Tag Archives: Claudio Miranda

Our Virtual Production Roundtable

By Randi Altman

Evolve or die. That old adage, while very dramatic, fits well with the state of our current production workflows. While most productions are now shot digitally, the warmth of film is still in the back of pros’ minds. Camera makers and directors of photography often look for ways to retain that warmth in digital. Whether it’s through lighting, vintage lenses, color grading, newer technology or all of the above.

There is also the question of setting looks on-set and how 8K and HDR are affecting the picture and workflows. And let’s not forget shooting for OTT series. There is a lot to cover!

In an effort to get a variety of perspectives, we reached out to a few cinematographers and some camera manufacturers to talk trends and technology. Enjoy!

Claudio Miranda, ASC

Claudio Miranda is a Chilean cinematographer who won an Oscar for his work on Life of Pi. He also worked on The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, the first movie nominated for a cinematography Oscar that was shot entirely on digital. Other films include Oblivion, Tomorrowland and the upcoming Top Gun: Maverick.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Seems like everyone is shooting large format. Chris Nolan and Quentin Tarantino shot 65mm film for their last projects. New digital cameras such as the Alexa LF and Sony Venice cater to this demand. People seem to like the shallow depth of field of these larger format lenses.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
For me, too much grain in HDR can be distracting. This must be moderated in the camera acquisition format choice and DI. Panning in a high-contrast environment can cause painful strobing. This can be helped in the DI and set design. HDR done well is more important than 8K or even 3D.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
8K can be important for VFX plates. For me, creatively it is not important, 4K is enough. The positive of 8K is just more K. The downside is that I would rather the camera companies focus on dynamic range, color latitude, sensitivity and the look and feel of the captured image instead of trying to hit a high K number. Also, there are storage and processing issues.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?
I have not shot for a streaming service. I do think we need to pay attention to all deliverables and make adjustments accordingly. In the DI, I am there for the standard cinema pass, HDR pass, IMAX pass, home video pass and other formats that arise.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
I choose the camera that will fit the job. It is my job in prep to test and pick the camera that best serves the movie.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
On set, I am able to view HDR or 709. I test the pipeline and make sure the LUT is correct and make modifications if needed. I do not play with many LUTs on set, I normally just have one. I treat the camera like a film stock. I know I will be there in the DI to finalize the look. On set is not the place for futzing with LUTs on the camera. My plate is full enough as it is.

If not already covered, how has production changed in the last two years?
I am not sure production has changed, but there are many new tools to use to help make work more efficient and economical. I feel that I have always had to be mindful of the budget, no matter how large the show is. I am always looking for new solutions.

Daryn Okada, ASC
Daryn Okada is known for his work on films such as Mean GirlsAnna Karenina and Just Like Heaven. He has also worked on many TV series, such as Scandal, Grey’s Anatomy and Castle. He served as president of the ASC from 2006 to 2009.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses? 

Modern digital cinema cameras can achieve a level of quality with the proper workflows and techniques to evolve a story’s visual identity parallel explorations shooting on film. Larger image sensors, state-of-the-art lenses and mining historic optics enable cinematographers to use their experience and knowledge of the past to paint rich visual experiences for today’s audience.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
HDR is a creative and technical medium just as shooting and projecting 65mm film would be. It’s up to the director and the cinematographer to decide how to orchestrate the use of HDR for their particular story.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives, and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
8K will is working its way into production like 65mm and 35mm VistaVision did by providing more technical resolution for use in VFX or special-venue exhibition. The enormous amount of data and cost to handle it must be justified by its financial return and does it benefit a particular story. Latitude and color depth are paramount to creating a motion picture’s pallet and texture. Trying to use a format just because it’s technically possible may be distracting to an audience’s acceptance of a story or creative concept.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?

I think the delivery specifications of OTT have generally raised the bar, making 4K and wide color gamut the norm. For cinematographers that have spent years photographing features, we are accustomed to creating images with detail for a big screen and a wide color pallet. It’s a natural creative process to shoot for 4K and HDR in that respect. 

Are the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance? 
Having the best imaging available is always welcomed. Even if a camera is not technically exploited, the creation of subtle images is richer and possible through the smoother transition and blending of color, contrast and detail from originating with higher resolutions and color range.

Can you talk about color management from the sensor/film to the screen? How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post, the DI and final delivery?
As a cinematographer we are still involved in workflows for dailies and post production to ensure everyone’s creative efforts to the final production are maintained for the immediate viewer and preserved for the audiences in the future.

How has production changed over the last two years?
There are more opportunities to produce content with creative high-quality cinematography thanks to advancements in cameras and cost-effective computing speed combined with demands of high quality displays and projection.

Vanja Černjul, ASC
This New York-based DP recently worked on the huge hit Crazy Rich Asians. In addition to feature film work, Černjul has shot TV shows (Deuce’s season 1 finale and two seasons of Marco Polo, as well as commercials for Panasonic and others.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
One interesting trend I noticed is the comeback of image texture. In the past, cinematographers used to expose film stock differently according to the grain texture they desired. Different exposure zones within the same frame had different grain character, which produced additional depth of the image. We lost that once we switched to digital. Crude simulations of film grain, such as overall filters, couldn’t produce the dimensionality we had with film.

Today, I am noticing new ways of bringing the texture back as a means of creative expression. The first one comes in the form of new, sophisticated post production tools designed to replicate the three-dimensional texturing that occurs naturally when shooting film, such as the realtime texturing tool LiveGrain. Monitoring the image on the set with a LiveGrain texture applied can impact lighting, filtration or lens choices. There are also new ways to manipulate texture in-camera. With the rise of super-sensitive, dual-native ISO sensors we can now shoot at very low-light levels and incorporate so-called photon shot noise into the image. Shot noise has organic character, very much like film grain.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?

The creative potential of HDR technology is far greater than that of added resolution. Unfortunately, it is hard for cinematographers to take full advantage of HDR because it is still far from being the standard way the audience sees our images. We can’t have two completely different looks for a single project, and we have to make sure the images are working on SDR screens. In addition, it is still impractical to monitor in HDR on the set, which makes it difficult to adjust lighting and lens choices to expanded dynamic range. Once HDR screens become a standard, we will be able to really start creatively exploring this new territory.

Crazy Rich Asians

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
Additional resolution adds more available choices regarding relationship of optical systems and aspect ratios. I am now able to choose lenses for their artifacts and character regardless of the desired aspect ratio. I can decide to shoot one part of the film in spherical and the other part in anamorphic and crop the image to the project’s predetermined aspect ratio without fear of throwing away too much information. I love that freedom.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices and workflows, if at all?
For me, the only practical difference between shooting high-quality content for cable or streaming is the fact that Netflix demands their projects to be capt
ured in true 4K RAW. I like the commitment to higher technical standards, even though this may be an unwelcome restriction for some projects.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
I like choices. As large format lenses become more available, shooting across formats and resolutions will become easier and simpler.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
The key for correct color management from the set to final color grading is in preproduction. It is important to take the time to do proper tests and establish the communication between DIT, the colorist and all other people involved as early as possible. This ensures that original ideas aren’t lost in the process.

Adjusting and fine-tuning the LUT to the lenses, lighting gels and set design and then testing it with the colorist is very important. Once I have a bulletproof LUT, I light and expose all the material for it specifically. If this part of the process is done correctly, the time in final color grading can be spent on creative work rather than on fixing inconsistencies.

I am very grateful for ACES workflow, which offers long-overdue standardization. It is definitely a move in the right direction.

How has production changed over the last two years?
With all the amazing post tools that are becoming more available and affordable, I am seeing negative trends of further cutting of preproduction time, and lack of creative discipline on the set. I sincerely hope this is just a temporary confusion due to recalibration of the process.

Kate Reid, DP
Kate Reid is a UK-based DP working in TV and film. Her recent work includes the TV series Hanna (Amazon) Marcella 2 (Netflix) and additional photography on the final season Game of Thrones for HBO. She is currently working on Press for BBC.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as Large Format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Large format cameras are being used increasingly on drama productions to satisfy the requirement for additional resolution by certain distribution platforms. And, of course, the choice to use large format cameras in drama brings with it another aesthetic that DPs now have as another tool: Choosing if increased depth-of-field fall off, clarity in the image etc., enhances the particular story they wish to portray on screen.

Like many other DPs, I have always enjoyed using older lenses to help make the digital image softer, more organic and less predictable, but the larger format cameras now mean that much of this older glass designed for 35mm size sensor may not cover the increased sensor size, so newer lenses designed for the larger format cameras may become popular by necessity, alongside older larger format glass that is enjoying a renaissance.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
I have yet to shoot a show that requires HDR delivery. It hasn’t yet become the default in drama production in the UK.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and frame rate more important currently?
I don’t inherently find an ultra sharp image attractive. Through older glass and diffusion filters on the lens, I am usually looking to soften and break down my image, so I personally am not all about the extra Ks. How the camera’s sensor reproduces color and handles highlights and shadows is of more interest to me, and I believe has more impact on the picture.

Of primary importance is how practical a camera is to work with — size and how comfortable the camera is to handle would supersede excessive resolution — as the first requirement of any camera has got to be whether it allows you to achieve the shots you have in mind, because a story isn’t told through its resolution.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content for OTTs, like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?
The major change is the requirement by Netflix for true 4K resolution, determining which cameras cinematographers are allowed to shoot on. For many cinematographers the Arri Alexa was their digital camera of choice, which was excluded by this rule, and therefore we have had to look to other cameras for such productions. Learning a new camera, its sensor, how it handles highlights, produces color, etc., and ensuring the workflow through to the post facility is something that requires time and testing, which has certainly added to a DP’s workload.

From a creative perspective, however, I found shooting for OTTs (I shot two episodes of the TV series Hanna made by Working Title TV and NBC Universal for Amazon) has been more liberating than making a series for broadcast television as there is a different idea and expectation around what the audience wants to watch and enjoy in terms of storytelling. This allowed for a more creative way of filming.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
Where work is seen now can vary from a mobile phone screen to a digital billboard in Times Square, so it is good for DPs to have a choice of cameras and their respective resolutions so we can use the best tool of each job. It only becomes a hindrance if you let the technology lead your creative process rather than assist it.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
Ideally, I will have had the time and opportunity to shoot tests during prep and then spend half a day with the show’s colorist to create a basic LUT I can work with on set. In practice, I have always found that I tweak this LUT during the first days of production with the DIT, and this is what serves me throughout the rest of the show.

I usually work with just one LUT that will be some version of a modified Rec. 709 (unless the look of the show drastically requires something else). It should then be straight forward in that the DIT can attach a LUT to the dailies, and this is the same LUT applied by editorial so that exactly what you see on set is what is being viewed in the edit.

However, where this fails is that the dailies uploaded to FTP sites — for viewing by the execs, producers and other people who have access to the work — are usually very compressed with low resolution, so it bears little resemblance to how the work looked on set or looks in the edit. This is really unsatisfying as for months, key members of production are not seeing an accurate reflection of the picture. Of course, when you get into the grade this can be restored, but it’s dangerous if those viewing the dailies in this way have grown accustomed to something that is a pale comparison of what was shot on set.

How has production changed over the last two years?
There is less differentiation between film and television in how productions are being made and, critically, where they are being seen by audiences, especially with online platforms now making award-winning feature films. The high production values we’ve seen with Netflix and Amazon’s biggest shows has seen UK television dramas pushing to up their game, which does put pressure on productions, shooting schedules and HODs, as the budgets to help achieve this aren’t there yet.

So, from a ground-level perspective, for DPs working in drama this looks like more pressure to produce work of the highest standard in less time. However, it’s also a more exciting place to be working as the ideas about how you film something for television versus cinema no longer need apply. The perceived ideas of what an audience is interested in, or expect, are being blown out the water by the success of new original online content, which flies in the face of more traditional storytelling. Broadcasters are noticing this and, hopefully, this will lead to more exciting and cinematic mainstream television in the future.

Blackmagic’s Bob Caniglia
In addition to its post and broadcast tools, Blackmagic offers many different cameras, including the Pocket Cinema Camera, Pocket Cinema Camera 4K, Micro Studio Camera 4K, Micro Cinema Camera, Studio Camera, Studio Camera 4K, Ursa Mini Pro, Ursa Mini 4.6K, Ursa Broadcast.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Lens freedom is on everyone’s mind right now… having the freedom to shoot in any style. This is bringing about things like seeing projects shot on 50-year-old glass because the DP liked the feel of a commercial back in the ‘60s.

We actually just had a customer test out actual lenses that were used on The Godfather, The Shining and Casablanca, and it was amazing to see the mixing of those with a new digital cinema camera. And so many people are asking for a camera to work with anamorphic lenses. The trend is really that people expect their camera to be able to handle whatever look they want.

For large format use, I would say that both Hollywood and indie filmmakers are using them more often. Or, at least they trying to get the general large format look by using anamorphic lenses to get a shallow depth of field.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
Right now, HDR is definitely more of a concern for DPs in Hollywood, but also with indie filmmakers and streaming service content creators. Netflix and Hulu have some amazing HDR shows right now. And there is plenty of choice when it comes to the different HDR formats and shooting and monitoring on set. All of that is happening everyday, while 8K still needs the industry to catch up with the various production tools.

As for impacting shooting, HDR is about more immersive colors, and a DP needs to plan for it. It gives viewers a whole new level of image detail in what they shoot. They have to be much more aware of every surface or lighting impact so that the viewer doesn’t get distracted. Attention to detail gets even higher in HDR, and DPs and colorists will need to keep a close eye on every shot, including when an image in a sideview mirror’s reflection is just a little too sharp and needs a tweak.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
You can never have enough Ks! Seriously. It is not just about getting a beautiful 8K TV, it is about giving the production and post pros on a project as much data as possible. More data means more room to be creative, and is great for things like keying.

Latitude and framerate are important as well, and I don’t think any one is more important than another. For the viewers, the beauty will be in large displays, you’re already seeing 8K displays in Times Square, and though you may not need 8K on your phone, 8K on the side of a building or highway will be very impactful.

I do think one of the ways 8K is changing production practices is that people are going to be much more storage conscious. Camera manufacturers will need to continue to improve workflows as the images get larger in an effort to maximize storage efficiencies.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?
For streaming content providers, shoots have definitely been impacted and are forcing productions to plan for shooting in a wider number of formats. Luckily, companies like Netflix have been very good about specifying up front the cameras they approve and which formats are needed.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
While it can be a bit overwhelming, it does give creatives some options, especially if they have a smaller delivery size than the acquisition format. For instance, if you’re shooting in 4K but delivering in HD, you can do dynamic zooms from the 4K image that look like an optical zoom, or you can get a tight shot and wide shot from the same camera. That’s a real help on a limited budget of time and/or money.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
Have the production and the post people planning together from the start and create the look everyone should be working on right up front.

Set the LUTs you want before a single shot is done and manage the workflow from camera to final post. Also, choose post software that can bring color correction on-set, near-set and off-set. That lets you collaborate remotely. Definitely choose a camera that works directly with any post software, and avoid transcoding.

How has production changed in the last two years?
Beyond the rise of HDR, one of the other big changes is that more productions are thinking live and streaming more than ever before. CNN’s Anderson Cooper now does a daily Facebook Live show. AMC has the live Talking Dead-type formats for many of their shows. That trend is going to keep happening, so cinematographers and camera people need to be thinking about being able to jump from scripted to live shooting.

Red Digital Cinema’s Graeme Nattress
Red Digital Cinema manufactures professional digital cameras and accessories. Red’s DSMC2 camera offers three sensor options — Gemini 5K S35, Helium 8K S35 and Monstro 8K VV.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing?
Industry camera trends continue to push image quality in all directions. Sensors are getting bigger, with higher resolutions and more dynamic range. Filmmakers continue to innovate, making new and amazing images all the time, which drives our fascination for advancing technology in service to the creative.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days?
One of the benefits of a primary workflow based on RAW recording is that HDR is not an added extra, but a core part of the system. Filmmakers do consider HDR important, but there’s some concern that HDR doesn’t always look appealing, and that it’s not always an image quality improvement. Cinematography has always been about light and shade and how they are controlled to shape the image’s emotional or storytelling intent. HDR can be a very important tool in that it greatly expands the display canvas to work on, but a larger canvas doesn’t mean a better picture. The increased display contrast of HDR can make details more visible, and it can also make motion judder more apparent. Thus, more isn’t always better; it’s about how you use what you have.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? What’s more important, resolution or dynamic range?
Without resolution, we don’t have an image. Resolution is always going to be an important image parameter. What we must keep in mind is that camera resolution is based on input resolution to the system, and that can — and often will — be different to the output resolution on the display. Traditionally, in video the input and output resolutions were one and the same, but when film was used — which had a much higher resolution than a TV could display — we were taking a high-resolution input and downsampling it to the display, the TV screen.

As with any sampled system, in a digital cinema camera there are some properties we seek to protect and others to diminish. We want a high level of detail, but we don’t want sharpening artifacts and we don’t want aliasing. The only way to achieve that is through a high-resolution sensor, properly filtered (optical low-pass) that can see a large amount of real, un-enhanced detail. So yes, 8K can give you lots of fine detail should you want it, but the imaging benefits extend beyond downsampling to 4K or 2K. 8K makes for an incredibly robust image, but noise is reduced, and what noise remains takes on more of a texture, which is much more aesthetically pleasing.

One challenge of 8K is an increase in the amount of sensor data to be recorded, but that can be addressed through quality compression systems like RedCode.

Addressing dynamic range is very important because dynamic range and resolution work together to produce the image. It’s easy to think that high resolutions have a negative impact upon dynamic range, but improved pixel design means you can have dynamic range and resolution.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
Color management is vitally important and so much more than just keeping color control from on-set through to delivery. Now with the move to HDR and an increasing amount of mobile viewing, we have a wide variety of displays, all with their own characteristics and color gamuts. Color management allows content creators to display their work at maximum quality without compromise. Red cameras help in multiple ways. On camera, one can monitor in both SDR and HDR simultaneously with the new IPP2 image processing pipeline’s output independence, which also allows you to color via CDL and creative 3D LUT in such a way as to have those decisions represented correctly on different monitor types.

In post and grading, the benefits of output independence continue, but now it’s critical that scene colors, which can so easily go out of gamut, are dealt with tastefully. Through the metadata support in the RedCode format, all the creative decisions taken on set follow through to dailies and post, but never get in the way of producing the correct image output, be it for VFX, editorial or grading.

Panavision’s Michael Cioni 
Panavision designs and manufactures high-precision camera systems, including both film and digital cameras, as well as lenses and accessories for the motion picture and television industries.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing?
With the evolution of digital capture, one of the most interesting things I’ve noticed in the market are new trends emerging from the optics side of cinematography. At a glance, it can appear as if there is a desire for older or vintage lenses based on the increasing resolution of large format digital cameras. While resolution is certainly a factor, I’ve noticed the larger contributor to vintage glass is driven by the quality of sensors, not the resolution itself. As sensors increase in resolution, they simultaneously show improvements in clarity, low-light capability, color science and signal-to-noise ratio.

The compounding effect of all these elements are improving images far beyond what was capable with analog film technology, which explains why the same lens behaves differently on film, S35 digital capture and large-format digital capture. As these looks continue to become popular, Panavision is responding through our investments in both restoration of classic lenses as well as designing new lenses with classic characteristics and textures that are optimized for large format photography on super sensors.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look?
Creating images is not always about what component is better, but rather how they elevate images by working in concert. HDR images are a tool that increases creative control alongside high resolution and 16-bit color. These components work really well together because a compelling image can make use of more dynamic range, more color and more clarity. Its importance is only amplified by the amalgamation of high-fidelity characteristics working together to increase overall image flexibility.

Today, the studios are still settling into an HDR world because only a few groups, led by OTT, are able to distribute in HDR to wide audiences. On-set tools capable of HDR, 4K and 16-bit color are still in their infancy and currently cost-prohibitive. 4K/HDR on the set is going to become a standard practice by 2021. 4K wireless transmitters are the first step — they are going to start coming online in 2019. Smaller OLED displays capable of 750 nits+ will follow in 2020, creating an excellent way to monitor higher quality images right on set. In 2021, editorial will start to explore HDR and 4K during the offline process. By 2024, all productions will be HDR from set to editorial to post to mobile devices. Early adopters that work out the details today will find themselves ahead of the competition and having more control as these trends evolve. I recommend cinematographers embrace the fundamentals of HDR, because understanding the tools and trends will help prevent images from appearing artificial or overdone.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? What’s more important, resolution or dynamic range?
One of the reasons we partnered with Red is because the Monstro 8K VV sensor makes no sacrifice in dynamic range while still maintaining ultra high smoothness at 16 bits. The beauty of technology like this is that we can finally start to have the best from all worlds — dynamic range, resolution, bit depth, magnification, speed and workflow — without having to make quality sacrifices. When cinematographers have all these elements together, they can create images previously never seen before, and 8K is as much part of that story as any other element.

One important way to view 8K is not solely as a thermometer for high-resolution sharpness. A sensor with 35 million pixels is necessary in order to increase the image size, similar to trends in professional photography. 8K large format creates a larger, more magnified image with a wider field of view and less distortion, like the difference in images captured by 70mm film. The biggest positive I’ve noticed is that DXL2’s 8K large-format Red Monstro sensor is so good in terms of quality that it isn’t impacting images themselves. Lower quality sensors can add a “fingerprint” to the image, which can distort the original intention or texture of a particular lens.

With sensors like Monstro capable of such high precision, the lenses behave exactly as the lens maker intended. The same Panavision lenses on a lower grade sensor, or even 35mm film, are exhibiting characteristics that we weren’t able to see before. This is literally breathing new life into lenses that previously didn’t perform the same way until Monstro and large format.

Is the availability of so many camera formats a help or a hindrance?
You don’t have to look far to identify individuals who are easily fatigued by having too many choices. Some of these individuals cope with choices by finding ways to regulate them, and they feel fewer choices means more stability and perhaps more control (creative and economic). As an entrepreneur, I find the opposite to be true: I believe regulating our world, especially with regards to the arts and sciences, is a recipe for protecting the status quo. I fully admit there are situations in which people are fatigued by too many complex choices.

I find that failure is not of the technology itself, rather it’s the fault of the manufactures who have not provided the options in easy-to-consume ways. Having options is exactly what creatives need in order to explore something new and improved. But it’s also up to manufacturers to deliver the message in ways everyone can understand. We’re still learning how to do that, and with each generation the process changes a bit. And while I am not always certain which are the best ways to help people understand all the options, I am certain that the pursuit of new art will motivate us to go out of our comfort zones and try something previously thought not possible.

Have you encountered any examples of productions that have shot streaming content (i.e. for Netflix/Amazon) and had to change production practices and workflows for this format/deliverable?
Netflix and Amazon are exceptional examples of calculated risk takers. While most headlines discuss their investment in the quantity of content, I find the most interesting investment they make is in relationships. Netflix and Amazon are heavily invested in standards groups, committees, outreach, panels and constant communication. The model of the past and present (incumbent studios) are content creators with technology divisions. The model of the future (Netflix, Amazon, Hulu, Apple, Google and YouTube) are all the technology companies with the ability to create content. And technology companies approach problems from a completely different angle by not only embracing the technology, they help invent it. In this new technological age, those who lead and those who follow will likely be determined by the tools and techniques used to deliver. What I call “The Netflix Effect” is the impact Netflix has on traditional groups and how they have all had to strategically pivot based on Netflix’s impact.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
The DXL2 has an advanced color workflow. In collaboration with LiveGrade by Pomfort, DXL2 can capture looks wirelessly from DITs in the form of CDLs and LUTs, which are not only saved into the metadata of the camera, but also baked into in-camera proxy files in the form of Apple ProRes or Avid DNx. These files now contain visual references of the exact looks viewed on monitors and can be delivered directly to post houses, or even editors. This improves creative control because it eliminates the guess work in the application of external color decisions and streamlines it back to the camera where the core database is kept with all the other camera information. This metadata can be traced throughout the post pipeline, which also streamlines the process for all entities that come in contact with camera footage.

How has production changed over the last two years?
Sheesh. A lot!

ARRI‘s Stephan Ukas-Bradley
The ARRI Group manufactures and distributes motion picture cameras, digital intermediate systems and lighting equipment. Their camera offerings include the Alexa LF, Alexa Mini, Alexa 65, Alexa SXT W and the Amira.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Large format opens some new creative possibilities, using a shallow depth of field to guide the audience’s view and provide a wonderful bokeh. It also conveys a perspective truer to the human eye, resulting in a seemingly increased dimensional depth. The additional resolution combined with our specially designed large format Signature Primes result in beautiful and emotional images.

Old and vintage lenses can enhance a story. For instance, when Gabriel Beristain, ASC, used Bausch & Lomb Super Baltar on the Starz show Magic City, and Bradford Young used detuned DNA lenses in conjunction with Alexa 65 on Solo: A Star Wars Story, certain characteristics like flares, reflections, distortions and focus fall-off are very difficult to recreate in post organically, so vintage lenses provide an easy way to create a unique look for a specific story and a way for the director of photography to maintain creative control.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
Currently, things are not done much differently on set when shooting HDR versus SDR. While it would be very helpful to monitor in both modes on-set, HDR reference monitors are still very expensive and very few productions have the luxury to do that. One has to be aware of certain challenges when shooting for an HDR finish. High contrast edges can result in a more pronounced stutter/strobing effect when panning the camera, windows that are blown out in SDR might retain detail in the HDR pass and now all of a sudden, a ladder or grip stand are visible.

In my opinion, HDR is more important than higher resolution. HDR is resolution-independent in regard to viewing devices like phone/tablets and gives the viewer a perceived increased sharpness, and it is more immersive than increased resolution. Also, let’s not forget that we are working in the motion picture industry and that we are either capturing moving objects or moving the camera, and with that introducing motion blur. Higher resolution only makes sense to me in combination with higher frame rates, and that in return will start a discussion about aesthetics, as it may look hyper-real compared to the traditional 24fps capture. Resolution is one aspect of the overall image quality, but in my opinion extended dynamic range, signal/noise performance, sensitivity, color separation and color reproduction are more important.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content for OTTs, like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices and workflows, if at all?
Shooting streaming content has really not changed production practices or workflows. At ARRI, we offer very flexible and efficient workflows and we are very transparent documenting our ARRIRAW file formats in SMPTE RDD 30 (format) and 31 (processing) and working with many industry partners to provide native file support in their products.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
I would look at all those different camera types and resolutions as different film stocks and recommend to creatives to shoot their own test and select the camera systems based on what suits their project best.

We offer the ARRI Look Library for Amira, Alexa Mini and Alexa SXT (SUP 3.0), which is a collection of 87 looks, each of them available in three different intensities provided in Rec. 709 color space. Those looks can either be recorded or only used for monitoring. These looks travel with the picture, embedded in the metadata of the ARRIRAW file, QuickTime Atom or HD/SDI stream in form of the actual LUT and ASC CDL. One can also create a look dynamically on set, feeding the look back to the camera and having the ASC CDL values embedded in the same way.

More commonly, one would record in either ARRIRAW or ProRes LogC, while applying a standard Rec. 709 look for monitoring. The “C” in LogC stands for Cineon, which is a film-like response very much the like of a scanned film image. Colorists and post pros are very familiar with film and color grading LogC images is easy and quick.

How has production changed over the last two years?
I don’t have the feeling that production has changed a lot in the past two years, but with the growing demand from OTTs and increased production volume, it is even more important to have a reliable and proven system with flexible workflow options.

Main Image: DP Kate Reid.