Category Archives: on-set

BlacKkKlansman director Spike Lee

By Iain Blair

Spike Lee has been on a roll recently. Last time we sat down for a talk, he’d just finished Chi-Raq, an impassioned rap reworking of Aristophanes’ “Lysistrata,” which was set against a backdrop of Chicago gang violence. Since then he’s directed various TV, documentary and video projects. And now, smack in the middle of awards season, his latest film BlacKkKlansman was nominated for a host of Oscars, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Film Editing,  Best Original Score and Best Actor in a Supporting role (Adam Driver).

Set in the early 1970s, the unlikely-but-true story details the exploits of Ron Stallworth (John David Washington), the first African-American detective to serve in the Colorado Springs Police Department. Determined to make a name for himself, Stallworth sets out on a dangerous mission: infiltrate and expose the Ku Klux Klan. The young detective soon recruits a more seasoned colleague, Flip Zimmerman (Adam Driver), into the undercover investigation. Together, they team up to take down the extremist hate group as the organization aims to sanitize its violent rhetoric to appeal to the mainstream. The film also stars Topher Grace as David Duke.

Behind the scenes, Lee reteamed with co-writer Kevin Willmott, longtime editor Barry Alexander Brown and composer Terence Blanchard, along with up-and-coming DP Chayse Irvin. I spoke with the always-entertaining Lee, who first burst onto the scene back in 1986 with She’s Gotta Have It, about making the film, his workflow and the Oscars.

Is it true Jordan Peele turned you onto this story?
Yeah, he called me out of the blue and gave me possibly the greatest six-word pitch in film history — “Black man infiltrates Ku Klux Klan.” I couldn’t resist it, not with that pitch.

Didn’t you think, “Wait, this is all too unbelievable, too Hollywood?”
Well, my first question was, “Is this actually true? Or is it a Dave Chappelle skit?” Jordan assured me it’s a true story and that Ron wrote a book about it. He sent me a script, and that’s where we began, but Kevin Willmott and I then totally rewrote it so we could include all the stuff like Charlottesville at the end.

Iain Blair and Spike Lee

Did you immediately decide to juxtapose the story’s period racial hatred with all the ripped-from-the-headlines news footage?
Pretty much, as the Charlottesville rally happened August 11, 2017 and we didn’t start shooting this until mid-September, so we could include all that. And then there was the terrible synagogue massacre, and all the pipe bombs. Hate crimes are really skyrocketing under this president.

Fair to say, it’s not just a film about America, though, but about what’s happening everywhere — the rise of neo-Nazism, racism, xenophobia and so on in Europe and other places?
I’m so glad you said that, as I’ve had to correct several people who want to just focus on America, as if this is just happening here. No, no, no! Look at the recent presidential elections in Brazil. This guy — oh my God! This is a global phenomenon, and the common denominator is fear. You fire up your base with fear tactics, and pinpoint your enemy — the bogeyman, the scapegoat — and today that is immigrants.

What were the main challenges in pulling it all together?
Any time you do a film, it’s so hard and challenging. I’ve been doing this for decades now, and it ain’t getting any easier. You have to tell the story the best way you can, given the time and money you have, and it has to be a team effort. I had a great team with me, and any time you do a period piece you have added challenges to get it looking right.

You assembled a great cast. What did John David Washington and Adam Driver bring to the main roles?
They brought the weight, the hammer! They had to do their thing and bring their characters head-to-head, so it’s like a great heavyweight fight, with neither one backing down. It’s like Inside Man with Denzel and Clive Owen.

It’s the first time you’ve worked with the Canadian DP Chayse Irvin, who mainly shot shorts before this. Can you talk about how you collaborated with him?
He’s young and innovative, and he shot a lot of Beyonce’s Lemonade long-form video. What we wanted to do was shoot on film, not digital. I talked about all the ‘70s films I grew up with, like French Connection and Dog Day Afternoon. So that was the look I was after. It had to match the period, but not be too nostalgic. While we wanted to make a period film, I also wanted it to feel and look contemporary, and really connect that era with the world we live in now. He really nailed it. Then my great editor, Barry Alexander Brown, came up with all the split-screen stuff, which is also very ‘70s and really captured that era.

How tough was the shoot?
Every shoot’s tough. It’s part of the job. But I love shooting, and we used a mix of practical locations and sets in Brooklyn and other places that doubled for Colorado Springs.

Where did you post?
Same as always, in Brooklyn, at my 40 Acres and a Mule office.

Do you like the post process?
I love it, because post is when you finally sit down and actually make your film. It’s a lot more relaxing than the shoot — and a lot of it is just me and the editor and the Avid. You’re shaping and molding it and finding your way, cutting and adding stuff, flopping scenes, and it never really follows the shooting script. It becomes its own thing in post.

Talk about editing with Barry Alexander Brown, the Brit who’s cut so many of your films. What were the big editing challenges?
The big one was finding the right balance between the humor and the very serious subject matter. They’re two very different tones, and then the humor comes from the premise, which is absurd in itself. It’s organic to the characters and the situations.

Talk about the importance of sound and music, and Terence Blanchard’s spare score that blends funk with classical.
He’s done a lot of my films, and has never been nominated for an Oscar — and he should have been. He’s a truly great composer, trumpeter and bandleader, and a big part of what I do in post. I try to give him some pointers that aren’t restrictive, and then let him do his thing. I always put as much as emphasis on sound and music as I do on the acting, editing and cinematography. It’s hugely important, and once we have the score, we have a film.

I had a great sound team. Phil Stockton, who began with me back on School Daze, was the sound designer. David Boulton, Mike Russo and Howard London did the ADR mix, and my longtime mixer Tommy Fleischman was on it. We did it all at C5 in New York. We spent a long time on the mix, building it all up.

Where did you do the DI and how important is it to you?
At Company 3 with colorist Tom Poole, who’s so good. It’s very important but I’m in and out, as I know Tom and the DP are going to get the look I want.

Spike Lee on set.

Did the film turn out the way you hoped?
Here’s the thing. You try to do the best you can, and I can’t predict what the reaction will be. I made the film I wanted to make, and then I put it out in the world. It’s all about timing. This was made at the right time and was made with a lot of urgency. It’s a crazy world and it’s getting crazier by the minute.

How important are industry awards and nomination to you? 
They’re very important in that they bring more attention, more awareness to a film like this. One of the blessings from the strong critical response to this has been a resurgence in looking at my earlier films again, some of which may have been overlooked, like Bamboozled and Summer of Sam.

Do you see progress in Hollywood in terms of diversity and inclusion?
There’s been movement, maybe not as fast as I’d like, but it’s slowly happening, so that’s good.

What’s next?
We just finished the second season of She’s Gotta Have It for Netflix, and I have some movie things cooking. I’m pretty busy.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.

Making audio pop for Disney’s Mary Poppins Returns

By Jennifer Walden

As the song says, “It’s a jolly holiday with Mary.” And just in time for the holidays, there’s a new Mary Poppins musical to make the season bright. In theaters now, Disney’s Mary Poppins Returns is directed by Rob Marshall, who with Chicago, Nine and Into the Woods on his resume, has become the master of modern musicals.

Renée Tondelli

In this sequel, Mary Poppins (Emily Blunt) comes back to help the now-grown up Michael (Ben Whishaw) and Jane Banks (Emily Mortimer) by attending to Michael’s three children: Annabel (Pixie Davies), John (Nathanael Saleh) and Georgie (Joel Dawson). It’s a much-needed reunion for the family as Michael is struggling with the loss of his wife.

Mary Poppins Returns is another family reunion of sorts. According to Renée Tondelli, who along with Eugene Gearty, supervised and co-designed the sound, director Marshall likes to use the same crews on all his films. “Rob creates families in each phase of the film, so we all have a shorthand with each other. It’s really the most wonderful experience you can have in a filmmaking process,” says Tondelli, who has worked with Marshall on five films, three of which were his musicals. “In the many years of working in this business, I have never worked with a more collaborative, wonderful, creative team than I have on Mary Poppins Returns. That goes for everyone involved, from the picture editor down to all of our assistants.”

Sound editorial took place in New York at Sixteen 19, the facility where the picture was being edited. Sound mixing was also done in New York, at Warner Bros. Sound.

In his musicals, Marshall weaves songs into scenes in a way that feels organic. The songs are coaxed from the emotional quotient of the story. That’s not only true for how the dialogue transitions into the singing, but also for how the music is derived from what’s happening in the scene. “Everything with Rob is incredibly rhythmic,” she says. “He has an impeccable sense of timing. Every breath, every footstep, every movement has a rhythmic cadence to it that relates to and works within the song. He does this with every artform in the production — with choreography, production design and sound design.”

From a sound perspective, Tondelli and her team worked to integrate the songs by blending the pre-recorded vocals with the production dialogue and the ADR. “We combined all of those in a micro editing process, often syllable by syllable, to create a very seamless approach so that you can’t really tell where they stop talking and start singing,” she says.

The Conversation
For example, near the beginning of the film, Michael is looking through the attic of their home on Cherry Tree Lane as he speaks to the spirit of his deceased wife, telling her how much he misses her in a song called “The Conversation.” Tondelli explains, “It’s a very delicate scene, and it’s a song that Michael was speaking/singing. We constantly cut between his pre-records and his production dialogue. It was an amazing collaboration between me, the supervising music editor Jennifer Dunnington and re-recording mixer Mike Prestwood Smith. We all worked together to create this delicate balance so you really feel that he is singing his song in that scene in that moment.”

Since Michael is moving around the attic as he’s performing the song, the environment affects the quality of the production sound. As he gets closer to the window, the sound bounces off the glass. “Mike [Prestwood Smith] really had his work cut out for him on that song. We were taking impulse responses from the end of the slates and feeding them into Audio Ease’s Altiverb to get the right room reverb on the pre-records. We did a lot of impulse responses and reverbs, and EQs to make that scene all flow, but it was worth it. It was so beautiful.”

The Bowl
They also captured impulse responses for another sequence, which takes place inside a ceramic bowl. The sequence begins with the three Banks children arguing over their mother’s bowl. They accidentally drop it and it breaks. Mary and Jack (Lin-Manuel Miranda) notice the bowl’s painted scenery has changed. The horse-drawn carriage now has a broken wheel that must be fixed. Mary spins the bowl and a gust of wind pulls them into the ceramic bowl’s world, which is presented in 2D animation. According to Tondelli, the sequence was hand-drawn, frame by frame, as an homage to the original Mary Poppins. “They actually brought some animators out of retirement to work on this film,” she says.

Tondelli and co-supervising sound editor/co-sound designer Eugene Gearty placed mics inside porcelain bowls, in a porcelain sink, and near marble tiles, which they thumped with rubber mallets, broken pieces of ceramic and other materials. The resulting ring-out was used to create reverbs that were applied to every element in the ceramic bowl sequence, from the dialogue to the Foley. “Everything they said, every step they took had to have this ceramic feel to it, so as they are speaking and walking it sounds like it’s all happening inside a bowl,” Tondelli says.

She first started working on this hand-drawn animation sequence when it showed little more than the actors against a greenscreen with a few pencil drawings. “The fastest and easiest way to make a scene like that come alive is through sound. The horse, which was possibly the first thing that was drawn, is pullling the carriage. It dances in this syncopated rhythm with the music so it provides a rhythmic base. That was the first thing that we tackled.”

After the carriage is fixed, Mary and her troupe walk to the Royal Doulton Music Hall where, ultimately, Jack and Mary are going to perform. Traditionally, a music hall in London is very rowdy and boisterous. The audience is involved in the show and there’s an air of playfulness. “Rob said to me, ‘I want this to be an English music hall, Renée. You really have to make that happen.’ So I researched what music halls were like and how they sounded.”

Since the animation wasn’t complete, Tondelli consulted with the animators to find out who — or rather what — was going to be in the audience. “There were going to be giraffes dressed up in suits with hats and Indian elephants in beautiful saris, penguins on the stage dancing with Jack and Mary, flamingos, giant moose and rabbits, baby hippos and other animals. The only way I thought I could do this was to go to London and hire actors of all ages who could do animal voices.”

But there were some specific parameters that had to be met. Tondelli defines the world of Mary Poppins Returns as being “magical realism,” so the animals couldn’t sound too cartoony. They had to sound believably like animal versions of British citizens. Also, the actors had to be able to sing in their animal voices.

According to Tondelli, they recorded 15 actors at a time for a period of five days. “I would call out, ‘Who can do an orangutan?’ And then the actors would all do voices and we’d choose one. Then they would do the whole song and sing out and call out. We had all different accents — Cockney, Welsh and Scottish,” she says. “All the British Isles came together on this and, of course, they all loved Mary and knew all the songs so they sang along with her.”

On the Dolby Atmos mix, the music hall scene really comes alive. The audience’s voices are coming from the rafters and all around the walls and the music is reverberating into the space — which, by the way, no longer sounds like it’s in a ceramic bowl even though the music hall is in the ceramic bowl world. In addition to the animal voices, there are hooves and paws for the animals’ clapping. “We had to create the clapping in Foley because it wasn’t normal clapping,” explains Tondelli. “The music hall was possibly the most challenging, but also the funnest scene to do. We just loved it. All of us had a great time on it.”

The Foley
The Foley elements in Mary Poppins Returns often had to be performed in perfect sync with the music. On the big dance numbers, like “Trip the Light Fantastic,” the Foley was an essential musical element since the dances were reconstructed sonically in post. “Everything for this scene was wiped away, even the vocals. We ended up using a lot of the records for this one and a lot less production sound,” says Tondelli.

In “Trip the Light Fantastic,” Jack is bringing the kids back home through the park, and they emerge from a tunnel to see nearly 50 lamplighters on lampposts. Marshall and John DeLuca (choreographer/producer/screen story writer) arranged the dance to happen in multiple layers, with each layer doing something different. “The background dancers were doing hand slaps and leg swipes, and another layer was stepping on and off of these slate surfaces. Every time the dancers would jump up on the lampposts, they’d hit it and each would ring out in a different pitch,” explains Tondelli.

All those complex rhythms were performed in Foley in time to the music. It’s a pretty tall order to ask of any Foley artist but Tondelli has the perfect solution for that dilemma. “I hire the co-choreographers (for this film, Joey Pizzi and Tara Hughes) or dancers that actually worked on the film to do the Foley. It’s something that I always do for Rob’s films. There’s such a difference in the performance,” she says.

Tondelli worked with the Foley team of Marko Costanzo and George Lara at c5 Sound in New York, who helped to build custom surfaces — like a slate-on-sand surface for the lamplighter dance — and arrange multi-surface layouts to optimally suit the Foley performer’s needs.

For instance, in the music hall sequence, the dance on stage incorporates books, so they needed three different surfaces: wood, leather and a papery-sounding surface set up in a logical, easily accessible way. “I wanted the dancer performing the Foley to go through the entire number while jumping off and on these different surfaces so you felt like it was a complete dance and not pieced together,” she says.

For the lamplighter dance, they had a big, thick pig iron pipe next to the slate floor so that the dancer performing the Foley could hit it every time the dancers on-screen jumped up on the lampposts. “So the performer would dance on the slate floor, then hit the pipe and then jump over to the wood floor. It was an amazingly syncopated rhythmic soundtrack,” says Tondelli.

“It was an orchestration, a beautiful sound orchestra, a Foley orchestra that we created and it had to be impeccably in sync. If there was a step out of place you’d hear it,” she continues. “It was really a process to keep it in sync through all the edit conforms and the changes in the movie. We had to be very careful doing the conforms and making the adjustments because even one small mistake and you would hear it.”

The Wind
Wind plays a prominent role in the story. Mary Poppins descends into London on a gust of wind. Later, they’re transported into the ceramic bowl world via a whirlwind. “It’s everywhere, from a tiny leaf blowing across the sidewalk to the huge gale in the park,” attests Tondelli. “Each one of those winds has a personality that Eugene [Gearty] spent a lot of time working on. He did amazing work.”

As far as the on-set fans and wind machines wreaking havoc on the production dialogue, Tondelli says there were two huge saving graces. First was production sound mixer Simon Hayes, who did a great job of capturing the dialogue despite the practical effects obstacles. Second was dialogue editor Alexa Zimmerman, who was a master at iZotope RX. All told, about 85% of the production dialogue made it into the film.

“My goal — and my unspoken order from Rob — was to not replace anything that we didn’t have to. He’s so performance-oriented. He arduously goes over every single take to make sure it’s perfect,” says Tondelli, who also points out that Marshall isn’t afraid of using ADR. “He will pick words from a take and he doesn’t care if it’s coming from a pre-record and then back to ADR and then back to production. Whichever has the best performance is what wins. Our job then is to make all of that happen for him.”


Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio engineer and writer. You can follow her on Twitter @audiojeny

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Josie Rourke on her feature directorial debut, Mary Queen of Scots

By Iain Blair

Given all the recent talk about the lack of opportunity for women in Hollywood, it’s apt that for her feature film directorial debut, Josie Rourke took on the story of Mary Queen of Scots, the period drama about two of the most famous women in history.

It’s also apt that this retelling of the turbulent life of Mary Stuart (Saoirse Ronan) and that of her English cousin Queen Elizabeth I (Margot Robbie) has all the deeply emotional interpersonal drama of an intense play since Rourke is the artistic director of London’s prestigious Donmar Warehouse, where she’s staged acclaimed and groundbreaking productions.

Josie Rourke on set.

Based on the book “Queen of Scots: The True Life of Mary Stuart,” the film offers a fresh take on the two strong women who occupy center stage in what was very much a man’s world. Queen of France at age 16, widowed at 18, Mary defies pressure to remarry and instead returns to her native Scotland to reclaim her rightful throne. By birth, Mary had a rival claim to the English throne. Contrary to earlier accounts and based on the latest research, she was a capable politician and leader who wanted an alliance with her cousin Elizabeth.

Mary fights to govern her unruly kingdom at a time when female monarchs are reviled as monstrous. To secure their thrones, the two queens make very different choices about marriage and children. Mary’s reputation is under continual attack from her enemies, who construct lies about her sexual conduct. Betrayal, rebellion and conspiracies within each court imperil both queens, driving them apart as each woman experiences the bitter cost of power.

The film co-stars Jack Lowden, Joe Alwyn, Martin Compston, Brendan Coyle, David Tennant and Guy Pearce. Behind the scenes, Rourke assembled a team that included writer Beau Willimon, costume designer Alexandra Byrne, production designer James Merifield, editor Chris Dickens, composer Max Richter and director of photography John Mathieson.

I spoke with Rourke about making the film, the Oscar buzz and her workflow.

What sort of film did you set out to make?
I love historical dramas and have done tons of Shakespeare in the theater. I always think that they’re so relevant to the present and that they can often give you a clearer picture and understanding of “now” than of the past. So my aim was to really create something relevant, and to also right a wrong about Mary and how she’s been portrayed through history.

This film is based on historian Dr. John Guy’s biography “Queen of Scots: The True Life of Mary Stuart,” which explored Mary’s life and her claim to the throne. It’s a very vivid book. He got back into the archives and discovered that she’s really been besmirched, in a fake news way. Her enemies not only made sure she met her end, but they also destroyed her reputation by portraying her as a woman totally driven by emotion, not intelligence, and someone too sexual and unable to govern properly. So I wanted to tell the truth about her.

In a way, the film is a battle of will and wits between these two queens — Mary and Elizabeth. What did Saoirse and Margot bring to the roles?
Well, I needed two of the greatest actresses of this generation — young women since they’re two young queens. Katherine Hepburn, Judy Dench, Cate Blanchett and others have gone before, so there were big shoes to fill. And the roles demand great range, emotional complexity and that power where they can command men and the room. Saoirse was already attached, and I passionately went after Margot, who was initially unsure about taking on such an iconic character. The were both amazing. They both totally inhabit the roles.

What were the main technical challenges in pulling it all together?
We didn’t have a big budget, although compared with theater it was huge. We had ambitions to shoot a lot of it on location in Scotland and England, so we could show the soft, poetic beauty of the English countryside and the extreme majesty of Scotland and its rugged landscapes.

Two very different looks.
Exactly, and those contrasting visuals really helped tell their two stories. We basically see Elizabeth’s life as a very interior one; always in court and very formal. But Mary’s often out in the wilds, on horseback, and far more earthy. We shot in pretty remote locations in Scotland, where the weather changes every hour, so I just decided we’d shoot in the rain when it rained. But then suddenly, the skies would clear and you’d get these beautiful views and vistas, which was magical. I think that made everyone — the cast and crew — just bond even more over the project. You can’t fake that sort of thing — real locations, real weather. All that in turn affected their clothes and costumes, and I think Alex Byrne did a brilliant job with that.

The film looks very beautiful, and two-time Oscar-nominee John Mathieson (Gladiator, Hannibal, Matchstick Men, The Phantom of the Opera) shot it. Can you talk about how you collaborated on the look?
I’d seen his work, particularly in Logan, which had such incredible tonal control. John has great discipline with tone and color, and the other great thing is that he has a background in music, so he can improvise.

There’s a scene by a dead tree where John Knox is giving one of his rabble-rousing speeches, and it had been raining so hard that where we’d originally scouted and decided to shoot was totally inaccessible on the day. Instead we found this amazing tree in the same glen, and John quickly lit it and it turned out so well. We went for a very painterly look with a lot of the interior scenes, so some scenes are like Rembrandt paintings with great shadow play and highlights.

Where did you post?
We did most of it at Pinewood and Abbey Road in London, and did a Dolby Atmos mix at the new mix stage there. I was beside myself to be mixing there, where The Beatles and everyone else has worked. Post took about nine months, mainly because I’m also running a theater as well as my day job — or night job, to be more accurate. We did the DI at Company 3 with Paul Ensby.

Do you like the post process?
I really love it, especially the editing, which for me is very similar to being in a room rehearsing with actors. You’re basically getting a series of different performances from them. You’re trying out different things and trying to find the rhythm of a scene.

Talk about editing with Chris Dickens, who won the Oscar and BAFTA for his work on Slumdog Millionaire. What were the big editing challenges?
He’s brilliant and thought I was completely bonkers as I’d talk out loud to the actors while we cut, just like I would do in rehearsal. He was on set with us a little bit, but he far prefers to get all the material cold without any preconceptions about how we got it, or what the actors are actually like as people. He tries to preserve impartiality, and that’s great.

The big challenge was balancing the two stories and two women, and we tried various ways but in the end we largely followed the screenplay. One of Chris’ great skills is the way he cut between the two. He would hone in on the psychology and find those moments when one woman is thinking about the other.

All period films use some visual effects. What was involved?
You’re right, and the biggest challenge was the battle sequence where all the Highland cattle block the bridge. On that day we got far fewer than we’d booked, so we had to add a bunch, and London’s Bluebolt did an absolutely seamless job. Then we had shots of Edinburgh Castle in the distance, and we had a fair amount of clean up, but it was all very subtle.

Talk about the importance of sound and music,
Working on the sound mix was one of the most creative experiences I’ve ever had. In theater, sound is important in that one of a director’s most basic functions is telling whether or not an actor on stage can be heard. Are they loud enough? Was that line clear? It’s the least glamorous part of the job, but really important. To do that, we spend a lot of time thinking about the acoustics of a room or space, how reflective surfaces might be, where the ideal spot on stage is for a certain speech or line. So to then get into a post process where you’re discussing the atmospherics and sound dynamics of the room you’re working in was so exciting to me. Normally, you’re tuning the actors to the room, but now I could tune the room to the actors, and that was so cool.

Josie Rourke and Iain Blair

Did the film turn out the way you hoped?
It did, and I can’t wait to direct another film. I don’t have anything lined up yet, but I’m looking.

We’re heading into awards season, and this is getting a lot of attention. How important is all that?
It’s all very new to me, a bit like a dream in a way. I’d love to see everyone recognized for all their hard work. Everyone was so willing to share their knowledge and experience with a first-timer. I’m just so grateful.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.


Director Peter Farrelly gets serious with Green Book

By Iain Blair

Director, producer and writer Peter Farrelly is best known for the classic comedies he made with his brother Bob: Dumb and Dumber; There’s Something About Mary; Shallow Hal; Me, Myself & Irene; The Three Stooges; and Fever Pitch. But for all their over-the-top, raunchy and boundary-pushing comedy, those movies were always sweet-natured at heart.

Peter Farrelly

Now Farrelly has taken his gift for heartfelt comedy and put his stamp on a very different kind of film, Green Book, a racially charged feel-good drama inspired by a true friendship that transcended race, class and the 1962 Mason-Dixon line.

Starring Oscar-nominee Viggo Mortensen and Oscar-winner Mahershala Ali, it tells the fact-based story of the ultimate odd couple: Tony Lip, a bouncer from The Bronx and Dr. Don Shirley, a world-class black pianist. Lip is hired to drive and protect the worldly and sophisticated Shirley during a 1962 concert tour from Manhattan to the Deep South, where they must rely on the titular “Green Book” — a travel guide to safe lodging, dining and business options for African-Americans during the segregation era.

Set against the backdrop of a country grappling with the valor and volatility of the civil rights movement, the two men are confronted with racism and danger as they challenge long-held assumptions, push past their seemingly insurmountable differences and embrace their shared humanity.

The film also features Linda Cardellini as Tony Vallelonga’s wife, Dolores, along with Dimiter D. Marinov and Mike Hatton as two-thirds of The Don Shirley Trio. The film was co-written by Farrelly, Nick Vallelonga and Brian Currie and reunites Farrelly with editor Patrick J. Don Vito, with whom he worked on the Movie 43 segment “The Pitch.” Farrelly also collaborated for the first-time with cinematographer Sean Porter (read our interview with him), production designer Tim Galvin and composer Kris Bowers.

I spoke with Farrelly about making the film, his workflow and the upcoming awards season. After its Toronto People’s Choice win and Golden Globe nominations (Best Director, Best Musical or Comedy Motion Picture, Best Screenplay, Best Actor for Mortensen, Best Supporting Actor for Ali), Green Book looks like a very strong Oscar contender.

You told me years ago that you’d love to do a more dramatic film at some point. Was this a big stretch for you?
Not so much, to be honest. People have said to me, “It must have been hard,” but the hardest film I ever made was The Three Stooges… for a bunch of reasons. True, this was a bit of a departure for me in terms of tone, and I definitely didn’t want it to get too jokey — I tend to get jokey so it could easily have gone like that.  But right from the start we were very clear that the comedy would come naturally from the characters and how they interacted and spoke and moved, and so on, not from jokes.

So a lot of the comedy is quite nuanced, and in the scene where Tony starts talking about “the orphans” and Don explains that it’s actually about the opera Orpheus, Viggo has this great reaction and look that wasn’t in the script, and it’s much funnier than any joke we could have made there.

What sort of film did you set out to make?
A drama about race and race relations set in a time when it was very fraught, with light moments and a hopeful, uplifting ending.

It has some very timely themes. Was that part of the appeal?
Absolutely. I knew that it would resonate today, although I wish it didn’t. What really hooked me was their common ground. They really are this odd couple who couldn’t be more different — an uneducated, somewhat racist Italian bouncer, and this refined, highly educated, highly cultured doctor and classically trained pianist. They end up spending all this time together in a car on tour, and teach each other so much along the way. And at the end, you know they’ll be friends for life.

Obviously, casting the right lead actors was crucial. What did Viggo and Mahershala bring to the roles?
Well, for a start they’re two of the greatest actors in the world, and when we were shooting this I felt like an observer. Usually, I can see a lot of the actor in the role, but they both disappeared totally into these characters — but not in some method-y way where they were staying in character all the time, on and off the set. They just became these people, and Viggo couldn’t be less like Tony Lip in real life, and the same with Mahershala and Don. They both worked so hard behind the scenes, and I got a call from Steven Spielberg when he first saw it, and he told me, “This is the best buddy movie since Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid,” and he’s right.

It’s a road picture, but didn’t you end up shooting it all in and around New Orleans?
Yes, we did everything there apart from one day in northern New Jersey to get the fall foliage, and a day of exteriors in New York City with Viggo for all the street scenes. Louisiana has everything, from rolling hills to flats. We also found all the venues and clubs they play in, along with mansions and different looks that could double for places like Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, as well as Carolinas and the Deep South.

We shot for just 35 days, and Louisiana has great and very experienced crews, so we were able to work pretty fast. Then for scenes like Carnegie Hall, we used CGI in post, done by Pixel Magic, and we were also amazingly lucky when it came to the snow scenes set in Maryland at the end. We were all ready to use fake snow when it actually started snowing and sticking. We got a good three, four inches, which they told us hadn’t happened in a decade or two down there.

Where did you post?
We did most of the editing at my home in Ojai, and the sound at Fotokem, where we also did the DI with colorist Walter Volpatto.

Do you like the post process?
I love it. My favorite part of filmmaking is the editing. Writing is the hardest part, pulling the script together. And I always have fun on the shoot, but you’re always having to make sure you don’t screw up the script. So when you get to the edit and post, all the hard work is done in that sense, and you have the joy of watching the movie find its shape as you cut and add in the sound and music.

What were the big editing challenges, given there’s such a mix of comedy and drama?
Finding that balance was the key, but this film actually came together so easily in the edit compared with some of the movies I’ve done. I’ll never forget seeing the first assembly of There’s Something About Mary, which I thought was so bad it made me want to vomit! But this just flowed, and Patrick did a beautiful job.

Can you talk about the importance of music and sound in the film.
It was a huge part of the film and we had a really amazing pianist and composer in Kris Bowers, who worked a lot with Mahershala to make his performance as a musician as authentic as possible. And it wasn’t just the piano playing — Mahershala told me right at the start, “I want to know just how a pianist sits at the piano, how he moves.” So he was totally committed to all the details of the role. Then there’s all the radio music, and I didn’t want to use all the obvious, usual stuff for the period, so we searched out other great, but lesser-known songs. We had great music supervisors, Tom Wolfe and Manish Raval, and a great sound team.

We’re already heading into the awards season. How important are awards to you and this film?
Very important. I love the buzz about it because that gets people out to see it. When we first tested it, we got 100%, and the studio didn’t quite believe it. So we tested again, with “a tougher” audience, and got 98%. But it’s a small film. Everyone took pay cuts to make it, as the budget was so low, but I’m very proud of the way it turned out.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.


Capturing realistic dialogue for The Front Runner

By Mel Lambert

Early on in his process, The Front Runner director Jason Reitman asked frequent collaborator and production sound mixer Steve Morrow, CAS, to join the production. “It was maybe inevitable that Jason would ask me to join the crew,” says Morrow, who has worked with the director on Labor Day, Up in the Air and Thank You for Smoking. “I have been part of Jason’s extended family for at least 10 years — having worked with his father Ivan Reitman on Draft Day — and know how he likes to work.”

Steve Morrow

This Sony Pictures film was co-written by Reitman, Matt Bai and Jay Carson, and based on Bai’s book, “All the Truth Is Out.” The Front Runner follows the rise and fall of Senator Gary Hart, set during his unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1988 when he was famously caught having an affair with the much younger Donna Rice. Despite capturing the imagination of young voters, and being considered the overwhelming front runner for the Democratic nomination, Hart’s campaign was sidelined by the affair.

It stars Hugh Jackman as Gary Hart, Vera Farmiga as his wife Lee, J.K. Simmons as campaign manager Bill Dixon and Alfred Molina as the Washington Post’s managing editor, Ben Bradlee.

“From the first read-through of the script, I knew that we would be faced with some production challenges,” recalls Morrow, a 20-year industry veteran. “There were a lot of ensemble scenes with the cast talking over one another, and I knew from previous experience that Jason doesn’t like to rely on ADR. Not only is he really concerned about the quality of the sound we secure from the set — and gives the actors space to prepare — but Jason’s scripts are always so well-written that they shouldn’t need replacement lines in post.”

Ear Candy Post’s Perry Robertson and Scott Sanders, MPSE, served as co-supervising sound editors on the project, which was re-recorded on Deluxe Stage 2 — the former Glen Glenn Sound facility — by Chris Jenkins handling dialogue and music and Jeremy Peirson, CAS, overseeing sound effects. Sebastian Sheehan Visconti was sound effects editor.

With as many as two dozen actors in a busy scene, Morrow soon realized that he would have to mic all of the key campaign team members. “I knew that we were shooting a political film like Robert Altman’s All the President’s Men or [Michael Ritchie’s] The Candidate, so I referred back to the multichannel techniques pioneered by Jim Webb and his high-quality dialogue recordings. I elected to use up to 18 radio mics for those ensemble scenes,” including Reitman’s long opening sequence in which the audience learns who the key participants are on the campaign trail. I did this “while recording each actor on a separate track, together with a guide mono mix of the key participants for the picture editor Stefan Grube.”

Reitman is well known for his films’ elaborate opening title sequences and often highly subjective narration from a main character. His motion pictures typically revolve around characters that are brashly self-confident, but then begin to rethink their lives and responsibilities. He is also reported to be a fan of ‘70s-style cinema verite, which uses a meandering camera and overlapping dialogue to draw the audience into an immersive reality. The Front Runner’s soundtrack is layered with dialogue, together with a constant hum of conversation — from the principals to the press and campaign staff. Since Bai and Carson have written political speeches, Reitman had them on set to ensure that conversations sounded authentic.

Even though there might be four or so key participants speaking in a scene, “Jason wants to capture all of the background dialogue between working press and campaign staff, for example,” Morrow continues.

“He briefed all of the other actors on what the scene was about so they could develop appropriate conversations and background dialogue while the camera roamed around the room. In other words, if somebody was on set they got a mic — one track per actor. In addition to capturing everything, Jason wanted me to have fun with the scene; he likes a solid mix for the crew, dailies and picture editorial, so I gave him the best I could get. And we always had the ability to modify it later in post production from the iso mic channels.”

Morrow recorded the pre-fader individual tracks at between 10dB and 15dB lower than the main mix, “which I rode hot, knowing that we could go back and correct it in post. Levels on that main mix were within ±5 dB most of the time,” he says. Assisting Morrow during the 40-day shoot, which took place in and around Atlanta and Savannah, were Collin Heath and Craig Dollinger, who also served as the boom operator on a handful of scenes.

The mono production mix was also useful for the camera crew, says Morrow. “They sometimes had problems understanding the dramatic focus of a particular scene. In other words, ‘Where does my eye go?’ When I fed my mix to their headphones they came to understand which actors we were spotlighting from the script. This allowed them to follow that overview.”

Production Tools
Morrow used a Behringer Midas Model M32R digital console that features 16 rear-channel inputs and 16 more inputs via a stage box that connects to the M32R via a Cat-5 cable. The console provided pre-fader and mixed outputs to Morrow’s pair of 64-track Sound Devices 970 hard-disk recorders — a main and a parallel backup — via Audinate Dante digital ports. “I also carried my second M32R mixer as a spare,” Morrow says. “I turned over the Compact Flash media at the end of each day’s shooting and retained the contents of the 970’s internal 1TB SSDs and external back-up drives until the end of post, just in case. We created maybe 30GB of data per recorder per day.”

Color coding helps Morrow mix dialogue more accurately.

For easy level checking, the two recorders with front-panel displays were mounted on Morrow’s production sound cart directly above his mixing console. “When I can, I color code the script to highlight the dialogue of key characters in specific scenes,” he says. “It helps me mix more accurately.”

RF transmitters comprised two dozen Lectrosonics SSM Micro belt-pack units — Morrow bought six or seven more for the film — linked to a bank of Lectrosonics Venue2 modular four-channel and three-channel VR receivers. “I used my collection of Sanken COS-11D miniature lavalier microphones for the belt packs. They are my go-to lavs with clean audio output and excellent performance. I also have some DPA lavaliers, if needed.”

With 20+ RF channels simultaneously in use within metropolitan centers, frequency coordination was an essential chore to ensure consistent operation for all radio systems. “The Lectrosonics Venue receivers can auto-assign radio-mic frequencies,” Morrow explains. “The best way to do this is to have everything turned off, and then one by one let the system scan the frequency spectrum. When it finds a good channel, you assign it to the first microphone and then repeat that process for the next radio transmitters. I try to keep up with FCC deliberations [on diminishing RF spectrum space], but realize that companies who manufacture this equipment also need to be more involved. So, together, I feel good that we’ll have the separation we all need for successful shoots.”

Morrow’s setup.

Morrow also made several location recordings on set. “I mounted a couple of lavaliers on bumpers to secure car-byes and other sounds for supervising sound editor Perry Robertson, as well as backgrounds in the house during a Labor Day gathering. We also recorded Vera Farmiga playing the piano during one scene — she is actually a classically-trained pianist — using a DPA Model 5099 microphone (which I also used while working on A Star is Born). But we didn’t record much room tone, because we didn’t find it necessary.”

During scenes at a campaign rally, Morrow provided a small PA system that comprised a couple of loudspeakers mounted on a balcony and a vocal microphone on the podium. “We ran the system at medium-levels, simply to capture the reverb and ambiance of the auditorium,” he explains, “but not so much that it caused problems in post production.”

Summarizing his experience on The Front Runner, Morrow offers that Reitman, and his production partner Helen Estabrook, bring a team spirit to their films. “The set is a highly collaborative environment. We all hang out with one another and share birthdays together. In my experience, Jason’s films are always from the heart. We love working with him 120%. The low point of the shoot is going home!”


Mel Lambert has been involved with production and post on both sides of the Atlantic for more years than he cares to remember. He is principal of Content Creators, a Los Angeles-based copywriting and editorial service, and can be reached at mel.lambert@content-creators.com. He is also a long-time member of the UK’s National Union of Journalists.


DP Chat: Polly Morgan, ASC, BSC

Cinematographer Polly Morgan, who became an active member of the ASC in July, had always been fascinated with films, but she got the bug for filmmaking as a teenager growing up in Great Britain. A film crew shot at her family’s farmhouse.

“I was fixated by the camera and cranes that were being used, and my journey toward becoming a cinematographer began.”

We reached out to Morgan recently to talk about her process and about working on the FX show Legion.

What inspires you artistically? And how do you simultaneously stay on top of advancing technology that serves your vision?
I am inspired by the world around me. As a cinematographer you learn to look at life in a unique way, noticing elements that you might not have been aware of before. Reflections, bouncing light, colors, atmosphere and so many more. When I have time off, I love to travel and experience different cultures and environments.

I spend my free time reading various periodicals to stay of top of the latest developments in technology. Various publications, such as the ASC’s magazine, help to not only highlight new tools but also people’s experiences with them. The filmmaking community is united by this exploration, and there are many events where we are able to get together and share our thoughts on a new piece of equipment. I also try to visit different vendors to see demos of new advances in technology.

Has any recent or new technology changed the way you work?
Live on-set grading has given me more control over the final image when I am not available for the final DI. Over the last two years, I have worked more on episodic television, and I am often unable to go and sit with the colorist to do the final grade, as I am working on another project. Live grading enables me to get specific with adjustments on the set, and I feel confident that with good communication, these adjustments will be part of the final look of the project.

How do you go about choosing the right camera and lenses to achieve the right look for a story?
I like to vary my choice of camera and lenses depending on what story I am telling.
When it comes to cameras, resolution is an important factor depending on how the project is going to be broadcast and if there are specific requirements to be met from the distributor, or if we are planning to do any unique framing that might require a crop into the sensor.

Also, ergonomics play a part. Am I doing a handheld show, or mainly one in studio mode? Or are there any specifications that make the camera unique that will be useful for that particular project? For example, I used the Panasonic VariCam when I needed an extremely sensitive sensor for night driving around downtown Los Angeles. Lenses are chosen for contrast and resolution and speed. Also, sometimes size and weight play a part, especially if we are working in tight locations or doing lots of handheld.

What are some best practices, or rules, you try to follow on each job?
Every job is different, but I always try to root my work in naturalism to keep it grounded. I feel like a relatable story can have the most impact on its viewer, so I want to make images that the audience can connect with and be drawn into emotionally. As a cinematographer, we want our work to be invisible but yet always support and enhance the narrative.

On set, I always ensure a calm and pleasant working environment. We work long and bizarre hours, and the work is demanding so I always strive to make it an enjoyable and safe experience for everyone,

Explain your ideal collaboration with the director when setting the look of a project.
It is always my aim to get a clear idea of what the director is imagining when they describe a certain approach. As we are all so different, it is really about establishing a language that can be a shorthand on set and help me to deliver exactly what they want. It is invaluable to look at references together, whether that is art, movies, photography or whatever.

As well as the “look,” I feel it is important to talk about pace and rhythm and how we will choose to represent that visually. The ebb and flow of the narrative needs to be photographed, and sometimes directors want to do that in the edit, or sometimes we express it through camera movement and length of shots. Ideally, I will always aim to have a strong collaboration with a director during prep and build a solid relationship before production begins.

How do you typically work with a colorist?
This really varies from project to project, depending if I am available to sit in during the final DI. Ideally, I would work with the colorist from pre-production to establish and build the look of the show. I would take my camera tests to the post house and work on building a LUT together that would be the base look that we work off while shooting.

I like to have an open dialogue with them during the production stage so they are aware and involved in the evolution of the images.

During post, this dialogue continues as VFX work starts to come in and we start to bounce the work between the colorist and the VFX house. Then in the final grade, I would ideally be in the room with both the colorist and the director so we can implement and adjust the look we have established from the start of the show.

Tell us about FX’s Legion. How would you describe the general look of the show?
Legion is a love letter to art. It is inspired by anything from modernist pop art to old Renaissance masters. The material is very cerebral, and there are many mental planes or periods of time to express visually, so it is a very imaginative show. It is a true exploration of color and light and is a very exciting show to be a part of.

How early did you get involved in the production?
I got involved with Legion starting in Season 2. I work alongside Dana Gonzales, ASC, who established the look of the show in Season one with creator Noah Hawley. My work begins during the production stage when I worked with various directors both prepping and shooting their individual episodes.

Any challenging scenes that you are particularly proud of how it turned out?
Most of the scenes in Legion take a lot of thought to figure out… contextually as well as practically. In Season 2, Episode 2, a lot of the action takes place out in the desert. After a full day, we still had a night shoot to complete with very little time. Instead of taking time to try to light the whole desert, I used one big soft overhead and then lit the scene with flashlights on the character’s guns and headlights of the trucks. I added blue streak filters to create multiple horizontal blue flares from each on-camera source (headlights and flashlights) that provided a very striking lighting approach.

FX’s Legion, Season 2, Episode 2

With the limited hours available, we didn’t have enough time to complete all the coverage we had planned so, instead, we created one very dynamic camera move that started overhead looking down at the trucks and then swooped down as the characters ran out to approach the mysterious object in the scene. We followed the characters in the one move, ending in a wide group shot. With this one master, we only ended up needing a quick reverse POV to complete the scene. The finished product was an inventive and exciting scene that was a product of limitations.

What’s your go-to gear (camera, lens, mount/accessories you can’t live without)?
I don’t really have any go-to gear except a light meter. I vary the equipment I use depending on what story I am telling. LED lights are becoming more and more useful, especially when they are color- and intensity-controllable and battery-operated. When you need just a little more light, these lights are quick to throw in and often save the day!


The Hate U Give director George Tillman, Jr.

By Iain Blair

The Hate U Give, which recently premiered at the Toronto Film Festival, has immediately generated big Oscar buzz. This ripped-from-the-headlines story — which scored 100% on Rotten Tomatoes — is a work of fiction based on the New York Times bestseller of the same name by Angie Thomas. It stars Amandla Stenberg in a breakout performance as Starr, a 16-year-old who witnesses the fatal shooting of her childhood best friend by a police officer.

Starr lives in a working-class community with her close-knit family. Her father, Maverick (Russell Hornsby), is a reformed ex-gang member who once served time in prison. Now, a family man and valued member of the community, Maverick owns the community grocery store. Starr’s mother Lisa (Regina Hall) is a nurse, and half-brother Seven (Lamar Johnson) and younger brother Sekani (TJ Wright) complete the family.

Dismayed by the academic shortcomings of schools in their community, and wanting to give their children better opportunities, Lisa and Maverick enroll Starr and her siblings in a predominantly white school. The kids then find themselves having to juggle two very different worlds.

Starr, whose two best school friends and boyfriend are white, seems able to compartmentalize her life until everything changes when she witnesses the shooting death of her friend Khalil during a traffic stop. As the sole witness, Starr must choose between speaking up for her friend or remaining silent. Telling the truth could also endanger herself and her family by implicating the violent local drug lord whom Khalil worked for.

The Hate U Give is deftly and intelligently directed by George Tillman, Jr., whose credits include Soul Food, Notorious and Men of Honor. The behind-the-scenes creative team includes director of photography Mihai Malaimare Jr. (The Master), production designer William Arnold (Magnolia), editors Craig Hayes (Django Unchained) and Alex Blatt (Dawn of the Planet of the Apes) and composer Dustin O’Halloran (Lion).

I spoke with Tillman about making the film, his process and the upcoming awards season.

This is based on a celebrated novel and translating any novel to cinema is always tricky. How difficult was it?
It was a little tricky as it has so many layers, so many great characters — a lot of good stuff, and we wanted to make sure we got it all into 120 pages. Well, you can’t fit it all in. But it was very helpful that Angie was so involved as I wanted to be true to her spirit and the book. So I flew her to LA and we sat down and talked through every character, every viewpoint, and then I realized, ‘Maybe I don’t need this character’ and ‘we can lose this bit,’ and it took four to five weeks to really nail down what we needed.

The film is quite a mixture of genres, tones and themes. Is that what you had in mind from the very beginning?
Yes, a film that really shows what an African-American working-class family goes through. There are a lot of obstacles, a lot of struggles and a lot of the money’s going to the private schools, so there’s not much left. It’s a tough neighborhood, but you push through and find humor, sadness, warmth and loyalty in all the ups and downs. That’s the tone I wanted, where it can change in a second, from grief and sadness to a happy emotion and glee. And with a film like this, which deals with such serious issues, you don’t want it to be just heavy and coming at you. You need the humor.

Obviously, casting the right actor to play Starr was crucial. What did Amandla bring to the role?
She brought a lot of her own experience since she also went to a private school but still lives in her old neighborhood in LA. So she knows those two worlds. She also came with her own dedication since it was an important story for her. She’d read the book and we spent months and months talking and breaking down all the details of her character and how you can go from one strong emotion to another in an instant. So by the time we shot she was just free to be Starr.

We did a couple of weeks of rehearsal, which was invaluable. We improvised and experimented, and everyone got into the whole family vibe. I think that’s a very important part of being a director, getting all the actors together and really digging deep together. You build all these memories, bit by bit.

Why did you shoot in Atlanta rather than Mississippi, where it’s set?
It was down to the tax breaks. At the start, I wanted to check out a ton of different cities, but when you get down to it, it’s all about getting the most out of the budget, and we didn’t have a huge budget. So it’s a matter of putting more on screen, and I really liked shooting there. They have a great pool of background actors that we used for the protest scenes. We shot a lot of stuff like that at night, so we had to work fast. They were great.

Where did you post?
All on the Fox lot in LA. We did the DI at Company 3 with colorist Siggy Ferstl.

Do you like the post process?
It’s the best part of filmmaking and my favorite bit, as you get to see everything you shot, and it’s like rewriting the whole film. You get to focus the film, work on music and sound, and it’s the least stressful part. And on this, we felt like we had everything we needed – great performances, good coverage — to make the film.

You used two editors. Can you tell us about that relationship and how it worked?
I asked for two editors because I shoot a lot of film, a lot of different takes and adjustments to performances and dialogue. So I needed two guys just to deal with all the footage. They were in Atlanta cutting while we shot, but I don’t like to look at footage while I’m shooting. I saw a couple of scenes early on, but then I just focused on the shoot. Then back in LA we really got into it, and they’d trade off scenes. I like to get through a cut as fast as possible so it still feels fresh to me.

Craig and Alex did a great job. There are scenes they cut right at the start that were so good I wouldn’t even touch them, like the diner scene with the family when the cops arrive. I think it’s because they were so in tune with the material.

Can you talk about the importance of music and sound in the film, and crafting a soundscape that was so naturalistic and realistic? And how you worked with BAFTA-winning sound editing supervisor Don Sylvester (Walk the Line), Oscar-winning re-recording mixer Andy Nelson (Les Miserables) and Oscar-nominated re-recording mixer David Giammarco (Moneyball).
I’m so glad you said that, because that was exactly how we approached it. I’ve worked with those guys on so many projects, and it’s hard to over-estimate the role sound and music play, and I didn’t want it to sound too Hollywood, too big.

We did all the mixing on the Howard Hawks stage on the Fox lot, and a lot of the scenes were specifically designed to have Starr’s point of view. The sound didn’t get big until the riots, but then we took it way down once she gets on the car. And a lot of times we took sound away. We spent a lot of time getting all the little details and touches just right. The music was key too, for her inner world, her inner emotions, and we had about 40 or 50 minutes of music — a lot.

I loved what composer Dustin O’Halloran did on Lion, which is why I hired him.

We’re already heading into the awards season. How important are awards to you and this film?
To be honest, I don’t think about it too much. I’m still so close to the film. I just want people to see it and remember it. And if it wins something, that’s like icing on the cake.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.


Our Virtual Production Roundtable

By Randi Altman

Evolve or die. That old adage, while very dramatic, fits well with the state of our current production workflows. While most productions are now shot digitally, the warmth of film is still in the back of pros’ minds. Camera makers and directors of photography often look for ways to retain that warmth in digital. Whether it’s through lighting, vintage lenses, color grading, newer technology or all of the above.

There is also the question of setting looks on-set and how 8K and HDR are affecting the picture and workflows. And let’s not forget shooting for OTT series. There is a lot to cover!

In an effort to get a variety of perspectives, we reached out to a few cinematographers and some camera manufacturers to talk trends and technology. Enjoy!

Claudio Miranda, ASC

Claudio Miranda is a Chilean cinematographer who won an Oscar for his work on Life of Pi. He also worked on The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, the first movie nominated for a cinematography Oscar that was shot entirely on digital. Other films include Oblivion, Tomorrowland and the upcoming Top Gun: Maverick.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Seems like everyone is shooting large format. Chris Nolan and Quentin Tarantino shot 65mm film for their last projects. New digital cameras such as the Alexa LF and Sony Venice cater to this demand. People seem to like the shallow depth of field of these larger format lenses.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
For me, too much grain in HDR can be distracting. This must be moderated in the camera acquisition format choice and DI. Panning in a high-contrast environment can cause painful strobing. This can be helped in the DI and set design. HDR done well is more important than 8K or even 3D.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
8K can be important for VFX plates. For me, creatively it is not important, 4K is enough. The positive of 8K is just more K. The downside is that I would rather the camera companies focus on dynamic range, color latitude, sensitivity and the look and feel of the captured image instead of trying to hit a high K number. Also, there are storage and processing issues.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?
I have not shot for a streaming service. I do think we need to pay attention to all deliverables and make adjustments accordingly. In the DI, I am there for the standard cinema pass, HDR pass, IMAX pass, home video pass and other formats that arise.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
I choose the camera that will fit the job. It is my job in prep to test and pick the camera that best serves the movie.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
On set, I am able to view HDR or 709. I test the pipeline and make sure the LUT is correct and make modifications if needed. I do not play with many LUTs on set, I normally just have one. I treat the camera like a film stock. I know I will be there in the DI to finalize the look. On set is not the place for futzing with LUTs on the camera. My plate is full enough as it is.

If not already covered, how has production changed in the last two years?
I am not sure production has changed, but there are many new tools to use to help make work more efficient and economical. I feel that I have always had to be mindful of the budget, no matter how large the show is. I am always looking for new solutions.

Daryn Okada, ASC
Daryn Okada is known for his work on films such as Mean GirlsAnna Karenina and Just Like Heaven. He has also worked on many TV series, such as Scandal, Grey’s Anatomy and Castle. He served as president of the ASC from 2006 to 2009.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses? 

Modern digital cinema cameras can achieve a level of quality with the proper workflows and techniques to evolve a story’s visual identity parallel explorations shooting on film. Larger image sensors, state-of-the-art lenses and mining historic optics enable cinematographers to use their experience and knowledge of the past to paint rich visual experiences for today’s audience.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
HDR is a creative and technical medium just as shooting and projecting 65mm film would be. It’s up to the director and the cinematographer to decide how to orchestrate the use of HDR for their particular story.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives, and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
8K will is working its way into production like 65mm and 35mm VistaVision did by providing more technical resolution for use in VFX or special-venue exhibition. The enormous amount of data and cost to handle it must be justified by its financial return and does it benefit a particular story. Latitude and color depth are paramount to creating a motion picture’s pallet and texture. Trying to use a format just because it’s technically possible may be distracting to an audience’s acceptance of a story or creative concept.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?

I think the delivery specifications of OTT have generally raised the bar, making 4K and wide color gamut the norm. For cinematographers that have spent years photographing features, we are accustomed to creating images with detail for a big screen and a wide color pallet. It’s a natural creative process to shoot for 4K and HDR in that respect. 

Are the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance? 
Having the best imaging available is always welcomed. Even if a camera is not technically exploited, the creation of subtle images is richer and possible through the smoother transition and blending of color, contrast and detail from originating with higher resolutions and color range.

Can you talk about color management from the sensor/film to the screen? How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post, the DI and final delivery?
As a cinematographer we are still involved in workflows for dailies and post production to ensure everyone’s creative efforts to the final production are maintained for the immediate viewer and preserved for the audiences in the future.

How has production changed over the last two years?
There are more opportunities to produce content with creative high-quality cinematography thanks to advancements in cameras and cost-effective computing speed combined with demands of high quality displays and projection.

Vanja Černjul, ASC
This New York-based DP recently worked on the huge hit Crazy Rich Asians. In addition to feature film work, Černjul has shot TV shows (Deuce’s season 1 finale and two seasons of Marco Polo, as well as commercials for Panasonic and others.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
One interesting trend I noticed is the comeback of image texture. In the past, cinematographers used to expose film stock differently according to the grain texture they desired. Different exposure zones within the same frame had different grain character, which produced additional depth of the image. We lost that once we switched to digital. Crude simulations of film grain, such as overall filters, couldn’t produce the dimensionality we had with film.

Today, I am noticing new ways of bringing the texture back as a means of creative expression. The first one comes in the form of new, sophisticated post production tools designed to replicate the three-dimensional texturing that occurs naturally when shooting film, such as the realtime texturing tool LiveGrain. Monitoring the image on the set with a LiveGrain texture applied can impact lighting, filtration or lens choices. There are also new ways to manipulate texture in-camera. With the rise of super-sensitive, dual-native ISO sensors we can now shoot at very low-light levels and incorporate so-called photon shot noise into the image. Shot noise has organic character, very much like film grain.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?

The creative potential of HDR technology is far greater than that of added resolution. Unfortunately, it is hard for cinematographers to take full advantage of HDR because it is still far from being the standard way the audience sees our images. We can’t have two completely different looks for a single project, and we have to make sure the images are working on SDR screens. In addition, it is still impractical to monitor in HDR on the set, which makes it difficult to adjust lighting and lens choices to expanded dynamic range. Once HDR screens become a standard, we will be able to really start creatively exploring this new territory.

Crazy Rich Asians

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
Additional resolution adds more available choices regarding relationship of optical systems and aspect ratios. I am now able to choose lenses for their artifacts and character regardless of the desired aspect ratio. I can decide to shoot one part of the film in spherical and the other part in anamorphic and crop the image to the project’s predetermined aspect ratio without fear of throwing away too much information. I love that freedom.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices and workflows, if at all?
For me, the only practical difference between shooting high-quality content for cable or streaming is the fact that Netflix demands their projects to be capt
ured in true 4K RAW. I like the commitment to higher technical standards, even though this may be an unwelcome restriction for some projects.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
I like choices. As large format lenses become more available, shooting across formats and resolutions will become easier and simpler.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
The key for correct color management from the set to final color grading is in preproduction. It is important to take the time to do proper tests and establish the communication between DIT, the colorist and all other people involved as early as possible. This ensures that original ideas aren’t lost in the process.

Adjusting and fine-tuning the LUT to the lenses, lighting gels and set design and then testing it with the colorist is very important. Once I have a bulletproof LUT, I light and expose all the material for it specifically. If this part of the process is done correctly, the time in final color grading can be spent on creative work rather than on fixing inconsistencies.

I am very grateful for ACES workflow, which offers long-overdue standardization. It is definitely a move in the right direction.

How has production changed over the last two years?
With all the amazing post tools that are becoming more available and affordable, I am seeing negative trends of further cutting of preproduction time, and lack of creative discipline on the set. I sincerely hope this is just a temporary confusion due to recalibration of the process.

Kate Reid, DP
Kate Reid is a UK-based DP working in TV and film. Her recent work includes the TV series Hanna (Amazon) Marcella 2 (Netflix) and additional photography on the final season Game of Thrones for HBO. She is currently working on Press for BBC.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as Large Format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Large format cameras are being used increasingly on drama productions to satisfy the requirement for additional resolution by certain distribution platforms. And, of course, the choice to use large format cameras in drama brings with it another aesthetic that DPs now have as another tool: Choosing if increased depth-of-field fall off, clarity in the image etc., enhances the particular story they wish to portray on screen.

Like many other DPs, I have always enjoyed using older lenses to help make the digital image softer, more organic and less predictable, but the larger format cameras now mean that much of this older glass designed for 35mm size sensor may not cover the increased sensor size, so newer lenses designed for the larger format cameras may become popular by necessity, alongside older larger format glass that is enjoying a renaissance.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
I have yet to shoot a show that requires HDR delivery. It hasn’t yet become the default in drama production in the UK.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and frame rate more important currently?
I don’t inherently find an ultra sharp image attractive. Through older glass and diffusion filters on the lens, I am usually looking to soften and break down my image, so I personally am not all about the extra Ks. How the camera’s sensor reproduces color and handles highlights and shadows is of more interest to me, and I believe has more impact on the picture.

Of primary importance is how practical a camera is to work with — size and how comfortable the camera is to handle would supersede excessive resolution — as the first requirement of any camera has got to be whether it allows you to achieve the shots you have in mind, because a story isn’t told through its resolution.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content for OTTs, like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?
The major change is the requirement by Netflix for true 4K resolution, determining which cameras cinematographers are allowed to shoot on. For many cinematographers the Arri Alexa was their digital camera of choice, which was excluded by this rule, and therefore we have had to look to other cameras for such productions. Learning a new camera, its sensor, how it handles highlights, produces color, etc., and ensuring the workflow through to the post facility is something that requires time and testing, which has certainly added to a DP’s workload.

From a creative perspective, however, I found shooting for OTTs (I shot two episodes of the TV series Hanna made by Working Title TV and NBC Universal for Amazon) has been more liberating than making a series for broadcast television as there is a different idea and expectation around what the audience wants to watch and enjoy in terms of storytelling. This allowed for a more creative way of filming.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
Where work is seen now can vary from a mobile phone screen to a digital billboard in Times Square, so it is good for DPs to have a choice of cameras and their respective resolutions so we can use the best tool of each job. It only becomes a hindrance if you let the technology lead your creative process rather than assist it.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
Ideally, I will have had the time and opportunity to shoot tests during prep and then spend half a day with the show’s colorist to create a basic LUT I can work with on set. In practice, I have always found that I tweak this LUT during the first days of production with the DIT, and this is what serves me throughout the rest of the show.

I usually work with just one LUT that will be some version of a modified Rec. 709 (unless the look of the show drastically requires something else). It should then be straight forward in that the DIT can attach a LUT to the dailies, and this is the same LUT applied by editorial so that exactly what you see on set is what is being viewed in the edit.

However, where this fails is that the dailies uploaded to FTP sites — for viewing by the execs, producers and other people who have access to the work — are usually very compressed with low resolution, so it bears little resemblance to how the work looked on set or looks in the edit. This is really unsatisfying as for months, key members of production are not seeing an accurate reflection of the picture. Of course, when you get into the grade this can be restored, but it’s dangerous if those viewing the dailies in this way have grown accustomed to something that is a pale comparison of what was shot on set.

How has production changed over the last two years?
There is less differentiation between film and television in how productions are being made and, critically, where they are being seen by audiences, especially with online platforms now making award-winning feature films. The high production values we’ve seen with Netflix and Amazon’s biggest shows has seen UK television dramas pushing to up their game, which does put pressure on productions, shooting schedules and HODs, as the budgets to help achieve this aren’t there yet.

So, from a ground-level perspective, for DPs working in drama this looks like more pressure to produce work of the highest standard in less time. However, it’s also a more exciting place to be working as the ideas about how you film something for television versus cinema no longer need apply. The perceived ideas of what an audience is interested in, or expect, are being blown out the water by the success of new original online content, which flies in the face of more traditional storytelling. Broadcasters are noticing this and, hopefully, this will lead to more exciting and cinematic mainstream television in the future.

Blackmagic’s Bob Caniglia
In addition to its post and broadcast tools, Blackmagic offers many different cameras, including the Pocket Cinema Camera, Pocket Cinema Camera 4K, Micro Studio Camera 4K, Micro Cinema Camera, Studio Camera, Studio Camera 4K, Ursa Mini Pro, Ursa Mini 4.6K, Ursa Broadcast.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Lens freedom is on everyone’s mind right now… having the freedom to shoot in any style. This is bringing about things like seeing projects shot on 50-year-old glass because the DP liked the feel of a commercial back in the ‘60s.

We actually just had a customer test out actual lenses that were used on The Godfather, The Shining and Casablanca, and it was amazing to see the mixing of those with a new digital cinema camera. And so many people are asking for a camera to work with anamorphic lenses. The trend is really that people expect their camera to be able to handle whatever look they want.

For large format use, I would say that both Hollywood and indie filmmakers are using them more often. Or, at least they trying to get the general large format look by using anamorphic lenses to get a shallow depth of field.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
Right now, HDR is definitely more of a concern for DPs in Hollywood, but also with indie filmmakers and streaming service content creators. Netflix and Hulu have some amazing HDR shows right now. And there is plenty of choice when it comes to the different HDR formats and shooting and monitoring on set. All of that is happening everyday, while 8K still needs the industry to catch up with the various production tools.

As for impacting shooting, HDR is about more immersive colors, and a DP needs to plan for it. It gives viewers a whole new level of image detail in what they shoot. They have to be much more aware of every surface or lighting impact so that the viewer doesn’t get distracted. Attention to detail gets even higher in HDR, and DPs and colorists will need to keep a close eye on every shot, including when an image in a sideview mirror’s reflection is just a little too sharp and needs a tweak.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
You can never have enough Ks! Seriously. It is not just about getting a beautiful 8K TV, it is about giving the production and post pros on a project as much data as possible. More data means more room to be creative, and is great for things like keying.

Latitude and framerate are important as well, and I don’t think any one is more important than another. For the viewers, the beauty will be in large displays, you’re already seeing 8K displays in Times Square, and though you may not need 8K on your phone, 8K on the side of a building or highway will be very impactful.

I do think one of the ways 8K is changing production practices is that people are going to be much more storage conscious. Camera manufacturers will need to continue to improve workflows as the images get larger in an effort to maximize storage efficiencies.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?
For streaming content providers, shoots have definitely been impacted and are forcing productions to plan for shooting in a wider number of formats. Luckily, companies like Netflix have been very good about specifying up front the cameras they approve and which formats are needed.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
While it can be a bit overwhelming, it does give creatives some options, especially if they have a smaller delivery size than the acquisition format. For instance, if you’re shooting in 4K but delivering in HD, you can do dynamic zooms from the 4K image that look like an optical zoom, or you can get a tight shot and wide shot from the same camera. That’s a real help on a limited budget of time and/or money.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
Have the production and the post people planning together from the start and create the look everyone should be working on right up front.

Set the LUTs you want before a single shot is done and manage the workflow from camera to final post. Also, choose post software that can bring color correction on-set, near-set and off-set. That lets you collaborate remotely. Definitely choose a camera that works directly with any post software, and avoid transcoding.

How has production changed in the last two years?
Beyond the rise of HDR, one of the other big changes is that more productions are thinking live and streaming more than ever before. CNN’s Anderson Cooper now does a daily Facebook Live show. AMC has the live Talking Dead-type formats for many of their shows. That trend is going to keep happening, so cinematographers and camera people need to be thinking about being able to jump from scripted to live shooting.

Red Digital Cinema’s Graeme Nattress
Red Digital Cinema manufactures professional digital cameras and accessories. Red’s DSMC2 camera offers three sensor options — Gemini 5K S35, Helium 8K S35 and Monstro 8K VV.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing?
Industry camera trends continue to push image quality in all directions. Sensors are getting bigger, with higher resolutions and more dynamic range. Filmmakers continue to innovate, making new and amazing images all the time, which drives our fascination for advancing technology in service to the creative.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days?
One of the benefits of a primary workflow based on RAW recording is that HDR is not an added extra, but a core part of the system. Filmmakers do consider HDR important, but there’s some concern that HDR doesn’t always look appealing, and that it’s not always an image quality improvement. Cinematography has always been about light and shade and how they are controlled to shape the image’s emotional or storytelling intent. HDR can be a very important tool in that it greatly expands the display canvas to work on, but a larger canvas doesn’t mean a better picture. The increased display contrast of HDR can make details more visible, and it can also make motion judder more apparent. Thus, more isn’t always better; it’s about how you use what you have.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? What’s more important, resolution or dynamic range?
Without resolution, we don’t have an image. Resolution is always going to be an important image parameter. What we must keep in mind is that camera resolution is based on input resolution to the system, and that can — and often will — be different to the output resolution on the display. Traditionally, in video the input and output resolutions were one and the same, but when film was used — which had a much higher resolution than a TV could display — we were taking a high-resolution input and downsampling it to the display, the TV screen.

As with any sampled system, in a digital cinema camera there are some properties we seek to protect and others to diminish. We want a high level of detail, but we don’t want sharpening artifacts and we don’t want aliasing. The only way to achieve that is through a high-resolution sensor, properly filtered (optical low-pass) that can see a large amount of real, un-enhanced detail. So yes, 8K can give you lots of fine detail should you want it, but the imaging benefits extend beyond downsampling to 4K or 2K. 8K makes for an incredibly robust image, but noise is reduced, and what noise remains takes on more of a texture, which is much more aesthetically pleasing.

One challenge of 8K is an increase in the amount of sensor data to be recorded, but that can be addressed through quality compression systems like RedCode.

Addressing dynamic range is very important because dynamic range and resolution work together to produce the image. It’s easy to think that high resolutions have a negative impact upon dynamic range, but improved pixel design means you can have dynamic range and resolution.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
Color management is vitally important and so much more than just keeping color control from on-set through to delivery. Now with the move to HDR and an increasing amount of mobile viewing, we have a wide variety of displays, all with their own characteristics and color gamuts. Color management allows content creators to display their work at maximum quality without compromise. Red cameras help in multiple ways. On camera, one can monitor in both SDR and HDR simultaneously with the new IPP2 image processing pipeline’s output independence, which also allows you to color via CDL and creative 3D LUT in such a way as to have those decisions represented correctly on different monitor types.

In post and grading, the benefits of output independence continue, but now it’s critical that scene colors, which can so easily go out of gamut, are dealt with tastefully. Through the metadata support in the RedCode format, all the creative decisions taken on set follow through to dailies and post, but never get in the way of producing the correct image output, be it for VFX, editorial or grading.

Panavision’s Michael Cioni 
Panavision designs and manufactures high-precision camera systems, including both film and digital cameras, as well as lenses and accessories for the motion picture and television industries.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing?
With the evolution of digital capture, one of the most interesting things I’ve noticed in the market are new trends emerging from the optics side of cinematography. At a glance, it can appear as if there is a desire for older or vintage lenses based on the increasing resolution of large format digital cameras. While resolution is certainly a factor, I’ve noticed the larger contributor to vintage glass is driven by the quality of sensors, not the resolution itself. As sensors increase in resolution, they simultaneously show improvements in clarity, low-light capability, color science and signal-to-noise ratio.

The compounding effect of all these elements are improving images far beyond what was capable with analog film technology, which explains why the same lens behaves differently on film, S35 digital capture and large-format digital capture. As these looks continue to become popular, Panavision is responding through our investments in both restoration of classic lenses as well as designing new lenses with classic characteristics and textures that are optimized for large format photography on super sensors.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look?
Creating images is not always about what component is better, but rather how they elevate images by working in concert. HDR images are a tool that increases creative control alongside high resolution and 16-bit color. These components work really well together because a compelling image can make use of more dynamic range, more color and more clarity. Its importance is only amplified by the amalgamation of high-fidelity characteristics working together to increase overall image flexibility.

Today, the studios are still settling into an HDR world because only a few groups, led by OTT, are able to distribute in HDR to wide audiences. On-set tools capable of HDR, 4K and 16-bit color are still in their infancy and currently cost-prohibitive. 4K/HDR on the set is going to become a standard practice by 2021. 4K wireless transmitters are the first step — they are going to start coming online in 2019. Smaller OLED displays capable of 750 nits+ will follow in 2020, creating an excellent way to monitor higher quality images right on set. In 2021, editorial will start to explore HDR and 4K during the offline process. By 2024, all productions will be HDR from set to editorial to post to mobile devices. Early adopters that work out the details today will find themselves ahead of the competition and having more control as these trends evolve. I recommend cinematographers embrace the fundamentals of HDR, because understanding the tools and trends will help prevent images from appearing artificial or overdone.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? What’s more important, resolution or dynamic range?
One of the reasons we partnered with Red is because the Monstro 8K VV sensor makes no sacrifice in dynamic range while still maintaining ultra high smoothness at 16 bits. The beauty of technology like this is that we can finally start to have the best from all worlds — dynamic range, resolution, bit depth, magnification, speed and workflow — without having to make quality sacrifices. When cinematographers have all these elements together, they can create images previously never seen before, and 8K is as much part of that story as any other element.

One important way to view 8K is not solely as a thermometer for high-resolution sharpness. A sensor with 35 million pixels is necessary in order to increase the image size, similar to trends in professional photography. 8K large format creates a larger, more magnified image with a wider field of view and less distortion, like the difference in images captured by 70mm film. The biggest positive I’ve noticed is that DXL2’s 8K large-format Red Monstro sensor is so good in terms of quality that it isn’t impacting images themselves. Lower quality sensors can add a “fingerprint” to the image, which can distort the original intention or texture of a particular lens.

With sensors like Monstro capable of such high precision, the lenses behave exactly as the lens maker intended. The same Panavision lenses on a lower grade sensor, or even 35mm film, are exhibiting characteristics that we weren’t able to see before. This is literally breathing new life into lenses that previously didn’t perform the same way until Monstro and large format.

Is the availability of so many camera formats a help or a hindrance?
You don’t have to look far to identify individuals who are easily fatigued by having too many choices. Some of these individuals cope with choices by finding ways to regulate them, and they feel fewer choices means more stability and perhaps more control (creative and economic). As an entrepreneur, I find the opposite to be true: I believe regulating our world, especially with regards to the arts and sciences, is a recipe for protecting the status quo. I fully admit there are situations in which people are fatigued by too many complex choices.

I find that failure is not of the technology itself, rather it’s the fault of the manufactures who have not provided the options in easy-to-consume ways. Having options is exactly what creatives need in order to explore something new and improved. But it’s also up to manufacturers to deliver the message in ways everyone can understand. We’re still learning how to do that, and with each generation the process changes a bit. And while I am not always certain which are the best ways to help people understand all the options, I am certain that the pursuit of new art will motivate us to go out of our comfort zones and try something previously thought not possible.

Have you encountered any examples of productions that have shot streaming content (i.e. for Netflix/Amazon) and had to change production practices and workflows for this format/deliverable?
Netflix and Amazon are exceptional examples of calculated risk takers. While most headlines discuss their investment in the quantity of content, I find the most interesting investment they make is in relationships. Netflix and Amazon are heavily invested in standards groups, committees, outreach, panels and constant communication. The model of the past and present (incumbent studios) are content creators with technology divisions. The model of the future (Netflix, Amazon, Hulu, Apple, Google and YouTube) are all the technology companies with the ability to create content. And technology companies approach problems from a completely different angle by not only embracing the technology, they help invent it. In this new technological age, those who lead and those who follow will likely be determined by the tools and techniques used to deliver. What I call “The Netflix Effect” is the impact Netflix has on traditional groups and how they have all had to strategically pivot based on Netflix’s impact.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
The DXL2 has an advanced color workflow. In collaboration with LiveGrade by Pomfort, DXL2 can capture looks wirelessly from DITs in the form of CDLs and LUTs, which are not only saved into the metadata of the camera, but also baked into in-camera proxy files in the form of Apple ProRes or Avid DNx. These files now contain visual references of the exact looks viewed on monitors and can be delivered directly to post houses, or even editors. This improves creative control because it eliminates the guess work in the application of external color decisions and streamlines it back to the camera where the core database is kept with all the other camera information. This metadata can be traced throughout the post pipeline, which also streamlines the process for all entities that come in contact with camera footage.

How has production changed over the last two years?
Sheesh. A lot!

ARRI‘s Stephan Ukas-Bradley
The ARRI Group manufactures and distributes motion picture cameras, digital intermediate systems and lighting equipment. Their camera offerings include the Alexa LF, Alexa Mini, Alexa 65, Alexa SXT W and the Amira.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Large format opens some new creative possibilities, using a shallow depth of field to guide the audience’s view and provide a wonderful bokeh. It also conveys a perspective truer to the human eye, resulting in a seemingly increased dimensional depth. The additional resolution combined with our specially designed large format Signature Primes result in beautiful and emotional images.

Old and vintage lenses can enhance a story. For instance, when Gabriel Beristain, ASC, used Bausch & Lomb Super Baltar on the Starz show Magic City, and Bradford Young used detuned DNA lenses in conjunction with Alexa 65 on Solo: A Star Wars Story, certain characteristics like flares, reflections, distortions and focus fall-off are very difficult to recreate in post organically, so vintage lenses provide an easy way to create a unique look for a specific story and a way for the director of photography to maintain creative control.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
Currently, things are not done much differently on set when shooting HDR versus SDR. While it would be very helpful to monitor in both modes on-set, HDR reference monitors are still very expensive and very few productions have the luxury to do that. One has to be aware of certain challenges when shooting for an HDR finish. High contrast edges can result in a more pronounced stutter/strobing effect when panning the camera, windows that are blown out in SDR might retain detail in the HDR pass and now all of a sudden, a ladder or grip stand are visible.

In my opinion, HDR is more important than higher resolution. HDR is resolution-independent in regard to viewing devices like phone/tablets and gives the viewer a perceived increased sharpness, and it is more immersive than increased resolution. Also, let’s not forget that we are working in the motion picture industry and that we are either capturing moving objects or moving the camera, and with that introducing motion blur. Higher resolution only makes sense to me in combination with higher frame rates, and that in return will start a discussion about aesthetics, as it may look hyper-real compared to the traditional 24fps capture. Resolution is one aspect of the overall image quality, but in my opinion extended dynamic range, signal/noise performance, sensitivity, color separation and color reproduction are more important.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content for OTTs, like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices and workflows, if at all?
Shooting streaming content has really not changed production practices or workflows. At ARRI, we offer very flexible and efficient workflows and we are very transparent documenting our ARRIRAW file formats in SMPTE RDD 30 (format) and 31 (processing) and working with many industry partners to provide native file support in their products.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
I would look at all those different camera types and resolutions as different film stocks and recommend to creatives to shoot their own test and select the camera systems based on what suits their project best.

We offer the ARRI Look Library for Amira, Alexa Mini and Alexa SXT (SUP 3.0), which is a collection of 87 looks, each of them available in three different intensities provided in Rec. 709 color space. Those looks can either be recorded or only used for monitoring. These looks travel with the picture, embedded in the metadata of the ARRIRAW file, QuickTime Atom or HD/SDI stream in form of the actual LUT and ASC CDL. One can also create a look dynamically on set, feeding the look back to the camera and having the ASC CDL values embedded in the same way.

More commonly, one would record in either ARRIRAW or ProRes LogC, while applying a standard Rec. 709 look for monitoring. The “C” in LogC stands for Cineon, which is a film-like response very much the like of a scanned film image. Colorists and post pros are very familiar with film and color grading LogC images is easy and quick.

How has production changed over the last two years?
I don’t have the feeling that production has changed a lot in the past two years, but with the growing demand from OTTs and increased production volume, it is even more important to have a reliable and proven system with flexible workflow options.

Main Image: DP Kate Reid.


Behind the Camera: Television DPs

By Karen Moltenbrey

Directors of photography on television series have their work cut out for them. Most collaborate early on with the director on a signature “look.” Then they have to make sure that aesthetic is maintained with each episode and through each season, should they continue on the series past the pilot. Like film cinematographers, their job entails a wide range of responsibilities aside from the camera work. Once shooting is done, they are often found collaborating with the colorists to ensure that the chosen look is maintained throughout the post process.

Here we focus on two DPs working on two popular television series — one drama, one sitcom — both facing unique challenges inherent in their current projects as they detail their workflows and equipment choices.

Ben Kutchins: Ozark
Lighting is a vital aspect in the look of the Netflix family crime drama Ozark. Or perhaps more accurate, the lack of lighting.

Ben Kutchins (left) on set with actor/director Jason Bateman.

“I’m going for a really naturalistic feel,” says DP Ben Kutchins. “My hope is that it never feels like there’s a light or any kind of artificial lighting on the actors or lighting the space. Rather, it’s something that feels more organic, like sunlight or a lamp that’s on in the room, but still offers a level of being stylized and really leans into the darkness… mining the shadows for the terror that goes along with Ozark.”

Ozark, which just kicked off its second season, focuses on financial planner Marty Byrde, who relocates his family from the Chicago suburbs to a summer resort area in the Missouri Ozarks. After a money laundering scheme goes awry, he must pay off a debt to a Mexican drug lord by moving millions of the cartel’s money from this seemingly quiet place, or die. But, trouble is waiting for them in the Ozarks, as Marty is not the only criminal operating there, and he soon finds himself in much deeper than he ever imagined.

“It’s a story about a family up against impossible odds, who constantly fear for their safety. There is always this feeling of imminent threat. We’re trying to invoke a heightened sense of terror and fear in the audience, similar to what the characters might be feeling,” explains Kutchins. “That’s why a look that creates a vibe of fear and danger is so important. We want it to feel like there is danger lurking around every corner — in the shadows, in the trees behind the characters, in the dark corners of the room.”

In summary, the look of the show is dark — literally and figuratively.

“It is pretty extreme by typical television standards,” Kutchins concedes. “We’ve embraced an aesthetic and are having fun pushing its boundaries, and we’re thrilled that it stands out from a pretty crowded market.”

According to Kutchins, there are numerous examples where the actor disappears into the shadows and then reappears moments later in a pool of light, falling in and out of shadow. For instance, a character may turn off a light and plunge the room into complete darkness, and you do not see that character again until they reappear, until they’re lit by moonlight coming through a window or silhouetted against a window.

“We’re not spending a lot of time trying to fill in the shadows. In fact, we spend most of our time creating more shadows than exist naturally,” he points out.

Jason Bateman, who plays Marty, is also an executive producer and directed the first two and last two episodes of Season 1. Early on, he, along with Kutchins and Pepe Avila del Pino, who shot the pilot, hashed out the desired look for the show, leaning into a very cyan and dark color palette — and leaning in pretty strongly. “Most people think of [this area as] the South, where it’s warm and bright, sweaty and hot. We just wanted to lean into something more nuanced, like a storm was constantly brewing,” Kutchins explains. “Jason really pushed that aesthetic hard across every department.”

Alas, that was made even more difficult since the show was mainly shot outdoors in the Atlanta area, and a good deal of work went into reacting to Mother Nature and transforming the locations to reflect the show’s Ozark mountain setting. “I spent an immense amount of time and effort killing direct sunlight, using a lot of negative fill and huge overheads, and trying to get rid of that direct, harsh sun,” says Kutchins. “Also, there are so many windows inside the Byrde house that it’s essentially like shooting an exterior location; there’s not a lot of controlled light, so you again are reacting and adapting.”

Kutchins shoots the series on a Panasonic VariCam, which he typically underexposes by a stop or two, mining the darker part of the sensor, “the toe of the exposure curve.” And by doing so, he is able to bring out the dirtier, more naturalistic, grimy parts of the image, rather than something that looks clean and polished. “Something that has a little bit of texture to it, some grit and grain, something that’s evocative of a memory, rather than something that looks like an advertisement,” he says.

To further achieve the look, Kutchins uses an in-camera LUT that mimics old Fuji film stock. “Then we take that into post,” he says, giving kudos to his colorist, Company 3’s Tim Stipan, who he says has been invaluable in helping to develop the “vibe” of the show. “As we moved along through Season 1 and into Season 2, he’s been instrumental in enhancing the footage.”

A lot of Kutchins’ work occurs in post, as the raw images captured on set are so different from the finals. Insofar as the digital intermediate is concerned, significant time is spent darkening parts of the frame, brightening small sections of the frame and working to draw the viewer into the frame. “I want people to be leaning on the edge of their seat, kind of wanting to look inside of the screen and poke their head in for a look around,” Kutchins says. “So I do a lot of vignetting and darkening of the edges, and darkening specific things that I think are distracting.”

Nevertheless, there is a delicate balance he must maintain. “I talk about the darkness of Ozark, but I am trying to ride that fine line of how dark it can be but still be something that’s pleasant to watch. You know, where you’re not straining to see the actor’s face, where there’s just enough information there and the frame is just balanced enough so your eyes feel comfortable looking at it,” he explains. “I spend a lot of time creating a focal point in the frame for your eyes to settle on — highlighting certain areas and letting some areas go black, leaving room for mystery in every frame.”

When filming, Kutchins and his crew use Steadicams, cranes, dollies and handheld. He also uses Cooke Optics’ S4 lenses, which he tends to shoot wide open, “to let the flaws and character of the lenses shine through.”

Before selecting the Panasonic VariCam, Kutchins and his group tested other cameras. Because of Netflix’s requirement for 4K, that immediately ruled out the ARRI Alexa, which is Kutchins’ preferred camera. “But the Panasonic ended up shining,” he adds.

In Ozark, the urban family is pitted against nature, and thus, the natural elements around them need to feel dangerous, Kutchins points out. “There’s a line in the first season about how people drown in the lake all the time. The audience should always feel that; when we are at the water’s edge, that someone could just slip in and disappear forever,” he says. “So, the natural elements play a huge role in the inspiration for the lighting and the feel of the show.”

Jason Blount:The Goldbergs
A polar opposite to Ozark in almost every way, The Goldbergs is a single-camera comedy sitcom set in the ’80s about a caring but grumpy dad, an overbearing mother and three teens — the oldest, a popular girl; the middle one, who fancies himself a gifted athlete and strives to be popular; and the youngest, a geek who is obsessed with filmmaking, as he chronicles his life and that of his family on film. The series is created and executive-produced by Adam F. Goldberg and is based on his own life and childhood, which he indeed captured on film while growing up.

The series is filmed mostly on stage, with the action taking place within the family home or at the kids’ schools. For the most part, The Goldbergs is an up-lit, broad comedy. The colors are rich, with a definite nod to the vibrant palette of the ’80s. “Our colorist, Scott Ostrowsky [from Level 3], has been grading the show from day one. He knows the look of the show so well that by the time I sit with him, there are very few changes that have to be made,” says Blount.

The Goldbergs began airing in 2013 and is now entering its sixth season. And the series’ current cinematographer, Jason Blount, has been involved since the start, first serving as the A camera/Steadicam operator before assuming the role of DP for the Season 1 finale — for a total of 92 episodes now and counting.

As this was a Sony show for ABC, the plan was to shoot with a Sony PMW-F55 CineAlta 4K digital camera, but at the time, it did not record at a fast enough frame rate for some of the high-speed work the production wanted. So, they ended up using the ARRI Alexa for Season 1. Blount took over as DP full time from Season 2 onward, and the decision was made to switch to the F55 for Season 2, as the frame rate issue had been resolved.

“The look of the show had already been established, and I wanted to make sure that the transition between cameras was seamless,” says Blount. “Our show is all about faces and seeing the comedy. From the onset, I was very happy with the Sony F55. The way the camera renders skin tone, the lack of noise in the deep shadows and the overall user-friendly nature of the camera impressed me from the beginning.”

Blount points to one particular episode where the F55 really shined. “The main character was filming a black-and-white noir-style home movie. The F55 handled the contrast beautifully. The blacks were rich and the highlights held onto detail very well,” he says. “We had a lot of smoke, hard light directly into the lens, and really pushed the limits of the sensor. I couldn’t have been happier with the results.”

In fact, the camera has proved its mettle winter, spring, summer and fall. “We’ve used it in the dead of winter, at night in the rain and during day exterior [shots] at the height of summer when it’s been over 100 degrees. It’s never skipped a beat.”

Blount also commends Keslow Camera in Los Angeles, which services The Goldbergs’ cameras. In addition, the rental house has accessorized the F55 camera body with extra bracketry and integrated power ports for more ease of use.

Due to the fast pace at which the show is filmed — often covering 10-plus pages of script a day — Blount uses Angenieux Optimo zoom lenses. “The A camera has a full set of lightweight zooms covering 15mm to 120mm, and the B camera always has the [Optimo] 24-290,” he says. “The Optimo lenses and F55 are a great combination, making it easy to move fast and capture beautiful images.”

Blount points out that he also does all the Steadicam work on the show, and with the F55 being so lightweight, compact and versatile, it makes for a “very comfortable camera in Steadicam mode. It’s perfect to use in all shooting modes.”

The Goldbergs’ DP always shoots with two cameras, sometimes three depending on the scene or action. And, there is never an issue of the cameras not matching, according to Blount. “I’m not a big fan of the GoPro image in the narrative world, and I own a Sony a7S. It’s become my go-to camera for mounts or tight space work on the show, and works perfectly with the F55.”

And, there is something to say for consistency, too. “Having used the same camera and lens package for the past five seasons has made it easy to keep the look consistent for The Goldbergs,” says Blount. “At the beginning of this season, I looked at shooting with the new Sony Venice. It’s a fantastic-looking camera, and I love the options, like the variable ND filters, more color temperature options and the dual ISO, but the limit of 60fps at this stage was a deal-breaker for me; we do a fair amount of 72fps and 120fps.”

“If only the F55 had image stabilization to take out the camera shake when the camera operators are laughing so hard at the actors’ performances during some scenes. Then it would be the perfect camera!” he says with a laugh himself.


Karen Moltenbrey is a longtime writer and editor in the CG and post industries.

Q&A: Camera Operators

By Randi Altman

Camera operators might not always get the glory, but they certainly do get the job done. Working hand in hand with DPs and directors, these artists make sure the camera is in the right place for the right shot, and so much more. As one of the ops we spoke to says, “The camera operator is the “protector of the frame.”

We reached out to three different camera operators, all of whom are members of the Society of Camera Operators (SOC), to find out more about their craft and how their job differs from some of the others on set.

Lisa Stacilauskas

Lisa Stacilauskas, SOC
What is the role of the camera operator? What is the camera operator accountable for on set?
The role of the camera operator varies quite a bit depending on the format. I work primarily in scripted television on “single camera” comedies. Don’t let the name “single camera” fool you. It’s meant to differentiate the shooting format from multicam, but these days most single camera shows shoot with two or three cameras. The show I work on, American Housewife, uses three cameras. I am the C camera operator.

In the most basic sense, the camera operator is responsible for the movement of the camera and the inclusion or exclusion of what is in frame. It takes a team of craftspeople to accomplish this. My immediate team includes a 1st and 2nd camera assistant and a dolly grip. Together we get the camera where it needs to be to get the shots and to tell the story as efficiently as possible.

In a larger sense, the camera operator is a storyteller. It is my responsibility to know the story we are trying to tell and assist the director in attaining their vision of that story. As C camera operator, I think about how the scene will come together in editing so I know which pieces of coverage to get.

Another big part of my job is keeping lighting equipment and abandoned water bottles out of my shot. The camera operator is the “protector of the frame”!

How do you typically work with the DP?
The DP is the head of the camera department. Each DP has nuances in the way they work with their operators. Some DPs tell you exactly where to put your camera and what focal length your lenses should be. Others give you an approximate position and an indication of the size (wide, medium, close-up) and let you work it out with the actors or stand-ins.

American Housewife

How does the role of the camera operator and a DP differ?
The DP is in charge of camera and lighting. Officially, I have no responsibility for lighting. However, it’s very important for a camera operator to think like a DP; to know and pay attention to the lighting. Additionally, especially when shooting digitally, once the blocking is determined, camera operators stay on set, working with all the other departments to prepare a shot while the DP is at the monitors evaluating the lighting and/or discussing set ups with the director.

What is the relationship between the operator and the director?
The relationship between the operator and director can vary depending on the director and the DP. Some directors funnel all instructions through the DP and only come to you with minor requests once the shots have already been determined.

If the director comes to me directly without going through the DP, it is my responsibility to let the DP know of the requested shot, especially if she/he hasn’t lit for it! Sometimes you are a mediator between the two and hopefully steer them closer to being on the same page. It can be a tough spot to be in if the DP and director have different visions.

Can you talk about recent projects you’ve worked on?
I’m currently working on Season 3 of American Housewife. The C camera position was a day-playing position at the beginning of Season 1, but DP Andrew Rawson loves to work with three cameras, and really knows how to use all three efficiently. Once production saw how much time we saved them, they brought us on full time. Shooting quickly and efficiently is especially important on American Housewife because three of our five principal actors are minors, whose hours on set are restricted by law.

During a recent hiatus, I operated B camera on a commercial with the DP operating A camera. It seemed like the DP appreciated the “extra set of eyes.”

Prior to American Housewife, I worked on several comedies operating the B camera, including Crazy Ex- Girlfriend (Season 1), Teachers (Season 1) and Playing House (Season 2).

Stephen Campanelli, SOC
What is the role of the camera operator? What is the camera operator accountable for on set?
The role of the camera operator on the set is to physically move the camera around to tell the story. The camera operator is accountable for what the director and the director of photography interpret to be the story that needs to be told visually by the camera.

Stephen Campanelli (center) on the set of American Sniper.

As a camera operator, you listen to their input, and sometimes have your own input and opinion to make the shot better or to convey the story point from a different view. It is the best job on set in my opinion, as you get to physically move the camera to tell great stories and work with amazing actors who give you their heart and soul right in front of you!

How do you typically work with the DP?
I have been very fortunate in my career to have worked with some very collaborative DPs. After 24 years of working with Clint Eastwood, I have absorbed so much of his directing style and visual nature that working closely with the DP we have created the Eastwood-style of filmmaking. When I am doing other films with other DPs we always talk about conveying the story in the truest, most visual way without letting the camera get in the way of a good story. That is one of the most important things to remember: A camera operator is not to bring attention to the camera, but bring attention to the story!

How does the role of the camera operator and a DP differ?
A DP usually is in charge of the lighting and the look of the entire motion picture. Some DPs also operate the camera, but that is a lot of work on both sides. A camera operator is very essential, as he or she can rehearse with the actors or stand-ins while the director of photography can concentrate solely on the lighting.

What is the relationship between the operator and the director?
As I mentioned earlier, my relationship with Clint Eastwood has been a very close one, as he works closely with the camera operator rather than the director of photography. We have an incredible bond where very few words are spoken, but we each know how to tell the story once we read the script. On some films, the director and the DP are the ones that work together closely to cohesively set the tone for the movie and to tell the story, and the camera operator interprets that and physically moves the camera with the collaboration of both the director and director of photography.

Can you talk about recent projects you’ve worked on?
I recently just wrapped my 22nd movie with Clint Eastwood as his camera operator, it is called The Mule. We filmed in Atlanta, New Mexico and Colorado. It is a very good script and Clint is back in front of the camera again, acting in it. It also stars Bradley Cooper, Laurence Fishburne and Michael Pena. [Editor’s note: He recently worked on A Star is Born, also with Bradley Cooper.]

Recently, I moved up to directing. In 2015, I directed a movie called Momentum, and this year I directed an award-winning film called Indian Horse that was a big hit in Canada and will soon be released in the United States.

Jamie Hitchcock

Jamie Hitchcock, SOC
What is the role of the camera operator? What is the camera operator accountable for on set?
The role of a camera operator is to compose an assigned shot and physically move the camera if necessary to perform that shot or series of shots as many times as needed to achieve the final take. The camera operator is responsible for maintaining the composition of the shot while also scanning the frame for anything that shouldn’t be there. The camera operator is responsible for communicating to all departments about elements that should or should not be in the frame.

How do you typically work with the DP?
The way a camera operator works with a director of photography varies depending on the type of project they are working on. On a feature film, episodic or commercial, the director of photography is very involved. The DP will set each shot and the operator then repeats it as many times as necessary. On a variety show, live show or soap opera, the DP is usually a lighting designer/director, and the director works with the camera operators to set the shots. On multi-camera sitcoms, the shots are usually set by the director… with the camera operator. When the production requires a complicated scene or location, the DP will become more actively involved with the selection of the shots.

How does the role of the camera operator and a DP differ?
The role of the DP and operator are quite different yet the goal is the same. The DP is involved with the pre-production process, lighting, running the set, managing the crew and the post process. The operator is involved on set working shot by shot. Ultimately, both the DP and operator are responsible for the final image the viewing audience will see.

What is the relationship between the operator and the director?
The relationship between the operator and the director, like that of the operator and DP, varies depending on the type of project. On a feature-type project, the director may be only using one camera. On a sports or variety program the director might be looking at 15 or more cameras. In all cases, the director is counting on the operators to perform their assigned shots each time. Ultimately, when a shot or take is complete, the director is the person who decides to move on or do it again, and they trust the operator to tell them if the shot was good or not.

CBS’s Mom

Can you talk about recent projects you’ve worked on?
I am currently working on The Big Bang Theory and Mom for CBS. Both are produced by Chuck Lorre Productions and Warner Bros. Television. Steven V. Silver, ASC, is the DP for both shows. Both shows use four cameras and are taped in front of a studio audience. We work in what I like to call the “Desilu-type” format because all four cameras are on a J.L. Fisher dolly with a 1st assistant working the lens and a dolly grip physically moving the camera. This format was perfected by Desi Arnez for I Love Lucy and still works well for this format.

The working relationship with the DP and director on our shows falls somewhere in the middle. Mark Cendroski and Jamie Widdoes direct almost all of our shows, and they work directly with the four operators to set the required shots. They have a lot of trust in us to know what elements are needed in the frame, and sometimes the only direction we receive is the type of shot they want. I work on a center camera, which is commonly referred to as a “master” camera, however it’s not uncommon to have a master, close-up and two or three shots all in the same scene. Each scene is shot beginning to end with all the coverage set, and a final edit is done in post. We do have someone cutting a live edit that feeds to the audience so they can follow along.

Our process is very fast, and our DP usually only sees the lighting when we start blocking shots with stand-ins. Steve spends a lot of time at the monitor and constantly switches between all four cameras — he’s looking at composition and lighting, and setting the final look with our video controller. Generally, when the actors are on set we roll the cameras. It’s a pretty high-pressure way to work for a product that will potentially be seen by millions of people around the world, but I love it and can’t imagine doing anything else.

Main Image Caption: Stephen Campanelli


The SOC, which celebrates 40 years in 2019, is an international organization that aims to bring together camera operators and crew. The Society also hosts an annual Lifetime Achievement Awards show, publishes the magazine Camera Operator and has a charitable commitment to The Vision Center at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles.