4K and HDR television and theatrical formats like Dolby Vision and Barco Escape created the perfect environment for the three-company partnership. “When Panavision bought Light Iron, our idea was to create a way for Panavision to integrate a production ecosystem into the post world. The DXL rests atop Red’s best tenets, Panavision’s best tenets and Light Iron’s best tenets. We’re partners in this — information can flow freely between post, workflow, color, electronics and data management into cameras, color science, ergonomics, accessories and lenses.”

HDR OLED viewfinder

Now, one year after the first announcement, with projects like the Lionsgate feature adventure Robin Hood, the Fox Searchlight drama Can You Ever Forgive Me?, the CBS crime drama S.W.A.T. and a Samsung campaign shot by Oscar-winner Linus Sandgren under the DXL’s belt, the camera sports an array of new upgrades, features and advanced tools. They include an HDR OLED viewfinder (which they say is the first), wireless control software for iOS, and a new series of lenses. According to Panavision, the new DXL offers “unprecedented development in full production-to-post workflow.”

Preproduction Considerations
With so many high-resolution cameras on the market, why pick the DXL? According to Cioni, cinematographers and their camera crew are no longer the only people that directly interact with cameras. Panavision examined the impact a camera had on each production department — camera assistants, operators, data managers, DITs, editors, and visual effects supervisors. In response to this feedback, they designed DXL to offer custom toolsets for every department. In addition, Panavision wanted to leverage the benefits of their heritage lenses and enable the same glass that photographed ‘Lawrence of Arabia’ to be available for a wider range of today’s filmmakers on DXL.

When Arri first debuted the Alexa 65 in 2014, there were questions about whether such a high-resolution, data-heavy image was necessary or beneficial. But cinematographers jumped on it and have leaned on large format sensors and glass-to-lens pictures — ranging from Doctor Strange to Rogue One — to deliver greater immersiveness, detail and range. It seems that the large format trend is only accelerating, particularly among filmmakers who are interested in the optical magnification, depth of field and field-of-view characteristics that only large format photography offers.

Kramer Morgenthau

“I think large format is the future of cinematography for the big screen,” says cinematographer Kramer Morgenthau, who shot with the DXL in 2016. “[Large format cinematography] gives more of a feeling of the way human vision is. And so, it’s more cinematic. Same thing with anamorphic glass — anamorphic does a similar thing, and that’s one of the reasons why people love it. The most important thing is the glass, and then the support, and then the user-friendliness of the camera to move quickly. But these are all important.”

The DXL comes to market offering a myriad of creative choice for filmmakers. Among the large format cameras, the Millennium DXL aims to be the crème de la crème — it’s built around an 46mm 8192×4320 Red VV sensor, custom Panavision large format spherical and anamorphic lenses, wrapped in camera department-friendly electronics, using proprietary color science — all of which complements a mixed camera environment.

“The beauty of digital, and this camera in particular, is that DXL actually stands for ‘digital extra light.’ With a core body weight of only 10 pounds, and with its small form factor, I’ve seen DXL used in the back seat of a car as well as to capture the most incredible helicopter scenes,” Cioni notes.

With the help of Light Iron, Panavision developed a tool to match DXL footage to Panavised Red Weapon cameras. Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 used Red Weapon 8K VV Cameras with Panavision Primo 70 lenses. “There are shows like Netflix’s 13 Reasons Why [Season Two] that combined this special matching of the DXL and the Red Helium sensor based on the workflow of the show,” Cioni notes. “They’re shooting [the second season] with two DXLs as their primary camera, and they have two 8K Red cameras with Helium sensors, and they match each other.”

If you are thinking the Millennium DXL will bust your budget, think again. Like many Panavision cameras, the DXL is exclusively leasable through Panavision, but Cioni says they’re happy to help filmmakers to build the right package and workflow. “A lot of budgetary expense can be avoided with a more efficient workflow. Once customers learn how DXL streamlines the entire imaging chain, a DXL package might not be out of reach. We always work with customers to build the right package at a competitive price,” he says.

Using the DXL in Production
The DXL could be perceived as a classic dolly Panavision camera, especially with the large format moniker. “Not true,” says Morgenthau, who shot test footage with the camera slung over his shoulder in the back seat of a car.

He continues, “I sat in the back of a car and handheld it — in the back of a convertible. It’s very ergonomic and user-friendly. I think what’s exciting about the Millennium: its size and integration with technology, and the choice of lenses that you get with the Panavision lens family.”

Panavision’s fleet of large format lenses, many of which date back to the 1950s, made the company uniquely equipped to begin development on the new series of large format optics. To be available by the end of 2017, the Primo Artiste lenses are a full series of T/1.8 Primes — the fastest optics available for large format cinematography — with a completely internalized motor and included metadata capture. Additionally, the Primo Artiste lenses can be outfitted with an anamorphic glass attachment that retains the spherical nature of the base lens, yet induces anamorphic artifacts like directional flares and distorted bokeh.

Another new addition to the DXL is the earlier mentioned Panavision’s HDR OLED Primo viewfinder. Offering 600-nit brightness, image smoothing and optics to limit eye fatigue, the viewfinder also boasts a theoretical contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1. Like other elements on the camera, the Primo viewfinder was the result of extensive polling and camera operator feedback. “Spearheaded by Panavision’s Haluki Sadahiro and Dominick Aiello, we went to operators and asked them everything we could about what makes a good viewfinder,” notes Cioni. “Guiding an industry game-changing product meant we went through multiple iterations. We showed the first Primo HDR prototype version in November 2016, and after six months of field testing, the final version is both better and simpler, and it’s all thanks to user feedback.”

Michael Cioni

In response to the growing popularity of HDR delivery, Light Iron also provides a powerful on-set HDR viewing solution. The HDR Village cart is built with a 4K HDR Sony monitor with numerous video inputs. The system can simultaneously display A and B camera feeds in high dynamic range and standard dynamic range on four different split quadrants. This enables cinematographers to evaluate their images and better prepare for multi-format color grading in post, given that most HDR projects are also required to deliver in SDR.

Post Production
The camera captures R3D files, the same as any other Red camera, but does have metadata that is unique to the DXL, ranging from color science to lens information. It also uses Light Iron’s set of color matrices designed specifically for the DXL: Light Iron Color.

Designed by Light Iron supervising colorist Ian Vertovec, Light Iron Color deviates from traditional digital color matrices by following in the footsteps of film stock philosophy instead of direct replication of how colors look in nature. Cioni likens Light Iron Color to Kodak’s approach to film. “Kodak tried to make different film stocks for different intentions. Since one film stock cannot satisfy every creative intention, DXL is designed to allow look transforms that users can choose, export and integrate into the post process. They come in the form of cube lookup tables and are all non-destructive.”

Light Iron Color can be adjusted and tweaked by the user or by Light Iron, which Cioni says has been done on many shows. The ability to adjust Light Iron Color to fit a particular project is also useful on shows that shoot with multiple camera types. Though Light Iron Color was designed specifically for the Millennium DXL, Light Iron has used it on other cameras — including the Sony A7, and Reds with Helium and Dragon sensors — to ensure that all the footage matches as closely as possible.

While it’s possible to cut with high-resolution media online with a blazing fast workstation and storage solution, it’s a lot trickier to edit online with 8K media in a post production environment that often requires multiple editors, assistants, VFX editors, post PAs and more. The good news is that the DXL records onboard low-bitrate proxy media (ProRes or DNx) for offline editorial while simultaneously recording R3Ds without requiring the use of an external recorder.

Cioni’s optimal camera recording setup for editorial is 5:1 compression for the R3Ds alongside 2K ProRes LT files. He explains, “My rule of thumb is to record super high and super low. And if I have high-res and low-res and I need to make something else, I can generate that somewhere in the middle from the R3Ds. But as long as I have the bottom and the top, I’m good.”

Storage is also a major post consideration. An hour of 8192×4320 R3Ds at 23.976fps runs in the 1TB/hour range — that number may vary, depending on the R3D compression, but when compared to an hour of 6560×3100 Arriraw footage, which lands at 2.6TB an hour, the Millennium DXL’s lighter R3D workflow can be very attractive.

Conform and Delivery
One significant aspect of the Millennium DXL workflow is that even though the camera’s sensor, body, glass and other pipeline tools are all recently developed, R3D conform and delivery workflows remain tried and true. The onboard proxy media exactly matches the R3Ds by name and timecode, and since Light Iron Color is non-destructive, the conform and color-prep process is simple and adjustable, whether the conform is done with Adobe, Blackmagic, Avid or other software.

Additionally, since Red media can be imported into almost all major visual effects applications, it’s possible to work with the raw R3Ds as VFX plates. This retains the lens and camera metadata for better camera tracking and optical effects, as well as providing the flexibility of working with Light Iron Color turned on or off, and the 8K R3Ds are still lighter than working with 4K (as is the VFX trend) DPX or EXR plates. The resolution also affords enormous space for opticals and stabilization in a 4K master.

4K is the increasingly common delivery resolution among studios, networks and over-the-top content distributors, but in a world of constant remastering and an exponential increase in television and display resolutions, the benefit in future-proofing a picture is easily apparent. Baselight, Resolve, Rio and other grading and finishing applications can handle 8K resolutions, and even if the final project is only rendered at 4K now, conforming and grading in 8K ensures the picture will be future-proofed for some time. It’s a simple task to re-export a 6K or 8K master when those resolutions become the standard years down the line.

After having played with DXL footage provided by Light Iron, it was surprising how straightforward the workflow seems. For a very small production, the trickiest part is the requirement of a powerful workstation — or sets of workstations — to conform and play 8K Red media, with a mix of (likely) 4K VFX shots, graphics and overlays. Michael Cioni notes, “[Everyone] already knows a RedCode workflow. They don’t have to learn it, I could show the DXL to anyone who has a Red Raven and in 30 seconds they’ll confidently say, ‘I got this.’”

Rick Anthony named GM of Light Iron New York

Post company Light Iron has named Rick Anthony to the newly created role of general manager in its New York facility. The addition comes after Light Iron added a second floor in 2016, tripling its inventory of editorial suites.

Anthony previously held GM roles at Pac Lab and New York Lab/Postworks/Moving Images, overseeing teams from lab through digital workflows. He began his career at New York film lab, DuArt, where he was a technical supervisor for many years.

Anthony notes several reasons why he joined Light Iron, a Panavision company. “From being at the forefront of color science and workflow to providing bi-coastal client support, this is a unique opportunity. Working together with Panavision, I look forward to serving the dailies, editorial, and finishing needs of any production, be it feature, episodic or commercial.”

Light Iron’s New York facility offers 20 premium editorial suites from its Soho location, as well as in-house and mobile dailies services, HDR-ready episodic timing bays and a 4K DI theater. The facility recently serviced Panavision’s first US-based feature shot on the new Millennium DXL camera.

Quick Chat: Josh Haynie Light Iron’s VP of US operations

Post services company Light Iron has named veteran post pro Josh Haynie to VP of US operations, a newly created position. Based in Light Iron’s Hollywood facility, Haynie will be responsible for leveraging the company’s resources across Los Angeles, New York, New Orleans and future locations.

Haynie joins Light Iron after 13 years at Efilm, where, as managing director, he maintained direct responsibility for all aspects of the company’s operations, including EC3 (on-location services), facility dailies, trailers, digital intermediate, home video and restoration. He managed a team of 100-plus employees. Previously, Haynie held positions at Sunset Digital, Octane/Lightning Dubs and other production and post companies. Haynie is an associate member of the ASC and is also actively involved in the HPA, SMPTE, and VES.

“From the expansion of Light Iron’s episodic services and New York facilities to the development of the color science in the new Millennium DXL camera, it is clear that the integration of Panavision and Light Iron brings significant benefits to clients,” says Haynie.

He was kind enough to take time out of his schedule to answer some of our questions…

Your title hints Light Iron opening up in new territories. Can you talk about this ? What is happening in the industry that this makes sense?
We want to be strategically located near the multiple Panavision locations. Productions and filmmakers need the expertise and familiarity of Light Iron resources in the region with the security and stability of a solid infrastructure. Projects often have splinter and multiple units in various locations, and they demand a workflow continuity in these disparate locations. We can help facilitate projects working in those various regions and offer unparalleled support and guidance.

What do you hope to accomplish in your first 6 to 12 months? What are your goals for Light Iron?
I want to learn from this very agile team of professionals and bring in operational and workflow options to the rapidly changing production/post production convergence we are all encountering. We have a very solid footing in LA, NY and NOLA. I want to ensure that each unit is working together using effective skills and technology to collaborate and allow filmmakers creative freedom. My goal is to help navigate this team though the traditional growth patterns as well as the unpredictable challenges that lie ahead in the emerging market.

You have a wealth of DI experience and knowledge. How has DI changed over the years?
The change depends on the elevation. From a very high level, it was the same simple process for many years: shoot, edit, scan, VFX, color — and our hero was always a film print. Flying lower, we have seen massive shifts in technology that have re-written the play books. The DI really starts in the camera testing phase and begins to mature during the production photography stage. The importance of look setting, dailies and VFX collaboration take on a whole new meaning with each day of shooting.

The image data that is captured needs to be available for near set cutting while VFX elements are being pulled within a few short days of photography. This image data needs to be light and nimble, albeit massive in file size and run time. The turnarounds are shrinking in the feature space exponentially. We are experiencing international collaboration on the finish and color of each project, and the final render dates are increasingly close to worldwide release dates. We are now seeing a tipping point like we encountered a few years back when we asked ourselves, “Is the hero a print or DCP?” Today, we are at the next hero question, DCP or HDR?

Do you have any advice for younger DI artists based on your history?
I think it is always good to learn from the past and understand how we got here. I would say younger artists need to aggressively educate themselves on workflow, technology, and collaboration. Each craft in the journey has experienced rapid evolvement in the last few years. There are many outlets to learn about the latest capture, edit, VFX, sound and distribution techniques being offered, and that research time needs to be on everyone’s daily task list. Seeking out new emerging creative talent is critical learning at this stage as well. Everyday a filmmaker is formulating a vision that is new to the world. We are fortunate here at Light Iron to work with these emerging filmmakers who share the same passion for taking that bold next step in storytelling.