Tag Archives: Glenn Freemantle

Call of the Wild —Tarzan’s iconic yell

By Jennifer Walden

For many sound enthusiasts, Tarzan’s iconic yell is the true legend of that story. Was it actually actor Johnny Weissmuller performing the yell? Or was it a product of post sound magic involving an opera singer, a dog, a violin and a hyena played backwards as MGM Studios claims? Whatever the origin, it doesn’t impact how recognizable that yell is, and this fact wasn’t lost on the filmmakers behind the new Warner Bros. movie The Legend of Tarzan.

The updated version is not a far cry from the original, but it is more guttural and throaty, and less like a yodel. It has an unmistakable animalistic quality. While we may never know the true story behind the original Tarzan yell, postPerspective went behind the scenes to learn how the new one was created.

Supervising sound editor/sound designer Glenn Freemantle and sound designer/re-recording mixer Niv Adiri at Sound24, a multi-award winning audio post company located on the lot of Pinewood Film Studios in Buckinghamshire, UK, reveal that they went through numerous iterations of the new Tarzan yell. “We had quite a few tries on that but in the end it’s quite a simple sound. It’s actor Alexander Skarsgård’s voice and there are some human and animal elements, like gorillas, all blended together in it,” explains Freemantle.

Since the new yell always plays in the distance, it needed to feel powerful and raw, as though Tarzan is waking up the jungle. To emphasize this, Freemantle says, “We have animal sounds rushing around the jungle after the Tarzan yell, as if he is taking control of it.”

The jungle itself is a marvel of sight and sound. Freemantle notes that everything in the film, apart from the actors on screen, was generated afterward — the Congo, the animals, even the villages and people, a harbor with ships and an action sequence involving a train. Everything.

LEGEND OF TARZANThe film was shot on a back lot of Warner Bros. Studios in Leavesden, UK, so making the CGI-created Congo feel like the real deal was essential. They wanted the Congo to feel alive, and have the sound change as the characters moved through the space. Another challenge was grounding all the CG animals — the apes, wildebeests, ostriches, elephants, lions, tigers, and other animals — in that world.

When Sound24 first started on the film, a year and a half before its theatrical release, Freemantle says there was very little to work with visually. “Basically it was right from the nuts and bolts up. There was nothing there, nothing to see in the beginning apart from still pictures and previz. Then all the apes, animals and jungles were put in and gradually the visuals were built up. We were building temp mixes for the editors to use in their cut, so it was like a progression of sound over time,” he says.

Sound24’s sound design got increasingly detailed as the visuals presented more details. They went from building ambient background for different parts of Africa — from the deep jungle to the open plains — at different times of the day and night to covering footsteps for the CG gorillas. The sound design team included Ben Barker, Tom Sayers, and Eilam Hoffman, with sound effects editing by Dan Freemantle and Robert Malone. Editing dialogue and ADR was Gillian Dodders. Foley was recorded at Shepperton Studios by Foley mixer Glen Gathard.

Capturing Sounds
Since capturing their own field recordings in the Congo would have proved too challenging, Sound 24 opted to source sound recordings authentic to that area. They also researched and collected the best animal sounds they could find, which were particularly useful for the gorilla design.

Sound24’s sound design team designed the gorillas to have a range of reactions, from massive roars and growls to smaller grunts and snorts. They cut and layered different animal sounds, including processed human vocalizations, to create a wide range of gorilla sounds.

There were three main gorillas, and each sounds a bit different, but the most domineering of all was Akut. During a fight between Akut and Tarzan, Adiri notes that in the mix, they wanted to communicate Akut’s presence and power through sound. “We tried to create dynamics within Akut’s voice so that you feel that he is putting in a lot of effort into the fight. You see him breathing hard and moving, so his voice had to have his movement in it. We had to make it dynamic and make sure that there was space for the hits, and the falls, and whatever is happening visually. We had to make sure that all of the sounds are really tied to the animal and you feel that he’s not some super ape, but he’s real,” Adiri says. They also designed sounds for the gang of gorillas that came to egg on Akut in his fight.

The Mix
All the effects, Foley and backgrounds were edited and premixed in Avid Pro Tools 11. Since Sound24 had been working on The Legend of Tarzan for over a year, keeping everything in the box allowed them to update their session over time and still have access to previous elements and temp mixes. “The mix was evolving throughout the sound editorial process. Once we had that first temp mix we just kept working with that, remixing sounds and reworking scenes but it was all done in the box up until the final mix. We never started the mix from scratch on the dub stage,” says Adiri.

For the final Dolby Atmos mix at Warner Bros. De Lane Lea Studios in London, Adiri and Freemantle brought in their Avid S6 console to studio. “That surface was brilliant for us,” says Adiri, who mixed the effects/Foley/backgrounds. He shared the board with re-recording mixer Ian Tapp, on dialogue/music.

Adiri feels the Atmos surround field worked best for quiet moments, like during a wide aerial shot of the jungle where the camera moves down through the canopy to the jungle floor. There he was able to move through layers of sounds, from the top speakers down, and have the ambience change as the camera’s position changed. Throughout the jungle scenes, he used the Atmos surrounds to place birds and distant animal cries, slowly panning them around the theater to make the audience feel as though they are surrounded by a living jungle.

He also likes to use the overhead speakers for rain ambience. “It’s nice to use them in quieter scenes when you can really feel the space, moving sounds around in a more subliminal way, rather than using them to be in-your-face. Rain is always good because it’s a bright sound. You know that it is coming from above you. It’s good for that very directional sort of sound.”

Ambience wasn’t the only sound that Adiri worked with in Atmos. He also used it to pan the sounds of monkeys swinging through the trees and soaring overhead, and for Tarzan’s swinging. “We used it for these dynamic moments in the storytelling rather than filling up those speakers all the time. For the moments when we do use the Atmos field, it’s striking and that becomes a moment to remember, rather than just sound all the time,” concludes Freemantle.

Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based writer and audio engineer. 

The A-List: Director Danny Boyle on posting ‘Steve Jobs’

With Academy season approaching, we checked in with the Oscar-winning director

By Iain Blair

Danny Boyle, who won the 2008 Oscar for Best Director for Slumdog Millionaire, has always been attracted to controversial stories and pushing the cinematic envelope as far as he could, as such eclectic films as Trainspotting, Shallow Grave, The Beach, A Life Less Ordinary, 28 Days Later, Trance, Sunshine and 127 Hours make very clear.

His latest film, Steve Jobs, continues in that tradition with its complex portrait of the visionary co-founder of Apple. Starring Michael Fassbender in the title role, it eschews the usual lazy Hollywood conventions of biopic storytelling — taking a strictly linear approach and throwing in some flashbacks — and instead presents, thanks to Aaron Sorkin’s impressionistic script, Boyle’s inspired direction and editor Elliot Graham’s fluid cutting (which is getting a lot of Oscar attention), a visually and thematically audacious take on its notoriously enigmatic subject.

Writer Iain Blair and director Danny Boyle

I met up with Boyle recently about making the film, his love of post, and the Oscars.

You took a very complex anti-hero and threw away the usual biopic rulebook.
I’m glad you said that, because you always want your form and your subject to be the same, and here’s a guy whose mantra was, “Think different.” So right there, that’s a command to not do the same old biopic treatment — and Aaron Sorkin wrote this brilliant, unorthodox script, which really attracted me to the project. I felt this had to rock you back on your heels right away about how you approach this story and personality.

Biopics can be great, but they usually skim the surface, as they have to cover a lot of territory. With this I thought, can you do the same? Assemble the same sense of a person by intensively exploring three particular moments? And I believe you can. I’d argue you learn more this way than with the traditional skimming stone approach.

You always post in London, right?
Yeah, we shot it all in San Francisco — I insisted on that. It’s expensive, but the value of the real locations was enormous. There aren’t many in the film, so we probably could have replicated them somewhere else, but you get that organic element and legacy of the place that birthed this whole new era we’re all living through now. And then we moved back to London to edit it and do all the post. We cut at Goldcrest in a tiny room, and it’s always the same huge change of post — after the massive beast of the shoot with all these people, you end up in a little room where you actually make the film. Every DP hates hearing that, but it’s the truth. You make your film in the editing and post.

Film Title: Steve Jobs Film Title: Steve Jobs

The film was edited by Elliot Graham, who also cut Milk and X-Men 2. Is it true he wasn’t even originally brought on as the editor?
Yes, he was hired as a temporary, or assembly editor, just to do the first assembly while we were shooting because our editor wasn’t available for the shoot. But as soon as I began working with him, when we started cutting during the shoot, I realized just how amazing he is, and I told producer Christian Colson, “Tell the original editor to go and find another job, as this guy is so special.” And we persuaded him to come back to London with us, and I think what he did is absolutely brilliant — world-class work. We cut together for three months, and then we started the test screenings, and got the composer back in to polish some of what he’d done, and went from there.

I also heard that your approach to the music on this film was very different?
Yes, I really wanted to change the usual way I go about dealing with music in post. I’m very dominant and hands-on with music and composers, and I loved Daniel Pemberton’s work, especially what he did for Ridley Scott with The Counselor. So I told him, ‘Write all the music for this before we even start shooting it,’ but it’s very difficult to compose for Sorkin’s dialogue, as it’s continuous, emphatic and rhythmic, and you need to be able to follow it. That’s the buzz of it. So he had to respect the word, and he also had to create three different scores for the film’s three parts, to differentiate them as much as possible, but they’re also inter-linked, like a fugue. And there was no film to show him. It wasn’t easy for him, as it’s a bit like working in the dark, but he wrote some wonderful pieces that actually fit the scenes perfectly.

Film Title: Steve Jobs

Where did you do all the sound mixing?
At Pinewood, with Glenn Freemantle and his team at Sound 24. Then we added all the music from Daniel, and that way you get a great soundscape for the film. I’ve always been very particular about sound.

You must have a very well-oiled post machine by now. Was it the same team doing the VFX?
Yeah, I did all the visual effects with my usual guy, VFX supervisor Adam Gascoyne at Union Effects in London. He’s done all my films for a long time now. It’s a great relationship, and he’s very much a part of building it all. We had some very obvious effects, but as we were shooting so freely in these dressing rooms — which all have mirrors — that it was a problem.

So Adam was on set with us the whole time, and every day after we’d finished he would go in and take all these still shots of the process, and that enabled him to replace all the times we caught crew in the mirrors and stuff like that. So we had a lot of invisible VX work like that, a lot of clean up, as well as the more visible stuff.

Danny Boyle and screenwriter Aaron Sorkin on set.

Danny Boyle and screenwriter Aaron Sorkin on set.

There’s a great sequence where Jobs is in a corridor talking about a NASA rocket launch, and the corridor’s like a launch tube, and that was the most fun VFX shot to do for all of us. There’s also a bit where we wanted an image of the NASA ground control, stripped along the wall, and we tried the real stuff but it just didn’t look real! We ended up using footage from Apollo 13. I called Ron Howard and said, ‘Can we use it? It’s much more convincing than the real footage.’ Isn’t that weird? We also used Ridley Scott’s iconic 1984 ad in the film.

Where was the DI done?
At Technicolor in London with this really great colorist, Jean-Clement Soret, who does all my grading. It was very complex as we shot on 16mm, 35mm and digital, and all that had to be graded while retaining the original quality. I’m there for the whole DI as the look is ultimately down to me, but I like to leave them to it for the most part. (Editor’s Note: Soret used the FilmLight Baselight and Technicolor proprietary LUT in ACES colorspace.)

How important are the Oscars and all the awards?
They’re all extremely important, I feel. Not just the actual awards, but the increased visibility they give your films.

Film Title: Steve Jobs Film Title: Steve Jobs

Where do you keep your Oscar?
(Laughs) To be honest, it’s a bit intimidating, so I keep it out of sight. I don’t need the added pressure of looking at it when I’m starting a new film.

Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.

Setting the audio tone of ‘Everest’

Glenn Freemantle sounds off on making this film’s audio authentic

By Jennifer Walden

Immovable, but not insurmountable, Mount Everest has always loomed large in the minds of ambitious adventurers who seek to test their mettle against nature’s most imposing obstacle course, with unpredictable weather.

Reaching the summit takes more than just determination, it requires training, teamwork and a bit of stubborn resolve not to die. Even then, there’s no guarantee that what, or who, goes up will come down. Director Baltasar Kormákur’s film Everest, from Universal Studios, is based on the tragic true story of two separate expeditions who sought to reach the summit on the same day, May 10th 1996, only to be bested by a frigid tempest.

Glenn Freemantle

Glenn Freemantle

Supervising sound editor/sound designer Glenn Freemantle at Sound24, based at Pinewood Studios in Iver Heath, Buckinghamshire, UK, was in charge of building Everest’s blustery sound personality. All the wind, snow and ice sounds that lash the film’s characters were carefully crafted in post and designed to take the viewer on a journey up the mountain.

“Starting at the bottom and going right to the top, you feel like you are moving through the different camps,” explains Freemantle. “We tried to make each location as interesting as possible. The film is all about nature; it’s all about how the viewer would feel on that mountain. We always wanted the viewer to feel that journey that they were on.”

In addition to Freemantle, Sound24’s crew includes sound design editors Eilam Hoffman, Niv Adiri, Ben Barker, Tom Sayers and sound effects editors Danny Freemantle and Dillon Bennett.

Capturing Wind
Glenn Freemantle and his sound team collected thousands of wind sounds, like strong winter winds from along the shores of western England, Ireland and Scotland. They recorded wide canyon winds and sand storms in the deserts of Israel, and on Santorini, they recorded strong tonal mountain winds. At the base camp on Mount Everest, they set out recorders day and night to capture what it sounded like there at different times. “At the base camp on Everest, even if we didn’t use all the recordings from there, we got the sense of the real environment, exactly what it was like. From a cinematic point of view, we used that as a basis, but obviously we were also trying to tell a story with the sound,” he says.

To capture ambience from various altitudes on Everest, Freemantle sent two small recording set-ups with the camera crew who filmed at the top of Everest. “The equipment had to be small, portable and resistant to the extreme conditions,” he explains. For these set-ups, owner of Telinga Microphones, Klas Strandberg, created a small, custom-made omnidirectional mic for an A/B set-up, as well as a pair of cardioid mics in XY configuration that were connected to two Sony D100 recorders.

The best way to record wind is to have it sing through something, so on their wind capturing outings, Freemantle and crew brought along an assortment of items — sieves, coat hangers, bits of metal, pans, all sorts of oddities that would produce different tones as the wind moved through and around them. They also set up tents, like those used in the film, to capture the tent movements in the wind. “We used a multi-mic set-up to record the sound so you felt like you were in the middle of all of these situations. We put the mics in the corners and in the center of the tent, and then we shook it. We also left them up for the night,” he says.

They used Sennheiser MKH8020s, MKH8050s and MKH8040s paired with multiple Sound Devices 744T and 722 recorders set at 192k/24-bit. For high-frequency winds, they chose the Sanken COS-100k, which can capture sounds up to 100kHz. “This allowed us to pitch down the inaudible wind to audible frequencies (between 20Hz – 20kHz) and create the bass for powerful tonal winds.”

With wind being a main player in the sound, Freemantle’s design focused on its dynamics. Changing the speed of the wind, the harshness of the wind and also the weight of the wind kept it interesting. “We were moving the sound all the time, and that was really effective. There was a 20-minute section of storm in there, which wasn’t easy to build,” explains Freemantle. “We would mix a scene for a day and then walk away. You can exhaust your ears mixing a film like this.”

Having the opportunity to revisit the stormy sequences allowed the sound team to compare the different storms and wind-swept scenes, and make adjustments. One of their biggest challenges was making sure each storm didn’t feel too big, or lack dynamics. “We wanted to have something different happening for each storm or camp so the audience could feel the journey of these people. It had to build up to the big storm at the end. We’d have to look at the whole film to make sure we weren’t going wrong. The sound needed to progress.”

In addition to wind, Freemantle and his team recorded sounds of snow and ice. They purchased a few square meters of snow and froze big chunks of ice for their recording sessions. “We got all the gear the actors were wearing and we put the jackets and things into the freezer overnight, so they would have that feeling, that frozen texture, that they would have out there in the weather,” he says. “We tried to do everything we could to make it sound as real as possible. It’s exhausting how that weather makes you feel, and it was all from a human point of view that we tried to create the weather that was around them.”

ADR
The weather sounds weren’t the only thing to be recreated for Everest. The soundtrack also hosts a sizable amount of ADR thanks to massive wind machines that were constantly blowing on set, and the actors having to wear masks didn’t help the dialogue intelligibility either. “That’s why the film is 90 percent re-recorded dialogue,” shares Freemantle. “Sound mixer Adrian Bell did a hell of a job in those conditions, but they are wearing all of these masks so you can hardly hear them. Everything had to be redone.”

The dialogue was so muffled at times that it was difficult for the picture-editing department to cut Everest. Director Kormákur asked for a quick ADR track of the whole film, using sound-alike actors when the real ones weren’t available. In addition, he also asked for a rough sound design and Foley pass, giving Freemantle about a week to mock it up. “You couldn’t follow the film. They couldn’t run it for the producers to get a sense of the story because you couldn’t hear what the actors were saying,” he says. “So we recreated the whole dialogue sequence for the film, and we quickly cut — from our sound libraries — all the footsteps and we did a quick cloth pass so they had a complete soundtrack in a very short period of time.”

During the ADR session for the final tracks, Freemantle notes the actors wore weight vests and straps around their chests to make it difficult for them to breathe and talk, all in an effort to recreate the experience of what is happening to them on screen. As CG was being added to the picture, with more sprays of snow and ice, the actors could react to the environment even more.

“Having to re-create their performances was a curse in one way, but it was a blessing because then we had control over every single sound in the soundtrack. We had control of every part of their breathing, every noise from their gear and outfits. We have everything so we could pull the perspective in the sound at any given moment and not bring along a lot of muck with it.”

Everest was mixed in three immersive formats: Dolby Atmos, Barco Auro-3D and IMAX 12.0. “Each one of the formats works really well and you really feel like you are in the film,” reports Freemantle. “The weight of the sound hits you in the theater. There is a lot of bass in there. With sound, you are moving the air around, so you are feeling it when the storm hits. The presence of the bass hits you in the chest.”

But it’s not a continuous aural onslaught —there are highs and lows, with rumbly wind fighting against the side of the mountain on Hillary Step and hissing wind higher up towards the summit. “You have to have detail and the sounds should be helping to tell the story,” he says. “It’s not about how much you put in — in the end, it’s about what you take out when you finish. That’s very important. You don’t want the film to be just a massive noise.”

The Mix
Everest was mixed natively in the Dolby Atmos theatre at Pinewood Studios by Freemantle and re-recording mixers Niv Adiri, CAS, and Ian Tapp, CAS. Sound24’s tried and tested Avid set-up helped bring the sounds of Everest to life, working on the powerful Avid System 5 large-format console, using Pro Tools 11 with EUCON control. Their goal was to put the audience on the mountain with the climbers without overwhelming them with a constant barrage of sound. “The journey the characters are going through is both mental and physical, and mixing in Atmos helped us bring these emotions to the audience,” says Adiri. Since director Kormákur’s focus was on the human tragedy, the dialogue scenes were intimately shot. This enabled the mixers to shift the bala

nce towards dialogue in these sequences and maintain the emotional contact with the characters. In the Atmos format they could position sounds around the audience to immerse them in the scene without having the sounds sit on top of the dialogue. “The sheer weight and power of the sound that the Atmos system produces was perfect for this film, particularly in the storm sequence, where we were able to make the sound an almost physical experience for the audience, yet still maintain the clarity of the dialogue and not make the whole thing unbearable to watch,” says Tapp.

Once the final Atmos mix was approved by director Kormákur, the tracks were taken to Galaxy Studios in Mol, Belgium, for the Barco 3D-Auro mix, and then it was on to Toronto’s Technicolor for the 12.0 IMAX mix. Despite the change in format, the integrity of the film was kept the same. The mix they defined in Atmos was the blueprint for the other formats.

For Freemantle, the best part of making Everest was being able to capture the journey. To make the audience feel like they are moving up the mountain, and make them feel cold and distressed. “You want to feel that contact, that physical contact like you are in it, like the snow is hitting your face and the jacket around you. When people watch it you want them to experience it because it’s a true story and you want them to feel it. If they are feeling it, then they are feeling the emotion of it.”

For more on Everest, read out interview with editor Mick Audsley.

Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio engineer and writer.