Cinnafilm 6.6.19

Category Archives: Editing Edition

Editing Roundtable

By Randi Altman

The world of the editor has changed over the years as a result of new technology, the types of projects they are being asked to cut (looking at you social media) and the various deliverables they must create. Are deadlines still getting tighter and are budgets still getting smaller? The answer is yes, but some editors are adapting to the trends, and companies that make products for editors are helping by making the tools more flexible and efficient so pros can get to where they need to be.

We posed questions to various editors working in TV, short form and indies, who do a variety of jobs, as well as to those making the tools they use on a daily basis. Enjoy.

Cut+Run Editor/Partner Pete Koob

What trends do you see in commercial editing? Good or bad?
I remember 10 years ago a “colleague,” who was an interactive producer at the time, told me rather haughtily that I’d be out of work in a few years when all advertising became interactive and lived online. Nothing could have been further from the truth, of course, and I think editors everywhere have found that the viewer migration from TV to online has yielded an even greater need for content.

The 30-second spot still exists, both online and on TV, but the opportunities for brands to tell more in-depth stories across a wide range of media platforms mean that there’s a much more diverse breadth of work for editors, both in terms of format and style.

For better or worse, we’ve also seen every human being with a phone become their own personal brand manager with a highly cultivated and highly saturated digital presence. I think this development has had a big impact on the types of stories we’re telling in advertising and how we’re telling them. The genre of “docu-style” editing is evolving in a very exciting way as more and more companies are looking to find real people whose personal journeys embody their brands. Some of the most impressive editorial work I see these days is a fusion of styles — music video, fashion, documentary — all being brought to bear on telling these real stories, but doing it in a way that elevates them above the noise of the daily social media feed.

Selecting the subjects in a way that feels authentic — and not just like a brand co-opting someone’s personal struggle — is essential, but when done well, there are some incredibly inspirational and emotional stories to be told. And as a father of a young girl, it’s been great to show my daughter all the empowering stories of women being told right now, especially when they’re done with such a fresh and exciting visual language.

What is it about commercial editing that attracted you and keeps attracting you?
Probably the thing that keeps me most engaged with commercial editing is the variety and volume of projects throughout the year. Cutting commercials means you’re on to the next one before you’ve really finished the last.

The work feels fresh when I’m constantly collaborating with different people every few weeks on a diverse range of projects. Even if I’m cutting with the same directors, agencies or clients, the cast of characters always rotates to some degree, and that keeps me on my toes. Every project has its own unique challenges, and that compels me to constantly find new ways to tell stories. It’s hard for me to get bored with my work when the work is always changing.

Conoco’s Picnic spot

Can you talk about challenges specific to short-form editing?
I think the most obvious challenge for the commercial editor is time. Being able to tell a story efficiently and poignantly in a 60-, 30-, 15- or even six-second window reveals the spot editor’s unique talent. Sometimes that time limit can be a blessing, but more often than not, the idea on the page warrants a bigger canvas than the few seconds allotted.

It’s always satisfying to feel as if I’ve found an elegant editorial solution to telling the story in a concise manner, even if that means re-imagining the concept slightly. It’s a true testament to the power of editing and one that is specific to editing commercials.

How have social media campaigns changed the way you edit, if at all?
Social media hasn’t changed the way I edit, but it has certainly changed my involvement in the campaign as a whole. At its worst, the social media component is an afterthought, where editors are asked to just slap together a quick six-second cutdown or reformat a spot to fit into a square framing for Instagram. At its best, the editor is brought into the brainstorming process and has a hand in determining how the footage can be used inventively to disperse the creative into different media slots. One of the biggest assets of an editor on any project is his or her knowledge of the material, and being able to leverage that knowledge to shape the campaign across all platforms is incredibly rewarding.

Phillips 76 “Jean and Gene”

What system do you edit on, and what else other than editing are you asked to supply?
We edit primarily on Avid Media Composer. I still believe that nothing else can compete when it comes to project sharing, and as a company it allows for the smoothest means of collaboration between offices around the world. That being said, clients continue to expect more and more polish from the offline process, and we are always pushing our capabilities in motion graphics and visual effects in After Effects and color finessing in Blackmagic DaVinci Resolve.

What projects have you worked on recently?
I’ve been working on some bigger campaigns that consist of a larger number of spots. Two campaigns that come to mind are a seven-spot TV campaign for Phillips 76 gas stations and 13 short online films for Subaru. It’s fun to step back and look at how they all fit together, and sometimes you make different decisions about an individual spot based on how it sits in the larger group.

The “Jean and Gene” spots for 76 were particularly fun because it’s the same two characters who you follow across several stories, and it almost feels like a mini TV series exploring their life.

Earlier in the  year I worked on a Conoco campaign, featuring the spots Picnic, First Contact and River, via Carmichael Lynch.

Red Digital Cinema Post and Workflow Specialist Dan Duran

How do you see the line between production and post blurring?
Both post and on set production are evolving with each other. There has always been a fine line between them, but as tech grows and becomes more affordable, you’re seeing tools that previously would have been used only in post bleed onto set.

One of my favorite trends is seeing color-managed workflows on locations. With full color control pipelines being used with calibrated SDR and HDR monitors, a more accurate representation of what the final image will look like is given. I’ve also seen growth in virtual productions where you’re able to see realtime CGI and environments on set directly through camera while shooting.

What are the biggest trends you’ve been facing in product development?
Everyone is always looking for the highest image quality at the best price point. As sensor technology advances, we’re seeing users ask for more and more out of the camera. Higher sensitivity, faster frame rates, more dynamic range and a digital RAW that allows them to effortlessly shape the images into a very specific creative look that they’re trying to achieve for their show. 8K provides a huge canvas to work with, offering flexibility in what they are trying to capture.

Smaller cameras are able to easily adapt into a whole new myriad of support accessories to achieve shots in ways that weren’t always possible. Along with the camera/sensor revolution, Red has seen a lot of new cinema lenses emerge, each adding their own character to the image as it hits the photo sites.

What trends do you see from editors these days. What enables their success?
I’ve seen post production really take advantage of modern tech to help improve and innovate new workflows. Being able to view higher resolution, process footage faster and playback off of a laptop shows how far hardware has come.

We have been working more with partners to help give pros the post tools they need to be more efficient. As an example, Red recently teamed up with Nvidia to not only get realtime full resolution 8K playback on laptops, but also allow for accelerated renders and transcode times much faster than before. Companies collaborating to take advantage of new tech will enable creative success.

AlphaDogs Owner/Editor Terence Curren

What trends do you see in editing? Good or bad.
There is a lot of content being created across a wide range of outlets and formats, from theatrical blockbusters and high-end TV shows all the way down to one-minute videos for Instagram. That’s positive for people desiring to use their editing skills to do a lot of storytelling. The flip side is that with so much content being created, the dollars to pay editors gets stretched much thinner. Barring high-end content creation, the overall pay rates for editors have been going down.

The cost of content capture is a tiny fraction of what it was back in the film days. The good part of that is there is a greater likelihood that the shot you need was actually captured. The downside is that without the extreme expense of shooting associated with film, we’ve lost the disciplines of rehearsing scenes thoroughly, only shooting while the scene is being performed, only printing circled takes, etc. That, combined with reduced post schedules, means for the most part editors just don’t have the time to screen all the footage captured.

The commoditization of the toolsets, (some editing systems are actually free) combined with the plethora of training materials readily available on the Internet and in most schools means that video storytelling is now a skill available to everyone. This means that the next great editors won’t be faced with the barriers to entry that past generations experienced, but it also means that there’s a much larger field of editors to choose from. The rules of supply and demand tell us that increased availability and competition of a service reduces its cost. Traditionally, many editors have been able to make upper-middle-class livings in our industry, and I don’t see as much of that going forward.

To sum it up, it’s a great time to become an editor, as there’s plenty of work and therefore lots of opportunity. But along with that, the days of making a higher-end living as an editor are waning.

What is it about editing that attracted you and keeps attracting you?
I am a storyteller at heart. The position of editor is, in my opinion, matched with the director and writer for responsibility of the structural part of telling the story. The writer has to invent the actual story out of whole cloth. The director has to play traffic cop with a cornucopia of moving pieces under a very tight schedule while trying to maintain the vision of the pieces of the story necessary to deliver the final product. The editor takes all those pieces and gives the final rewrite of the story for the audience to hopefully enjoy.

Night Walk

As with writing, there are plenty of rules to guide an editor through the process. Those rules, combined with experience, make the basic job almost mechanical much of the time. But there is a magic thing that happens when the muse strikes and I am inspired to piece shots together in some way that just perfectly speaks to the audience. Being such an important part of the storytelling process is uniquely rewarding for a storyteller like me.

Can you talk about challenges specific to short-form editing versus long-form?
Long-form editing is a test of your ability to maintain a fresh perspective of your story to keep the pacing correct. If you’ve been editing a project for weeks or months at a time, you know the story and all the pieces inside out. That can make it difficult to realize you might be giving too much information or not enough to the audience. Probably the most important skill for long form is the ability to watch a cut you’ve been working on for a long time and see it as a first-time viewer. I don’t know how others handle it, but for me there is a mental process that just blanks out the past when I want to take a critical fresh viewing.

Short form brings the challenge of being ruthless. You need to eliminate every frame of unnecessary material without sacrificing the message. While the editors don’t need to keep their focus for weeks or months, they have the challenge of getting as much information into that short time as possible without overwhelming the audience. It’s a lot like sprinting versus running a marathon. It exercises a different creative muscle that also enjoys an immediate reward.

Lafayette Escadrille

I can’t say I prefer either one over the other, but I would be bored if I didn’t get to do both over time, as they bring different disciplines and rewards.

How have social media campaigns changed the way you edit, if at all? Can you talk about the variety of deliverables and how that affects things?
Well, there is the horrible vertical framing trend, but that appears to be waning, thankfully. Seriously, though, the Instagram “one minute” limit forces us all to become commercial editors. Trying to tell the story in as short a timeframe as possible, knowing it will probably be viewed on a phone in a bright and noisy environment is a new challenge for seasoned editors.

There is a big difference between having a captive audience in a theater or at home in front of the TV and having a scattered audience whose attention you are trying to hold exclusively amid all the distractions. This seems to require more overt attention-grabbing tricks, and it’s unfortunate that storytelling has come to this point.

As for deliverables, they are constantly evolving, which means each project can bring all new requirements. We really have to work backward from the deliverables now. In other words, one of our first questions now is, “Where is this going?” That way we can plan the appropriate workflows from the start.

What system do you edit on and what else other than editing are you asked to supply?
I primarily edit on Media Composer, as it’s the industry standard in my world. As an editor, I can learn any tool to use. I have cut with Premiere and FCP. It’s knowing where to make the edit that is far more important than how to make the edit.

When I started editing in the film days, we just cut picture and dialogue. There were other editors for sound beyond the basic location-recorded sound. There were labs from which you ordered something as simple as a dissolve or a fade to black. There were color timers at the film lab who handled the look of the film. There were negative cutters that conformed the final master. There were VFX houses that handled anything that wasn’t actually shot.

Now, every editor has all the tools at hand to do all those tasks themselves. While this is helpful in keeping costs down and not slowing the process, it requires editors to be a jack-of-all-trades. However, what typically follows that term is “and master of none.”

Night Walk

One of the main advantages of separate people handling different parts of the process is that they could become really good at their particular art. Experience is the best teacher, and you learn more doing the same thing every day than occasionally doing it. I’ve met a few editors over the years that truly are masters in multiple skills, but they are few and far between.

Using myself as an example, if the client wants some creatively designed show open, I am not the best person for that. Can I create something? Yes. Can I use After Effects? Yes, to a minor degree. Am I the best person for that job? No. It is not what I have trained myself to do over my career. There is a different skill set involved in deciding where to make a cut versus how to create a heavily layered, graphically designed show open. If that is what I had dedicated my career to doing, then I would probably be really good at it, but I wouldn’t be as good at knowing where to make the edit.

What projects have gone through the studio recently?
We work on a lot of projects at AlphaDogs. The bulk of our work is on modest-budget features, documentaries and unscripted TV shows. A recent example is a documentary on World War I fighter pilots called The Lafayette Escadrille and an action-thriller starring Eric Roberts and Mickey Rourke, called Night Walk.

Unfortunately for me I have become so focused on running the company that I haven’t been personally working on the creative side as much as I would like. While keeping a post house running in the current business climate is its own challenge, I don’t particularly find it as rewarding as “being in the chair.”

That feeling is offset by looking back at all the careers I have helped launch through our internship program and by offering entry-level employment. I’ve also tried hard to help editors over the years through venues like online user groups and, of course, our own Editors’ Lounge events and videos. So I guess that even running a post house can be rewarding in its own way.

Luma Touch Co-Founder/Lead Designer Terri Morgan

Have there been any talks among NLE providers about an open timeline? Being able to go between Avid, Resolve or Adobe with one file like an AAF or XML?
Because every edit system uses its own editing paradigms (think Premiere versus FCP X), creating an open exchange is challenging. However, there is an interesting effort by Pixar (https://github.com/PixarAnimationStudios/OpenTimelineIO) that includes adapters for the wide range of structural differences of some editors. There are also efforts for standards in effects and color correction. The core editing functionality in LumaFusion is built to allow easy conversion in and out to different formats, so adapting to new standards will not be challenging in most cases.

With AI becoming a popular idea and term, at what point does it stop? Is there a line where AI won’t go?
Looking at AI strictly as it relates to video editing, we can see that its power is incrementally increasing, and automatically generated movies are getting better. But while a neural network might be able to put together a coherent story, and even mimic a series of edits to match a professional style, it will still be cookie-cutter in nature, rather than being an artistic individual endeavor.

What we understand from our customers — and from our own experience — is that people get profound joy from being the storyteller or the moviemaker. And we understand that automatic editing does not provide the creative/ownership satisfaction that you get from crafting your own movie. You only have to make one automatic movie to learn this fact.

It is also clear that movie viewers feel a lack of connection or even annoyance when watching an automatically generated movie. You get the same feeling when you pay for parking at an automated machine, and the machine says, “Thank you, have a nice day.”

Here is a question from one of our readers: There are many advancements in technology coming in NLEs. Are those updates coming too fast and at an undesirable cost?
It is a constant challenge to maintain quality while improving a product. We use software practices like Agile, engage in usability tests and employ testing as robust as possible to minimize the effects of any changes in LumaFusion.

In the case of LumaFusion, we are consistently adding new features that support more powerful mobile video editing and features that support the growing and changing world around us. In fact, if we stopped developing so rapidly, the app would simply stop working with the latest operating system or wouldn’t be able to deliver solutions for the latest trends and workflows.

To put it all in perspective, I like to remind myself of the amount of effort it took to edit video 20 years ago compared to how much more efficient and fun it is to edit a video now. It gives me reason to forgive the constant changes in technology and software, and reason to embrace new workflows and methodologies.

Will we ever be at a point where an offline/online workflow will be completely gone?
Years ago, the difference in image quality provided a clear separation between offline and online. But today, online is differentiated by the ability to edit with dozens of tracks, specialized workflows, specific codecs, high-end effects and color. Even more importantly, online editing typically uses the specialized skills that a professional editor brings to a project.

Since you can now edit a complex timeline with six tracks of 4K video with audio and another six tracks of audio, basic color correction and multilayered titles straight from an iPad, for many projects you might find it unnecessary to move to an online situation. But there will always be times that you need more advanced features or the skills of a professional editor. Since not everybody wants to understand the complex world of post production, it is our challenge at Luma Touch to make more of these high-end features available without greatly limiting who can successfully use the product.

What are the trends you’re seeing in customer base from high-end post facility vs. independent editor/contractor?
High-end post facilities tend to have stationary workstations that employ skilled editor/operators. The professionals that find LumaFusion to be a valuable tool in their bag are often those who are responsible for the entire production and post production, including independent producers, journalists and high-end professionals who want the flexibility of starting to edit while on location or while traveling.

What are the biggest trends you’ve been seeing in product development?
In general, moving away from lengthy periods of development without user feedback. Moving toward getting feedback from users early and often is an Agile-based practice that really makes a difference in product development and greatly increases the joy that our team gets from developing LumaFusion. There’s nothing more satisfying than talking to real users and responding to their needs.

New development tools, languages and technologies are always welcome. At WWDC this year, Apple announced it would make it easier for third-party developers to port their iOS apps over to the desktop with Project Catalyst. This will likely be a viable option for LumaFusion.

You come from a high-end editing background, with deep experience editing at the workstation level. When you decided to branch off and do something on your own, why did you choose mobile?
Mobile offered a solution to some of the longest running wishes in professional video editing: to be liberated from the confines of an edit suite, to be able to start editing on location, to have a closer relationship to the production of the story in order to avoid the “fix it in post” mentality, and to take your editing suite with you anywhere.

It was only after starting to develop for mobile that we fully understood one of the most appealing benefits. Editing on an iPad or iPhone encourages experimentation, not only because you have your system with you when you have a good idea, but also because you experience a more direct relationship to your media when using the touch interface; it feels more natural and immersive. And experimentation equals creativity. From my own experience I know that the more you edit, the better you get at it. These are benefits that everyone can enjoy whether they are a professional or a novice.

Hecho Studios Editor Grant Lewis

What trends do you see in commercial editing? Good or bad.
Commercials are trending away from traditional, large-budget cinematic pieces to smaller, faster, budget-conscious ones. You’re starting to see it now more and more as big brands shy away from big commercial spectacles and pivot toward a more direct reflection of the culture itself.

Last year’s #CODNation work for the latest installment of the Call of Duty franchise exemplifies this by forgoing a traditional live-action cinematic trailer in favor of larger number of game-capture, meme-like films. This pivot away from more dialogue-driven narrative structures is changing what we think of as a commercial. For better or worse, I see commercial editing leaning more into the fast-paced, campy nature of meme culture.

What is it about commercial editing that attracted you and keeps attracting you?
What excites me most about commercial editing is that it runs the gamut of the editorial genre. Sometimes commercials are a music video; sometimes they are dramatic anthems; other times they are simple comedy sketches. Commercials have the flexibility to exist as a multitude of narrative genres, and that’s what keeps me attracted to commercial editing.

Can you talk about challenges specific to short form versus long form?
The most challenging thing about short-form editing is finding time for breath. In a 30-second piece, where do you find a moment of pause? There’s always so much information being packed into smaller timeframes; the real challenge is editing at a sprint, but still having it feel dynamic and articulate.

How have social media campaigns changed the way you edit, if at all? Can you talk about the variety of deliverables and how that affects things?
All campaigns will either live on social media or have specific social components now. I think the biggest thing that has changed is being tasked with telling a compelling narrative in 10 or even five or six seconds. Now, the 60-second and 90-second anthem film has to be able to work in six seconds as well. It is challenging to boil concepts down to just a few seconds and still maintain a sense of story.

#CODNation

All the deliverable aspect ratios editors are asked to make now is also a blossoming challenge. Unless a campaign is strictly shot for social, the DP probably shot for a traditional 16×9 framing. That means the editor is tasked with reframing all social content to work in all the different deliverable formats. This makes the editor act almost as the DP for social in the post process. Shorter deliverables and a multitude of aspect ratios have just become another layer to editing and demand a whole new editorial lens to view and process the project through.

What system do you edit on and what else other than editing are you asked to supply?
I currently cut in Adobe Premiere Pro. I’m often asked to supply graphics and motion graphic elements for offline cuts as well. That means being comfortable with the whole Adobe suite of tools, including Photoshop and After Effects. From type setting to motion tracking, editors are now asked to be well-versed in all tangential aspects of editorial.

What projects have you worked on recently?
I cut the launch film for Razer’s new Respawn energy drink. I also cut Toms Shoes’ most recent campaign, “Stand For Tomorrow.”

EditShare Head of Marketing Lee Griffin

What are the biggest trends you’ve been seeing in product development?
We see the need to produce more video content — and produce it faster than ever before — for social media channels. This means producing video in non-broadcast standards/formats and, more specifically, producing square video. To accommodate, editing tools need to offer user-defined options for manipulating size and aspect ratio.

What changes have you seen in terms of the way editors work and use your tools?
There are two distinct changes: One, productions are working with editors regardless of their location. Two, there is a wider level of participation in the content creation process.

In the past, the editor was physically located at the facility and was responsible for assembling, editing and finishing projects. However, with the growing demand for content production, directors and producers need options to tap into a much larger pool of talent, regardless of their location.

EditShare AirFlow and Flow Story enable editors to work remotely from any location. So today, we frequently see editors who use our Flow editorial tools working in different states and even on different continents.

With AI becoming a popular idea and term, at what point does it stop?
I think AI is quite exciting for the industry, and we do see its potential to significantly advance productions. However, AI is still in its infancy with regards to the content creation market. So from our point of view, the road to AI and its limits are yet to be defined. But we do have our own roadmap strategy for AI and will showcase some offerings integrated within our collaborative solutions at IBC 2019.

Will we ever be at a point where an offline/online workflow will be completely gone?
It depends on the production. Offline/online workflows are here to stay in the higher-end production environment. However, for fast turnaround productions, such as news, sports and programs (for example, soap operas and reality TV), there is no need for offline/online workflows.

What are the trends you’re seeing in customer base from high-end post facility vs, independent editor. How is that informing your decisions on products and pricing?
With the increase in the number of productions thanks to OTTs, high-end post facilities are tapping into independent editors more and more to manage the workload. Often the independent editor is remote, requiring the facility to have a media management foundation that can facilitate collaboration beyond the facility walls.

So we are seeing a fundamental shift in how facilities are structuring their media operations to support remote collaborations. The ability to expand and contract — with the same level of security they have within the facility — is paramount in architecting their “next-generation” infrastructure.

What do you see as untapped potential customer bases that didn’t exist 10 to 20 years ago, and how do you plan on attracting and nurturing them? What new markets are you seeing.
We are seeing major growth beyond the borders of the media and entertainment industry in many markets. From banks to real estate agencies to insurance companies, video has become one of the main ways for them to communicate to their media-savvy clientele.

While EditShare solutions were initially designed to support traditional broadcast deliverables, we have evolved them to accommodate these new customers. And today, these customers want simplicity coupled with speed. Our development methodology puts this at the forefront of our core products.

Puget Systems Senior Labs Technician Matt Bach

Have there been any talks between NLE providers about an open timeline. Essentially being able to go between Avid, Resolve, or Adobe with one file like an AAF or XML?
I have not heard anything on this topic from any developers, so keep in mind that this is pure conjecture, but the pessimistic side of me doesn’t see an “open timeline” being something that will happen anytime soon.

If you look at what many of the NLE developers are doing, they are moving more and more toward a pipeline that is completely contained within their ecosystem. Adobe has been pushing Dynamic Link in recent years in order to make it easier to move between Premiere Pro and After Effects. Blackmagic is going even a step further by integrating editing, color, VFX and audio all within DaVinci Resolve.

These examples are both great advancements that can really improve your workflow efficiency, but they are being done in order to keep the user within their specific ecosystem. As great as an open timeline would be, it seems to be counter to what Adobe, Blackmagic, and others are actively pursuing. We can still hold out hope, however!

With AI becoming a popular idea and term, at what point does it stop?
There are definitely limitations to what AI is capable of, but that line is moving year by year. For the foreseeable future, AI is going to take on a lot of the tedious tasks like tagging of footage, content-aware fill, shot matching, image enhancement and other similar tasks. These are all perfect use cases for artificial intelligence, and many (like content-aware fill) are already being implemented in the software we have available right now.

The creative side is where AI is going to take the longest time to become useful. I’m not sure if there is a point where AI will stop from a technical standpoint, but I personally believe that even if AI was perfect, there is value in the fact that an actual person made something. That may mean that the masses of videos that get published will be made by AI (or perhaps simply AI-assisted), but just like furniture, food, or even workstations, there will always be a market for high-quality items crafted by human hands.

I think the main thing to keep in mind with AI is that it is just a tool. Moving from black and white to color, or from film to digital, was something that at the time, people thought was going to destroy the industry. In reality, however, they ended up being a huge boon. Yes, AI will change how some jobs are approached — and may even eliminate some job roles entirely —but in the end, a computer is never going to be as creative and inventive as a real person.

There are many advancements in technology coming in NLEs seemingly daily, are those updates coming too fast and at an undesirable cost?
I agree that this is a problem right now, but it isn’t limited to just NLEs. We see the same thing all the time in other industries, and it even occurs on the hardware side where a new product will be launched simply because they could, not because there is an actual need for it.

The best thing you can do as an end-user is to provide feedback to the companies about what you actually want. Don’t just sit on those bugs, report them! Want a feature? Most companies have a feature request forum that you can post on.

In the end, these companies are doing what they believe will bring them the most users. If they think a flashy new feature will do it, that is what they will spend money on. But if they see a demand for less flashy, but more useful, improvements, they will make that a priority.

Will we ever be at a point where an offline/online workflow will be completely gone?
Unless we hit some point where camera technology stops advancing, I don’t think offline editing is ever going to fully go away. It is amazing what modern workstations can handle from a pure processing standpoint, but even if the systems themselves could handle online editing, you also need to have the storage infrastructure that can keep up. With the move from HD to 4K, and now to 8K, that is a lot of moving parts that need to come together in order to eliminate offline editing entirely.

With that said, I do feel like offline editing is going to be used less and less. We are starting to hit the point that people feel their footage is higher quality than they need without having to be on the bleeding edge. We can edit 4K ProRes or even Red RAW footage pretty easily with the technology that is currently available, and for most people that is more than enough for what they are going to need for the foreseeable future.

What are the trends you’re seeing in customer base from high-end post facility vs. independent editor, and how is that informing your decisions on products and pricing?
From a workstation side, there really is not too much of a difference beyond the fact that high-end post facilities tend to have larger budgets that allow them to get higher-end machines. Technology is becoming so accessible that even hobbyist YouTubers often end up getting workstations from us that are very similar to what high-end professionals use.

The biggest differences typically revolves not around the pure power or performance of the system itself, but rather how it interfaces with the other tools the editor is using. Things like whether the system has 10GB (or fiber) networking, or whether they need a video monitoring card in order to connect to a color calibrated display, are often what sets them apart.

What are the biggest trends you’ve been seeing in product development?
In general, the two big things that have come up over and over in recent years are GPU acceleration and artificial intelligence. GPU acceleration is a pretty straight-forward advancement that lets software developers get a lot more performance out of a system for tasks like color correction, noise reduction and other tasks that are very well suited for running on a GPU.

Artificial intelligence is a completely different beast. We do quite a bit of work with people that are on the forefront of AI and machine learning, and it is going to have a large impact on post production in the near future. It has been a topic at conferences like NAB for several years, but with platforms like Adobe Sensei starting to take off, it is going to become more important

However, I do feel that AI is going to be more of an enabling technology rather than one that replaces jobs. Yes, people are using AI to do crazy things like cut trailers without any human input, but I don’t think that is going to be the primary use of it anytime in the near future. It is going to be things like assisting with shot matching, tagging of footage, noise reduction, and image enhancement that is going to be where it is truly useful.

What do you see as untapped potential customer bases that didn’t exist 10-20 years ago, and how do you plan on attracting and nurturing them? What new markets are you seeing?
I don’t know if there are any customer bases that are completely untapped, but I do believe that there is going to be more overlap between industries in the next few years. One example is how much realtime raytracing has improved recently, which is spurring the use of video game engines in film. This has been done for previsualization for quite a while, but the quality is getting so good that there are some films already out that include footage straight from the game engine.

For us on the workstation side, we regularly work with customers doing post and customers who are game developers, so we already have the skills and technical knowledge to make this work. The biggest challenge is really on the communication side. Both groups have their own set of jargon and general language, so we often find ourselves having to be the “translator” when a post house is looking at integrating realtime visualization in their workflow.

This exact scenario is also likely to happen with VR/AR as well.

Lucky Post Editor Marc Stone

What trends do you see in commercial editing?
I’m seeing an increase in client awareness of the mobility of editing. It’s freeing knowing you can take the craft with you as needed, and for clients, it can save the ever-precious commodity of time. Mobility means we can be an even greater resource to our clients with a flexible approach.

I love editing at Lucky Post, but I’m happy to edit anywhere I am needed — be it on set or on location. I especially welcome it if it means you can have face-to-face interaction with the agency team or the project’s director.

What is it about commercial editing that attracted you and keeps attracting you?
The fact that I can work on many projects throughout the year, with a variety of genres, is really appealing. Cars, comedy, emotional PSAs — each has a unique creative challenge, and I welcome the opportunity to experience different styles and creative teams. I also love putting visuals together with music, and that’s a big part of what I do in 30-or 60-second… or even in a two-minute branded piece. That just wouldn’t be possible, to the same extent, in features or television.

Can you talk about challenges specific to short-form editing?
The biggest challenge is telling a story in 30 seconds. To communicate emotion and a sense of character and get people to care, all within a very short period of time. People outside of our industry are often surprised to hear that editors take hours and hours of footage and hone it down to a minute or less. The key is to make each moment count and to help make the piece something special.

Ram’s The Promise spot

How has social media campaigns changed the way you edit, if at all?
It hasn’t changed the way I edit, but it does allow some flexibility. Length isn’t constrained in the same way as broadcast, and you can conceive of things in a different way in part because of the engagement approach and goals. Social campaigns allow agencies to be more experimental with ideas, which can lead to some bold and exciting projects.

What system do you edit on, and what else other than editing are you asked to supply?
For years I worked on Avid Media Composer, and at Lucky Post I work in Adobe Premiere. As part of my editing process, I often weave sound design and music into the offline so I can feel if the edit is truly working. What I also like to do, when the opportunity presents, is to be able to meet with the agency creatives before the shoot to discuss style and mood ahead of time.

What projects have you worked on recently?
Over the last six months, I have worked on projects for Tazo, Ram and GameStop, and I am about to start a PSA for the Salvation Army. It gets back to the variety I spoke about earlier and the opportunity to work on interesting projects with great people.

Billboard Video Post Supervisor/Editor Zack Wolder

What trends do you see in editing? Good or bad.I’m noticing a lot of glitch transitions and RGB splits being used. Much flashier edits, probably for social content to quickly grab the viewers attention.

Can you talk about challenges specific to short-form editing versus long-form?
With short-form editing, the main goal is to squeeze the most amount of useful information into a short period of time while not overloading the viewer. How do you fit an hour-long conversation into a three-minute clip while hitting all the important talking points and not overloading the viewer? With long-form editing, the goal is to keep viewers’ attention over a long period of time while always surprising them with new and exciting info.

What is it about editing that attracted you and keeps attracting you?
I loved the fact that I could manipulate time. That hooked me right away. The fact that I could take a moment that lasts only a few seconds and drag it out for a few minutes was incredible.

Can you talk about the variety of deliverables for social media and how that affects things?
Social media formats have made me think differently about framing a shot or designing logos. Almost all the videos I create start in the standard 16×9 framing but will eventually be delivered as a vertical. All graphics and transitions I build need to easily work in a vertical frame. Working in a 4K space and shooting in 4K helps tremendously.

Rainn Wilson and Billie Eilish

What system do you edit on, and what else other than editing are you asked to supply?
I edit in Adobe Premiere Pro. I’m constantly asked to supply design ideas and mockups for logos and branding and then to animate those ideas.

What projects have you worked on recently?
Recently, I edited a video that featured Rainn Wilson — who played Dwight Schrute on The Office — quizzing singer Billie Eilish, who is a big-time fan of the show.

Main Image: AlphaDogs editor Herrianne Catolos


Randi Altman is the founder and editor-in-chief of postPerspective. She has been covering production and post production for more than 20 years. 

Editing for Short Form

By Karen Moltenbrey

Unlike features or even series, short-form projects such as commercials give the editor the opportunity for a fresh start with each new job. Indeed, some brands have a specific style that they adhere to, but even so, there is a good deal of creative flexibility placed in the hands of the editor.

The challenge here is to condense a story into 30, 60 or 90 seconds. And more and more, there are other deliverables associated with a job aside from the traditional commercial, as editors also may be asked to provide social media spots, cinema spots and more. And as some editors point out, it’s no longer enough to excel at solely working with video; today, it is helpful to have a wider range of skills, such as audio editing and basic animation, to support the workflow.

Here we examine the editing work on a trio of spots and the approach each editor took to deliver a compelling piece.

Nespresso: The Quest
George Clooney has been the brand ambassador for coffee-machine maker Nespresso since 2006, and his commercials have been featured in Europe and around the world. In a recent spot airing in North America, Clooney embarks on a quest for the perfect cup of coffee, and does so with true Hollywood flair.

In The Quest, the actor plays a medieval knight who throws the head of a dragon he has just slain at the feet of his queen. Thankful, she asks what he desires as his reward. He pauses, then steps through a movie screen and enters the modern world, where he wanders the streets in his armor until he finds a coffee shop and his long-sought-after cup of Nespresso coffee. Satisfied, he heads back, walks down the theater aisle, through the movie screen once again and is back in the medieval world. When the queen asks if he has enough coffee for the kingdom, the actor gives a sheepish look, and soon we see the queen and court riding in a double-decker city bus, merrily on their way to get their own cup of Nespresso coffee.

Clooney’s producing partner, Grant Heslov, directed the spot, which was filmed against greenscreen on a backlot in Los Angeles. The background plates were shot in New York City, and compositing was done by VFX supervisor Ryan Sears from Big Sky Edit. The spot was edited by Chris Franklin, who launched New York-based Big Sky Edit in 1992.

Chris Franklin

“Ryan and I were working as a team on this. As I’m cutting, he’s compositing scenes so we can really get an idea of what everything looks like, and then I properly sound-designed it,” says Franklin. “He dealt with everything in terms of George on the movie screen and popping out of the screen and walking through New York, while I dealt with the sound design and the editing. It helped keep the job efficient, so Grant could come in and see everything pretty much completed.”

Having the various departments under one roof at Big Sky Edit enables Franklin to show work to clients, agencies or directors with effects integrated into the cut, so they do not have to rely on their imaginations to visualize the spot. “They’re judging the story as opposed to the limitations of the footage if effects work isn’t done yet,” he explains.

This is not Franklin’s first Nespresso ad, having worked on the very first one for the US market, and all of them have been directed by Heslov (who also directed Clooney in the Hulu series Catch-22). “He has shorthand with George, so the shoots go beautifully,” Franklin says, noting there is also a feeling of trust with everyone who has a responsibility on the post side.

When asked to describe the editing style he used for The Quest, Franklin was hard-pressed to pinpoint one specifically, saying “sometimes you just go by instinct in terms of what feels right. The fact that this was a movie within a movie, you’re kind of looking at it like an epic. So, you deal with it as a bigger type of thing. And then once [the story] got to New York, we were feeding off the classic man-on-the-street vibe.” So, rather than using a specific editing style on the spot, Franklin says he concentrated on making sure the piece was put together well, had a good storytelling aspect and that everything clicked.

The footage was delivered to Big Sky Edit as transcoded dailies, which were downloaded overnight from LA. Franklin cut the spot on an Avid Media Composer, and the completed spot was delivered in standard HD for 60- and 30-second versions, as well as pullouts and social media material. “There are so many deliverables attached to things now, and a job tends to be longer than it used to be due to all the elements and pieces of content you’re delivering to finish the job,” Franklin says. While time-consuming, these demands also force him to tell the story in different ways for the various deliverables.

Franklin describes his general workflow as fairly straightforward. He will string the entire shoot together – “literally every piece of film that was exposed” — and go through the material, then whittle that down and review it a second time. After that, he starts breaking it down in terms of sequences for all the pieces he needs, and then he starts building the edit. Without question, this process takes a substantial amount of time on the front end, as it takes an editor roughly four hours to go through one hour of footage in order to screen it properly, learn it, understand the pieces in it, break it apart, label it and prepare it — all before any assembly can be done. “It’s not unusual to have 10 or 12 hours of footage, so it’s going to take 40 hours to go through that material and break it down before I can start assembling,” he says.

As Franklin points out, he does his own sound design — his favorite part of the process — while editing. In fact, he started out as an audio engineer years ago, and doing both the audio and editing simultaneously “helps me see the story,” he says. “If I wasn’t doing sound design while I am working, I would get totally lost.” (Tom Jucarone at Sound Lounge mixed The Quest.)

Franklin has edited features, documentaries and even short films, and his workflow remains fairly constant across the genres. “It’s just longer sometimes. You have to learn the footage, so you’ve got to watch everything. It’s a lot of watching and thinking,” he notes. “Deadlines give you an end that you have to shoot for, but you can’t rush things. It takes time to do the work properly.”

Despite his experience with other genres, commercials have been Franklin’s bread and butter for the past 30 years. He says he likes the challenge of whittling down 10 hours of footage into 30 or 60 seconds of storytelling.

M&M’s ‘Hazelnut Spread’ Campaign
Over the years, audiences have been treated to commercial spots featuring the various spokescandies for Mars Incorporated’s M&M’s, from the round-bodied regular flavored character to the egg-shaped yellow peanut character. And, there have been other new flavor characters, too. Most recently, the company introduced its latest addition: hazelnut spread M&M’s. And helping to launch the product is PS260 owner/editor Maury Loeb and assistant editor Sara Sachs, who “divided and conquered” on the campaign, which features three spots to promote the new flavor and the ever-popular M&M’s chocolate bar, which came out in 2018.

The first spot, New Spokescandy, is currently airing. The two other spots, which will be launching next year, are called Injury Attorney and Psychiatrist. Sachs focused on the latter, a comical session between a therapist and the yellow M&M, who is “feeling stuck.” The therapist points out that it’s because he is stuck in a chocolate bar. “We played around a lot with the humor of that moment. It was scripted with three progressively wider shots to ultimately reveal the candy bar, but in the edit, we decided the humor was more impactful if it was just one single reveal at the end,” says Sachs.

Helping to unite the three spots, aside from the brand’s humor and characters, is a consistent editing style. “The pacing is consistent. M&M’s as a whole doesn’t really do very music-heavy spots; they are more real-world in nature,” Sachs notes.

At PS260, the editors often collaborate on client campaigns, so as ideas are being worked out and implemented in one suite, revisions are made in another, allowing the clients to move from space to space to view the work progression.

Sara Sachs

To edit the spot, Sachs worked primarily in Adobe Premiere, using After Effects and Photoshop for some of the quick graphics, as PS260’s graphics department did the heavy lifting for the bigger moving elements, such as the M&M’s characters. The biggest challenge came from getting the tonality of the actor just right. “When a person is talking on camera to an empty couch or stage, you really have to think about both sides of the emotion,” she explains. “VO talent comes in after you have a cut in place, so even though these things are recorded a month apart, it still needs to feel like the characters are talking to each other and come across emotionally true.”

Having to do some minor graphics work is not so unusual these days; Sachs points out that editors today are becoming multitalented and handling other aspects of a project aside from cutting. “It’s not enough to just know the edit side; you also need a base in graphics, audio fine-tuning and color correction. More and more we try to get the rough cut closer to what the final picture will actually look like,” she says. “In this campaign, they even took a lot of the graphics that we applied in the rough and used them directly for air.”

Most of Sachs’ experience has come from commercials, but she has also done shorts, features, documentaries, music videos, promotional and internal videos, pitch and instructional videos, web series and so on. Of those, she prefers short-form projects because they afford her the opportunity to painstakingly watch every frame of a video “900 times and put some love into every 24th of a second,” she adds.

That level of focus is usually not practical or applicable on longer-form projects, which often require scene-to-scene organization with 15- and 30-second spots. “Shorter content maintains the same basic project structure but tends to get more attention on the little things like line-by-line sequences, which are every time a character says something in any situation,” she explains.

Nike Choose Phenomenal
Charlie Harvey recently finished a unique spot for Nike Korea for the South Korean market titled Choose Phenomenal, an empowering ad for women created by Wieden + Kennedy Tokyo that has over 10 million views on YouTube. The spot opens on a young girl dressed in traditional Korean clothing before evolving into a fast-paced, split-screen succession of images — video, animation, graphic elements, pictures and more, mainly of women in action — set to an inspiring narration.

“The agency always wanted it to be split-screen,” says Harvey of Whitehouse Post, who edited the spot. The DP shot the majority of the “moments” in a few different ways and from different angles, giving her the ability to find the elements that complemented each other from a split-screen standpoint. Yet it was up to Harvey to sort through the plethora of clips and images and select the most appropriate ones.

“There’s a Post-it note moment in there, too. That’s a big thing in South Korea, where people write messages on Post-its and stick them on a wall, so it’s culturally significant,” Harvey explains. Foremost in her mind while editing the spot was that it was culturally significant and inspiring to young women, resulting in her delving deep into that country’s traditions to find elements that would resonate best with the intended audience.

Charlie Harvey

Harvey initially began cutting the spot in Los Angeles but then traveled to Tokyo to do the majority of the edit.

In fact, when Harvey began the project, she didn’t have an opportunity to work one-on-one with the director – something that would always be her preference. “I always want to create what the director has envisioned. I always like to make that [vision] come to life while adding my own point of view, too,” she says.

Working with split screens or multiple screens is always trickier because you need to work with multiple layers while maintaining the rhythm of the film, Harvey says. “Making what seems like a small change in one shot will affect not only the shot that comes before and after it, but also the shots next to those. It’s more a puzzle you are solving,” she adds.

The visual element, however, was just one aspect of the project; here, like on many other projects, finding the right music accompaniment is not easy. “You end up going around and around trying to find exactly what you are looking for, and music is always a challenge. If you find the right track, it makes all the difference. It elevates a spot, or impacts it negatively,” Harvey points out. “Music is so important.”

In addition, the split-screen concept forced Harvey to concentrate on both sides of the screen – akin to concentrating on two shorts playing at the same time. “You have to make sure they work together and they link to the next page, where you have another two shorts,” she explains. “You need that harmonious relationship, and there needs to be a rhythm. Otherwise, it could get choppy, and then you are looking at one side or the other, not both together in unison.”

Indeed, dealing with the multiple split-screen images was difficult, but perhaps even more daunting was ensuring that the spot respected the culture of the young women to whom it was directed. To this end, Harvey incorporated as much reference as she could that would resonate with the audience, as opposed to using more generic references geared for audiences outside of that country. “I’m sure it meant a lot to these girls,” she says of the inspirational spot and the effort put into it.

Harvey performed the edit on an Avid system, preferring the simplistic interface to other systems. “It has everything for what I want to do,” she says. “There are no extra tabs here and there. It’s just really easy to use, and it’s very stable and steady.”

For the most part, Harvey sticks with shorter-form projects like commercials, though she has experience with longer formats. “I think you get into a routine with commercials, so you know you have a certain number of days to do what you need to do. I know where I need to be at certain points, and where I need to get to by the time I see the director or the agency,” she explains. “I have a very specific routine. I have a way that I work, and I am comfortable with it. It works for me.”


Karen Moltenbrey is a veteran writer/editor covering VFX and post production.

Cinnafilm 6.6.19

Tribeca: Emily Cohn on editing her own film, CRSHD

By Amy Leland

At this year’s Tribeca Film Festival, I went to a screening of the college comedy CRSHD, a feature film by first-time feature writer/director Emily Cohn. CRSHD tells the story of a group of college freshman trying to gain entry to an invitation-only “crush” party, in order to accomplish a pledge one of them made to lose her virginity before the end of the year. The story is told in part through dramatization of their social networking activity in unique and creative ways I hadn’t seen before. She also edited the film.

While I had initially set out to write something about editors working on feature films edited with Adobe Premiere, Emily turned out to be an interesting story all on her own.

Emily Cohn

A fairly recent college graduate, this enterprising and incredibly talented young woman managed to write her first feature, find a way to get it produced and handle the bulk of the post production process herself. I needed to know more about how she navigated all of this and ended up with a film that looked like far more than a first-time, small-budget indie.

You wrote, directed, edited and produced this film. What was it like bringing your baby to life?
While it’s been so much work, I never really saw it that way. When I look back at it, I’ve loved every step of the process, and I feel so grateful that through this process, I’ve had the most extreme film school boot camp. I was a creative writing major in college, but this was beyond any prior film experience I had, especially in post. I didn’t understand the full process of getting a feature through post.

When I was in high school and was part of the Film Fellows program at the Tribeca Film Institute, I thought that I wanted to be an editor. So that’s something that I really took to.

But on this film, I learned all about OMFs for sound deliverables, and XMLs and all of that. I couldn’t believe I had never heard of all this, because I’d been editing for a while. But for short films or web series, you don’t have to do the back and forth, the round tripping, you don’t have to worry about it as much.

Did that play a part in your decision to edit in Premiere?
Choosing Premiere was definitely a strategic decision. I learned editing on Final Cut, and then I was editing on Avid for a while. I was an assistant editor on a feature doc, doing transcoding and organizing the files in Avid. There was a big part of me that thought, “We should just use Avid,” but it’s an indie film, and I knew we were going to have to use a lot of After Effects, so Premiere was going to be the most streamlined. It was also something that I could operate on my laptop, which is where 90 percent of the editing happened.

What did you shoot the film with?
We had an equipment sponsorship from Canon, so we shot on the C100 with some really nice Prime lenses they gave us. The big question was, “Do we try to shoot 4K or not?” Ultimately, we didn’t because that meant I didn’t have to spend as much money on hard drives, and my laptop could handle the footage. Obviously, I could’ve transcoded it to work with the proxies, but this was all-around much easier and more manageable.

You used a lot of VFX in this, but nothing where having the extra resolution of 4K would make a huge difference, right?
It probably would have been better if we had shot 4K for some of those things, yeah. But it was manageable, and it’s … I mean, it’s an indie film. It’s a baby film. The fact that it made it to Tribeca was beyond cool to say the least.

You said something during the Q&A at Tribeca about focusing on the people using social media versus showing screens —you didn’t want to show technology that would look out of date as fast. That was smart.
I’ve done a lot of reading on it, and it’s a subject I’m very interested in. I’ve been to many filmmaker Q&A panels where the question was, “What makes you want to set it in the ‘90s?” and the answer was, “Because there are no cell phones.” That feels so sad to me.

I’ve read articles that say rom-coms from the ‘90s, or other other older movies, wouldn’t exist if they were set in the 2000s because you would just get a text, and the central conflict would be over.

Some people talk about issues editing long form. Some complain that the project becomes too bloated, or that things don’t perform as well once the project is too long. Did you have any issues like that?
I organized the project carefully. I know a lot of people who say the bin system in Avid is superior to Premiere’s, but I didn’t find that to be a problem, although I did have a major crash that I ended up solving. I do wish Adobe had some sort of help line because that would have helped a lot.

CRSHD was shot with a Canon 100.

But that was toward the beginning, and essentially what it came down to was that I’m still running the 2017 OS on my laptop with no upgrade, because when I upgraded my OS, Premiere started crashing. It just needed it all to stay where it was, which, now I know!

In addition to After Effects, what other post tools did you use on the film?
We used After Effects for the VFX, Resolve for color and Avid Pro Tools sound. My cousin Jim Schultz, who is a professional music editor, really held my hand through all of that. He’s in LA, but whenever I had a question, he would answer it. Our whole post sound team, which included Summit Post, also in LA, was amazing and made Crshd feel like a real film. I loved that process.

Did you still keep everything grounded in Premiere, and roundtrip everything out to Resolve or Pro Tools, and then bring it back?
Yeah, I onlined everything in Premiere myself.

I’m so overwhelmed thinking about you doing all of this yourself.
I didn’t know any other way to do it. I think it would be a lot easier if I had a bigger team. But that’s also something that’s been really funny with the sales agents (which we secured through the Tribeca Film Festival). They’re like, “Can your team do that?” and I’m like, “No, that’s all me. It’s just me.”

I mean, I have a colorist and a really great sound team. But I was the one who onlined everything.

When the festivals are saying, “We need a cut like this,” you are probably the one pushing all of those exports and deliverables out yourself.
Yeah. I wouldn’t have had it any other way.

During that whole process, did you have any parts where you were happy you did it in Premiere, or things that were frustrating?
The film is really funky. We have some YouTube clips in there, a lot of VFX and other types of footage. There were so many moments where I needed to test things out quickly and easily. In Premiere, you don’t have to worry about transcoding everything and different file formats. That was definitely the best in terms of accessibility and how quickly you can play around with your timeline and experiment.

My least favorite thing is, as I said, there is no real help line for Premiere. I was asking friends of friends of friends about a weird exporting glitch that I had. The forums are fine but, yeah, I wish there was a help line.

This film is your baby, but you did collaborate with some others in post. How did that process go?
I feel really lucky. I had an amazing post team. When I watch the movie, I’m happiest about all the things everyone else added that I never would’ve added myself.

One of the sound designers, Taylor Flinn — there’s a moment where our comical security guard character leans forward in his car, and Taylor added a little siren “whoop” sound. It’s so funny to me, and I like it more because I’m not the one who did it. It’s the one moment I always laugh at in the film now, even after seeing it hundreds of times. We had an amazing animator as well, Sean Buckelew. That was another portion of post for us.

I just didn’t realize how long it was going to take. We finished shooting in August 2017, and I was like, “We’re going to submit in December 2017 to Tribeca!” And then it was a full other year of insanity. I did a first cut by September 2017, did a lot of test screenings in my apartment and kept hammering away. I was working with another co-editor, Michelle Botticelli, for about six weeks leading up to submissions, and she was also giving her opinion on all of the future cuts and color and sound.

Any updates on where the film is heading next?
I hope we get distribution. It was at the Cannes marketplace, and we have sales agents. They came on as soon as we got into Tribeca. Tribeca recommended them, and I’m learning as I go.

What’s next for you?
I have a pilot and a show bible for the TV version of CRSHD. Then I have another rom-com that I’m writing. I’m still editing, and since making the movie, I’ve been doing a ton of other side work, like camera operating. But, ultimately, I hope to be writing and directing.


Amy Leland is a film director and editor. Her short film, “Echoes”, is now available on Amazon Video. She also has a feature documentary in post, a feature screenplay in development, and a new doc in pre-production. She is an editor for CBS Sports Network and recently edited the feature “Sundown.” You can follow Amy on social media on Twitter at @amy-leland and Instagram at @la_directora.


Tips for inside —and outside — the edit suite

By Brady Betzel

Over the past 15 years, I’ve seen lots of good and bad while working in production and post — from people being overly technical (only looking at the scopes and not the creative) to being difficult just for the sake of being difficult. I’ve worked on daytime and nighttime talk shows, comedies, reality television, Christmas parades, documentaries and more. All have shaped my editing skills as well as my view on the work-life balance.

Here are some tips I try to keep in mind that have helped me get past problems I’ve encountered in and out of the edit bay:

No One Cares
This one is something I constantly have to remind myself. It’s not necessarily true all the time, but it’s a good way to keep my own ego in check, especially on social media. When editing and coloring, I constantly ask myself, “Does anyone care about what I’m doing? If not, why not?” And if the answer is that they don’t, then something needs to change. I also ask myself, “Does anything about my comment or edit further the conversation or the story, or am I taking away from the story to draw attention to myself?” In other words, am I making an edit just to make an edit?

It’s an especially good thing to think about when you get trolled on Twitter by negative know-it-alls telling you why you’re wrong about working in certain NLEs. Really, who cares? After I write my response and edit it a bunch of times, I tell myself, “No one cares.” This philosophy not only saves me from feeling bad about not answering questions that no one really cares about, but it also helps improve my editing, VFX and color correction work.

Don’t be Difficult!
As someone who has worked everywhere and in all sorts of positions — from a computer tech at Best Buy (before Geek Squad), a barista at Starbucks, a post PA for the Academy Awards, and assistant editor, editor, offline editor, online editor — I’ve seen the power of being amenable.

I am also innately a very organized person, both at work and at home, digitally and in real life — sometimes to my wife’s dismay. I also constantly repeat this mantra to my kids: “If you’re not early, you’re late.”

But sometimes I need to be reminded that it’s OK to be late, and it’s OK not to do things the technically “correct” way. The same applies to work. Someone might have a different way of doing something that’s slower than the way I’d do it, but that doesn’t mean that person is wrong. Avoiding confrontation is the best way to go. Sure, go ahead and transcode inside of Adobe Premiere Pro instead of batch transcoding in Media Encoder. If the outcome is the same and it helps avoid a fight, just let it slide. You might also learn something new by taking a back seat.

Sometimes Being Technically Perfect Isn’t Perfect
I often feel like I have a few obsessive traits: leaving on time, having a tidy desktop and doing things (I feel) correctly. One of the biggest examples is when color correcting. It is true that scopes don’t lie; they give you the honest truth. But when I hear about colorists bragging that they turn off the monitors and color using only Tektronix Double Diamond displays, waveforms and vectorscopes — my skeptical hippo eyes come out. (Google it; it’s a thing).

While scopes might get you to a technically acceptable spot in color correction, you need to have an objective view from a properly calibrated monitor. Sometimes an image with perfectly white whites and perfectly black blacks is not the most visually pleasing image. I constantly need to remind myself to take a step back and really blend the technical with the creative. That is, I sit back and imagine myself as the wide-eyed 16-year-old in the movie theater being blown away and intrigued by American Beauty.

You shouldn’t do things just because you think that is how they should be done. Take a step back and ask yourself if you, your wife, brother, uncle, mom, dad, or whoever else might like it.

Obviously, being technically correct is vital when creating things like deliverables, and that is where there might be less objectivity, but I think you understand my point. Remember to add a little objectivity into your life.

Live for Yourself, Practice and Repeat
While I constantly tell people to watch tutorials on YouTube and places like MZed.com, you also need to physically practice your craft. This idea becomes obvious when working in technically creative positions like editing.

I love watching tutorials on lighting and photography since so much can be translated over to editing and color correcting. Understanding relationships between light and motion can help guide scenes. But if all you do is watch someone tell you how light works, you might not really be absorbing the information. Putting into practice the concepts you learn is a basic but vital skill that is easy to forget. Don’t just watch other people live life, live it for yourself.

For example, a lot of people don’t understand trimming and re-linking in Media Composer. They hear about it but don’t really use these skills to their fullest unless they actively work them out. Same goes for people wanting to use a Wacom tablet instead of a mouse. It took me two weeks of putting my mouse in the closet to even get started on the Wacom tablet, but in the end, it is one of those things I can’t live without. But I had to make the choice to try it for myself and practice, practice, practice to know it.

If you dabble and watch videos on a Wacom tablet, using it once might turn you off. Using trimming once might not convince you it is great. Using roles in FCPX once might not convince you that it is necessary. Putting those skills into practice is how you will live editing life for yourself and discover what is important to you … instead of relying on other people to tell you what’s important.

Put Your Best Foot Forward
This bit of advice came to me from a senior editor on my first real professional editing job after being an assistant editor. I had submitted a rough cut and — in a very kind manner — the editor told me that it wasn’t close to ready for a rough cut title. Then we went through how I could get there. In the end, I essentially needed to spend a lot more time polishing the audio, checking for lip flap, polishing transitions and much more. Not just any time, but focused time.

Check your edit from a 30,000-foot view for things like story and continuity, but also those 10-foot view things like audio pops and interviews that sound like they are all from one take. Do all your music cues sting on the right beat? Is all your music panned for stereo and your dialogue all center-panned to cut up the middle?

These are things that take time to learn, but once you get it in your head, it will be impossible to forget … if you really want to be a good editor. Some might read this and say, “If you don’t know these workflows, you shouldn’t be an editor.” Not true! Everyone starts somewhere, but regardless of what career stage you’re in, always put your best foot forward.

Trust Your Instincts
I have always had confidence in my instincts, and I have my parents to thank for that. But I have noticed that a lot of up-and-coming production and post workers don’t want to make decisions. They also are very unsure if they should trust their first instinct. In my experience, your first instinct is usually your best instinct. Especially when editing.

Obviously there are exceptions to this rule, but generally I rely heavily on my instincts even when others might not agree. Take this with a grain of salt, but also throw that salt away and dive head first!

This notion really came to a head for me when I was designing show titles in After Effects. The producers really encouraged going above and beyond when making opening titles of a show I worked on. I decided to go into After Effects instead of staying inside of the NLE. I used crazy compositing options that I didn’t often use, tried different light leaks, inverted mattes … everything. Once I started to like something, I would jump in head first and go all the way. Usually that worked out, but even if it didn’t, everyone could see the quality of work I was putting out, and that was mainly because I trusted my instincts.

Delete and Start Over
When you are done trusting your instincts and your project just isn’t hitting home — maybe the story doesn’t quite connect, the HUD you are designing just doesn’t quite punch or the music you chose for a scene is very distracting — throw it all away and start over. One of the biggest skills I have acquired in my career thus far seems to be the ability to throw a project away and start over.

Typically, scenes can go on and on with notes, but if you’re getting nowhere, it might be time to start over if you can. Not only will you have a fresh perspective, but you will have a more intimate knowledge of the content than you had the first time you started your edit — which might lead to an alternate pathway into your story.


Brady Betzel is an Emmy-nominated online editor at Margarita Mix in Hollywood, working on Life Below Zero and Cutthroat Kitchen. You can email Brady at bradybetzel@gmail.com. Follow him on Twitter @allbetzroff.


Editing for Features and Docs

By Karen Moltenbrey

When editing a feature film, the cutter can often feel as if he or she is assembling a puzzle, putting together a plethora of pieces, from the acting, to the lighting, to the production design, and turning those raw elements into a cohesive, comprehensive story. With so much material to sort through, so many shots to select from and so many choices to be made overall, the final cut indeed is reflective of these many choices made by the editor over a significant period of time.

Here, we examine the unique workflow of two editors, one who worked on a drama with an up-and-coming director, and another who cut a documentary with a director who is very well known throughout the film world.

Clemency
The feature film Clemency will be released at the end of the year, but already it commanded attention at the 2019 Sundance Film Festival and beyond, taking home the Grand Jury Prize. The drama, directed by Chinonye Chukwu, stars Alfre Woodard as prison warden Bernadine Williams, who’s preparing for the execution of another inmate and struggling with the emotional toll that task has taken on her. The film was edited by Phyllis Housen.

As is often the case, while cutting Clemency, the editing style evolved organically from the story being told. “That happens all the time, unless it’s a very specific genre piece, like a thriller or horror film,” Housen says. For this film, she describes the style as “deliberate.” “There is no racing through the day. We feel the time pass. In prison, time stretches and changes, and we wanted to recreate that feeling of time. Often you don’t know if it’s night or day,” she says.

Also, the director wanted the film to feel as though the audience was there, living inside the prison. “So, there is a lot of repetition. We visit and revisit some of the routines of daily life like the prisoners do,” Housen adds.

Phyllis Housen

According to Housen, the film looks at what it is like for the warden to have a day-to-day relationship with the inmates on the ward as well as what happens when the warden, ultimately and occasionally, has to perform an execution. “By creating the routine of daily life, we would get to know how the prisoners live and experience that through them,” she explains.

The focus in the film turns to one prisoner in particular, Anthony Woods, a convicted felon on death row. “You get attached to these people, and to him,” Housen points out.

For instance, there is a good deal of walking in the movie, as the camera follows the warden while she sets out from her office and through the prison hallways, passing prisoners all the way to the death row ward, which is separated from everything and everyone — even the general population of prisoners. “You feel that length and distance as she is walking. You get a sense of how far away — literally and figuratively — the death row prisoners are,” Housen explains.

Housen (Cargo, the I, Witness TV documentary series and much more) cut the film at Tunnel in Santa Monica, California, using Adobe Premiere Pro, after having migrated from Apple Final Cut Pro years back. She says she finds the Adobe platform very intuitive.

In terms of her workflow, Housen believes it is fairly consistent across all projects. She receives dailies that are transcoded from raw footage, an assistant organizes all the footage for her, then she starts putting scenes together, maybe one or two days after principal photography begins so there is some footage to work with. “I am thinking of the footage as if I am building a house, with the scenes as the bricks,” she says. “So, I might get footage from, say, scenes 12, 84 and 105 on the first day, and I start lightly sketching those scenes out. I watch the dailies to get a feeling of what the scenes might eventually become. It takes longer than it sounds! And then the next day, four more scenes might come in, and the day after, seven. You’re always getting a bit behind the eight ball during dailies, but you sketch as best you can.”

Once Housen begins building out the scenes, she starts creating what she calls “reels,” an assembly of the film in 20-minute segments — a habit from the days of working with film in the predigital age. “Once you create your reels, then you end up, when they are done shooting, with a rather long, but not paced, assembly of the film that serves as a blueprint,” she says. “When post begins, we roll up our sleeves and start at Scene 1 and dig in.”

Housen finds that on an independent film, there isn’t a lot of time to interact with the director while the film is being shot, and this held true for Clemency; but once they got to the cutting room, “we were there every day together, all day, attached at the hip,” she says.

Clemency was the first time Housen had the opportunity to work with Chukwu. “She’s a very bold director, and there are some very bold choices in this film,” Housen says. She points out that some liberties were taken in terms of pacing and editing style, especially toward the end of the film, which she believes really pays off. However, Housen stops short of revealing too much about the scenes prior to the film’s release.

“It is a very heavy film, a difficult film,” Housen continues. “It’s thought-provoking. For such a heavy movie, we had a light time making it. We laughed a lot and enjoyed the process very much. I was just so pleased with [Chukwu’s] vision. She is a young and up-and-coming filmmaker. I think we are going to continue hearing a lot about her.”

Pavarotti
In the documentary Pavarotti, in limited release starting June 7, director Ron Howard tells the story of the opera legend Luciano Pavarotti through an assemblage of unique footage, concert performances and interviews. The film was edited by Paul Crowder, ACE.

Director Ron Howard and editor Paul Crowder take a selfie at the Pavarotti premiere.

As Crowder notes, it seemed logical to approach the story of Pavarotti in the format of an opera. His art and his life lent themselves to a natural three-act arc: The tenor starts his career as an opera singer and becomes successful. Then there is a period of self-doubt, followed by the meteoric success of The Three Tenors, his philanthropic period and then his marriage to a much younger woman. “You have these dramatic moments in his life story like you do in an opera, and we thought if we could use Pavarotti’s music and operas, that would tell the story, so we gave the documentary an operatic feel,” he says.

A musician himself, Crowder well understood this unique dimension to the documentary. Still, approaching the film in this way required careful navigation in the editing suite. “It’s not like editing pop music or something like that. You can’t just drop in and out of arias. They don’t come in four-bar sections or a middle-eight section,” he points out. “They’re all self-contained. Each section is its own thing. You have to select the moments when you can get in and out of them. Once you commit to them, you have to really commit to a degree, and it all becomes part of the style and approach of the editing.”

Crowder edited the film on an Avid system at his home studio. “I am an Avid Media Composer guy and will be to the day I die,” he says. “I was brought up on Avid, and that will always be my go-to choice.”

The biggest editing challenge on the documentary was dealing with the large mix of media and formats, as the film integrates footage from past concerts and interviews that took place all over the world at different points in time. In all, music was pulled from 22 different operas – not opera pieces, but different operas themselves. The footage was digitized in Avid using native frame rates “because Avid is so adept at dealing with multiple frame rates on a single timeline,” he says, noting that his assistant, Sierra Neal, was instrumental in keeping all the various media in check.

Nevertheless, dealing with various frame rate issues in the online was tough. Everyone has a way to do it, Crowder says, but “there is no definitive excellent way to go from standard def to HD.”

The mixed frame rates and formats also made it difficult to spot flaws in the imported footage: The overall transfer might look good, but there might be a frame or two that did not transfer well. “We kept spotting them throughout the online in the same clips we had already fixed, but then we’d find another flaw that we hadn’t seen,” Crowder says.

The film was built in pieces. The first section Crowder and writer Mark Monroe built pertained to Pavarotti’s children. “It was a leaping-off point for the film. We knew the girls were going to be in it and they would have something fun to say,” he says. He then worked forward from that point.

Crowder praises the research team at Pavarotti production company White Horse Pictures with assembling the tremendous amount of research and documentation for the film, organizing the various content and clips that made it easier for him and Neal to locate those with the best potential for particular scenes. “Still, it was essential to really look closely at everything and know where it was,” he adds, “Otherwise, you don’t know what you might miss.”

In fact, Crowder has something he calls his “hip pocket,” interesting material that hasn’t been placed yet. “It’s just a bin that contains material when I need something strong,” he says. On this project, footage of Pavarotti’s trip to the Amazon in 1995 is in that bin. And, they found an ideal place for it in the opening of the film.

“The film always talks to you, and sometimes you can’t find something you’re looking for but it’s staring you right in the face,” Crowder says. In this case, it was the Amazon footage. “It was vital that we hear Luciano’s voice at the opening of the film. If you don’t hear him sing, then there’s no point because it’s all about his voice. And everything we are going to tell you from that point on comes off the back of his voice.”

While he has worked on series as well as other kinds of projects, Crowder prefers films — documentaries, in particular. Series work, he says, can become a little too “factory-esque” for his taste — especially when there is a deadline and you are aware of what worked before, it can be come easy to get into a rhythm and possibly lose creative drive. “With a film, you lead audiences on an emotional journey, but you can take it to completion in one sitting, and not drag it out week after week,” Crowder says.

And, how did the editor feel working alongside famed director Ron Howard? Crowder says it was a fantastic experience, calling Howard very decisive and knowledgeable. “A wonderful and generous person to learn from. It was a great working relationship where we could discuss ideas honestly.”

Another bonus about this project: Crowder’s mom was an amateur opera singer, a soprano, while his grandfather was an amateur tenor. “I wanted to work on the film for my mom. She passed away, unfortunately, but she would have loved it.” Surely others will as well.


Karen Moltenbrey is a veteran writer/editor covering VFX and post production.


Editing for Episodics

By Karen Moltenbrey

Consistency is important when editing series. Initially, the editor may collaborate with the director and DP on the style of the show, and once it is set, the focus is on supporting that direction, reflecting the essence and feel of the show and the performance of the characters.

However, not every series is the same, and editors adapt their editing pattern and pacing based on the project’s genre. For instance, the pacing of a comedy should elevate the punchline, not detract from it, whereas with a drama, choosing the best performance that fits the story is paramount. Additionally, the use of music and sound design can heighten the emotion or tension far more than, say, in a comedy.

Here we look at two very different series — a comedy and a drama — and examine how the editors approached the cut on their respective shows.

Insecure
Life is complicated, especially for the main characters of HBO’s Insecure, which focuses on two African American women as they navigate modern-day life in Los Angeles. Best friends since college and now in their late 20s, they are trying to find their footing both personally and professionally, with Issa Dee working at a nonprofit school and living with her longtime boyfriend, and Molly Carter finding success as a lawyer but less so in her dating life.

The comedy has been renewed for a fourth season, which will be released sometime in 2019. The series debuted in 2016 and is created by Issa Rae — who plays the main character Issa Dee — and Larry Wilmore. A number of people have directed and served as DP, and there have been four editors, including Nena Erb, ACE, who came aboard during Season 3.

“The series is built around [Issa’s and Molly’s] experiences as they try to find their place in the world. When I approach a scene, I do so from their point of view,” says Erb. “South LA is also portrayed as a character in the series; we do our best to incorporate shots of the various neighborhoods in each episode so viewers get a flavor of the city.”

According to Erb, the composition for the series is cinematic and unconventional from the typical television series. “The editing pattern is also not the typical start with a master, go to medium shots, close-up and so forth,” she says. “Having unique composition and coming up with interesting ways to transition in and out of a scene give this series a distinct visual style that’s unlike other television shows out right now.”

Nena Erb

Scenes wherein Issa is the focus are shot mostly handheld. The shots have more movement and convey a sense of uncertainty and flux, which is in keeping with the character, who is trying to find herself when it comes to her career. On the other hand, Molly’s scenes are typically locked-off to convey steadiness, as she is a little more settled in her career as an attorney. For example, in “Fresh-Like” (Season 3 Episode 4), Molly has a difficult time establishing herself after taking a job at a new law firm, and things are not going as smoothly as she had hoped. When she discusses her frustrations with her therapist, the scene was shot with locked-off cameras since it focuses on Molly, but camera moves were then added in the edit to give it a handheld look to convey she was on unsteady ground at that moment.

Erb edits the series on an Avid Media Composer, and temp effects are done in Adobe Photoshop and After Effects.

Erb’s workflow for Insecure is similar to other series she has edited. She reads the script a few times, and before starting dailies, will re-read the scene she is working on that day, paying particular attention to the screen direction. “That is extremely helpful in letting me know the tone of the scene. I like having that fresh in my mind when I watch the dailies,” says Erb. She also reviews all the circle as well as non-circle takes — a step that is time-consuming but ensures she is using all the best performances. “And sometimes there are hidden gems in the non-circle takes that make all the difference, so I feel it’s worth the time to watch them all,” she adds.

While watching the dailies, Erb often jots down notes while cutting it in her head. Then she sits down and starts putting the scene together in the actual edit.

When Erb signed on to do the series, the style and tone were already established, and the crew had been together since the beginning. “It’s never easy to come into a show like that,” she says. “I was the new kid on the block who had to figure out team dynamics in addition to learning the style of the show. My biggest challenge was to make sure my work was in the language of the series, while still maintaining my own sense of style.”

Insofar as social media has become a big part of everyone’s life, it is now turning up in series such as Insecure, where it has become a recurring character — although in the episode titled “Obsessed-Like,” it is much more. As Erb explains, Insecure uses social media graphics as elements that play on the screen next to the person texting or tweeting. But in that episode, the editor wanted the audience alongside Issa as she checks on her new love interest Nathan and used social media graphics in a completely different way than had been done previously on the show.

“I told my assistant editor, Lynarion Hubbard, that I wanted her to create all these graphics in a way that they could be edited as if they were dailies. Doing so enabled me to use them full-screen, and I could animate them so they could crash-zoom into the shot of this woman kissing Nathan and then tilt down to the caption, which is when you realize the woman is his mom, as she delivers the punchline, ‘Oh, it’s your mom. She looks young for 50,’” says Erb.

“I felt the graphics made me more invested and allowed me to experience the emotional roller coaster with Issa as she obsesses over being ghosted. It was a risk to use them that way because it wasn’t in the language of the show. Fortunately for me, the producers loved it, and that episode was nominated for an ACE Eddie Award earlier this year.”

Erb might be new to Insecure, but she feels a personal connection to the series: When she and her family first immigrated to the US, they settled in Ladera Heights, and she attended school in Inglewood. “I remember this awkward girl who didn’t speak a word of English, and yet the neighbors welcomed us with open arms,” she recalls. “That community will always be special to me. The series pokes fun at Ladera Heights, but I think it’s great that they are highlighting a part of South LA that was my first connection in the US.”

Erb predominantly edits television series, but she has also edited feature films and documentaries. “I’d say I am drawn to powerful stories and captivating characters rather than a genre or format. Performance is paramount. Everything is in service of the story and the characters, regardless of whether it’s a series or a film,” she states.

On a series, “it’s a sprint to the finish, especially if it’s a series that has started airing while you’re still shooting and editing the later episodes. You’ll have anywhere from one to three days after the last day of dailies to do your editor’s cut, and then it’s off to the director, producers, the studio and so forth,” Erb explains. Conversely, with the features she has done, the schedule has offered more wiggle room – more time to do the editor’s cut and more time for the directors’ involvement. “And you have the luxury to experiment and sit with the cut to make sure it is working.”

In addition to Insecure, Erb has worked on Crazy Ex-Girlfriend, Being Mary Jane and Project Greenlight, to name a few. And each has its own recipe. For instance, Crazy Ex has music videos in each episode that run the gamut from the ’50s to present day, from a Fosse-inspired number to ’80s rock, ’90s hip-hop and three decades of the Beach Boys. “In an industry where it is easy to get pigeonholed, being able to work on a show that allows you to challenge yourself with different genres is rare, and I loved the experience.”

Ozark
At first glance, the Ozarks seem to be a tranquil place, a wholesome, idyllic location to raise a family. But, looks can be deceiving, especially when it comes to the Netflix family crime drama Ozark, which will be starting its third season sometime this year.

The series follows financial planner Marty Byrde, who relocates with his family from Chicago to the summer resort area of Osage Beach, Missouri, in the Ozark Mountains. The move is not voluntary. To make amends for a scheme that went awry, he must launder millions of dollars belonging to a Mexican drug cartel through the Ozarks. Soon he becomes entangled with local criminals.

Jason Bateman, who plays Marty, directed some of the episodes in Season 1 and 2, with other directors filling that role as well. Editing the series since it began is Cindy Mollo, ACE, and Heather Goodwin Floyd, who have a longtime working relationship. Goodwin Floyd, who was Mollo’s assistant editor for many years, started on both seasons of Ozark in the assistant role but also edited and co-edited episodes in each season.

Cindy Mollo

When Mollo first met with Bateman to talk about the project, they discussed the series as being akin to a 10-hour feature. “He wanted to spend time in moments, giving time to the performances, and not be too ‘cutty’ or too manipulative,” she says. “There’s a tendency with someone like Bateman to always be looking for the comedy and to cut for comedy, but ours is a dramatic show where sometimes things just happen to be funny; we don’t cut for that.”

The show has a naturalistic feel, and many scenes are shot outdoors, but there is always a lingering sense of threat, played up with heavy shadows. The look, as the humor, is dark, in a figurative and literal way. And the editors play into the suspense. “By letting moments play out, it helps put you in the head of the character, figuring things out as you go along. So, you’re not ever letting the audience get ahead of the character by showing them something that the character doesn’t see,” explains Mollo. “There’s a little bit of a remoteness in that, so you’re not really spoon-feeding the audience.”

On Ozark, the editors make sure they do not get in the way of the material. The writing is so solid, says Mollo, and the performances are so good, “the challenge is to resist the temptation to impose too much on the material and to just achieve the goals of the scene. Doing things simply and elegantly, that is how I approach this series.”

Goodwin Floyd agrees. “We support the material and let it speak for itself, and tell the story in the most authentic way possible,” she adds.

The series is set in the Ozarks but is filmed outside Atlanta, where the dailies are processed before they are sent to editorial. Assistants pull all the media into a Media Composer, where the cut is done.

Heather Goodwin Floyd

According to Mollo, she and Goodwin Floyd have four days to work on their cut. Then the directors have four days per episode to work with them. “We’re cross-boarded, so that ends up being eight days with the director for two episodes, for the most part,” she says. After that, the producers are brought in, and as Mollo points out, Bateman is very involved in the edit. Once the producers sign off, the final cut is sent to producer Media Rights Capital (MRC) and Netflix.

The first two seasons of Ozark were shot at 4K; this season, it is shot at nearly 6K, though delivery to Netflix is still at 4K.

Both editors have a range of experience in terms of genres. Goodwin Floyd started out in features and now primarily edits TV dramas. Mollo got her start in commercials and then migrated to dramatic series, with some TV movies and features, as well. “I love the mix. Honestly, I love doing both [series and films]. I have fun when I’m on a series, and then it seems like every two years or so I get to do a feature. With everyone editing digitally, the feature process has become very similar to the television process,” she says. “It’s just a little more director-focused rather than producer/writer-focused.”

For Goodwin Floyd, she’s drawn more to the content as opposed to the format. “I started in features and at the time thought I wanted to stay in features, but the quality of series on television has evolved and gotten so great that I love working in TV as much as in features,” she says.

With the rise of cable, then premium movie channels and now streaming services, Mollo says there is a feeling that the material can be trusted more, that there is no longer the need to feel like you have to be cutting every couple of seconds to keep the audience excited and engaged. For instance, when she worked on House of Cards, the MRC and Netflix executives were very hands-off — they wanted to have a fantastic opening episode every season and a really compelling cliffhanger, and for everything in between, they trusted the filmmakers to take care of it.

“I really gravitated toward that trend of trusting the filmmakers, and it is resulting in some really great television,” says Mollo.

In as much as we are in a golden age of television, Mollo also believes we are in a golden age of editing, where people understand more of what an editor does and appreciates the results more. Editing is basically a final rewrite of the script, she says. “You’re the last line of defense; sometimes you need to guide the story back to its original direction [if it veers off course].”


Karen Moltenbrey is a veteran writer/editor covering VFX and post production.