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Category Archives: Cinematography

ASC Awards honor cinematography

At this year’s ASC Awards, Łukasz Żal, PSC, took home Feature Cinematography Award for his work on Cold War. Giorgi Shvelidze won the Spotlight Award for Namme. In the TV categories, winners included Adriano Goldman, ASC, ABC, BSC, for The Crown; Jon Joffin, ASC for Beyond; and James Friend, BSC, for Patrick Melrose.

The 33 rd ASC Awards gala took place tonight in the Ray Dolby Ballroom at Hollywood & Highland, with Ben Mankiewicz from TCM taking his second turn as host.

The complete list of winners and nominees follows:

Theatrical Release Category (presented by John Bailey, ASC)

  • Alfonso Cuarón for “Roma”
  • Matthew Libatique, ASC for “A Star Is Born”
  • Robbie Ryan, BSC, ISC for “The Favourite”
  • Linus Sandgren, ASC, FSF for “First Man”
  • Łukasz Żal, PSC for “Cold War” – WINNER

Spotlight Award Category (presented by George Tillman Jr. and Ellen Kuras, ASC)

  • Joshua James Richards for “The Rider”
  • Giorgi Shvelidze for “Namme” – WINNER
  • Frank van den Eeden, NSC, SBC for “Girl”

Episode of a Series for Non-Commercial Television (presented by Lea Thompson)

  • Gonzalo Amat for “The Man in the High Castle” (Jahr Null)
  • Adriano Goldman, ASC, ABC, BSC for “The Crown” (Beryl) – WINNER
  • David Klein, ASC for “Homeland” (Paean to the People)
  • Colin Watkinson, ASC, BSC for “The Handmaid’s Tale” (The Word)
  • Cathal Watters, ISC for “Peaky Blinders” (The Company)
  • Zoë White, ACS for “The Handmaid’s Tale” (Holly)

Episode of a Series for Commercial Television (presented by Merrin Dungey)

  • Nathaniel Goodman, ASC for “Timeless” (The King of the Delta Blues)
  • Jon Joffin, ASC for “Beyond” (Two Zero One) – WINNER
  • Ben Richardson for “Yellowstone” (Daybreak)
  • David Stockton, ASC for “Gotham” (A Dark Knight: Queen Takes Knight)
  • Thomas Yatsko, ASC for “Damnation” (A Different Species)

Motion Picture, Miniseries, or Pilot Made for Television (presented by Thomas Lennon)

  • James Friend, BSC for “Patrick Melrose” (Bad News) – WINNER
  • Mathias Herndl, AAC for “Genius: Picasso” (Chapter 1)
  • Florian Hoffmeister, BSC for “The Terror” (Go for Broke)
  • M. David Mullen, ASC for “The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel” (Pilot)
  • Brendan Steacy, CSC for “Alias Grace” (Part 1)

This is Żal’s second win. He previously earned a Spotlight Award for his co-cinematography duties with Ryszard Lenczewsk on “Ida.” Goldman also won last year for “The Crown.” Shvelidze, Joffin and Friend are first-time winners.

The Spotlight Award – co-presented by George Tillman Jr., who produced the Oscar®-nominated “Mudbound” and directed this year’s “The Hate U Give” – recognizes cinematography in smaller features that may not receive wider theatrical release or awareness.

Honorary awards also handed out at the event included:

  • The ASC Board of Governors Award was presented to Jeff Bridges by actor-stuntman Loyd Catlett for his significant and indelible contributions to cinema. It is the only ASC Award not given to a cinematographer and is reserved for filmmakers who have been champions for directors of photography and the visual art form. 
  • The ASC Lifetime Achievement Award was given to Robert Richardson, ASC and presented by frequent collaborator, writer-director Quentin Tarantino. 
  • The ASC Career Achievement in Television Award was presented to Jeffrey Jur, ASC by director John Dahl. 
  • The ASC Bud Stone Award of Distinction was given to Franz Kraus, managing director, ARRI Group. This award is presented to an ASC Associate Member who has demonstrated extraordinary service to the society and/or has made a significant contribution to the motion-picture industry.

Main Image: Cold War camera operator Ernest Wilczynski_and John Bailey, ASC. Łukasz Żal, PSC, wasn’t at the ceremony.

Sundance Videos: Watch our editor interviews

postPerspective traveled to Sundance for the first time this year, and it was great. In addition to attending some parties, brunches and panels, we had the opportunity to interview a number of editors who were in Park City to help promote their various projects. (Watch here.)

Billy McMillin

We caught up with the editors on the comedy docu-series Documentary Now!, Michah Gardner and Jordan Kim. We spoke to Courtney Ware about cutting the film Light From Light, as well as Billy McMillin, editor on the documentary Mike Wallace is Here. We also chatted with Phyllis Housen, the editor on director Chinonye Chukwu’s Clemency and Kent Kincannon who cut Hannah Pearl Utt’s comedy, Before you Know It. Finally, we sat down with Bryan Mason, who had the dual roles of cinematographer and editor on Animals.

We hope you enjoy watching these interviews as much as we enjoyed shooting them.

Don’t forget, click here to view!

Oh, and a big shout out to Twain Richardson from Jamaica’s Frame of Reference, who edited and color graded the videos. Thanks Twain!

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Quick Chat: Crew Cuts’ Nancy Jacobsen and Stephanie Norris

By Randi Altman

Crew Cuts, a full-service production and post house, has been a New York fixture since 1986. Originally established as an editorial house, over the years as the industry evolved they added services that target all aspects of the workflow.

This independently-owned facility is run by executive producer/partner Nancy Jacobsen, senior editor/partner Sherri Margulies Keenan and senior editor/partner Jake Jacobsen. While commercial spots might be in their wheelhouse, their projects vary and include social media, music videos and indie films.

We decided to reach out to Nancy Jacobsen, as well as EP of finishing Stephanie Norris, to find out about trends, recent work and succeeding in an industry and city that isn’t always so welcoming.

Can you talk about what Crew Cuts provides and how you guys have evolved over the years?
Jacobsen: We pretty much do it all. We have 10 offline editors as well as artists working in VFX, 2D/3D animation, motion graphics/design, audio mix and sound design, VO record, color grading, title treatment, advanced compositing and conform. Two of our editors double as directors.

In the beginning, Crew Cuts primarily offered only editorial. As the years went by and the industry climate changed we began to cater to the needs of clients and slowly built out our entire finishing department. We started with some minimal graphics work and one staff artist in 2008.

In 2009, we expanded the team to include graphics, conform and audio mix. From there we just continued to grow and expand our department to the full finishing team we have today.

As a woman owner of a post house, what challenges have you had to overcome?
Jacobsen: When I started in this business, the industry was very different. I made less money than my male counterparts and it took me twice as long to be promoted because I am a woman. I have since seen great change where women are leading post houses and production houses and are finally getting the recognition for the hard work they deserve. Unfortunately, I had to “wait it out” and silently work harder than the men around me. This has paid off for me, and now I can help women get the credit they rightly deserve

Do you see the industry changing and becoming less male-dominated?
Jacobsen: Yes, the industry is definitely becoming less male-dominated. In the current climate, with the birth of the #metoo movement and specifically in our industry with the birth of Diet Madison Avenue (@dietmadisonave), we are seeing a lot more women step up and take on leading roles.

Are you mostly a commercial house? What other segments of the industry do you work in?
Jacobsen: We are primarily a commercial house. However, we are not limited to just broadcast and digital commercial advertising. We have delivered specs for everything from the Godzilla screen in Times Square to :06 spots on Instagram. We have done a handful of music videos and also handle a ton of B2B videos for in-house client meetings, etc., as well as banner ads for conferences and trade shows. We’ve even worked on display ads for airports. Most recently, one of our editors finished a feature film called Public Figure that is being submitted around the film festival circuit.

What types of projects are you working on most often these days?
Jacobsen: The industry is all over the place. The current climate is very messy right now. Our projects are extremely varied. It’s hard to say what we work on most because it seems like there is no more norm. We are working on everything from sizzle pitch videos to spots for the Super Bowl.

What trends have you seen over the last year, and where do you expect to be in a year?
Jacobsen: Over the last year, we have noticed that the work comes from every angle. Our typical client is no longer just the marketing agency. It is also the production company, network, brand, etc. In a year we expect to be doing more production work. Seeing as how budgets are much smaller than they used to be and everyone wants a one-stop shop, we are hoping to stick with our gut and continue expanding our production arm.

Crew Cuts has beefed up its finishing services. Can you talk about that?
Stephanie Norris: We offer a variety of finishing services — from sound design to VO record and mix, compositing to VFX, 2D and 3D motion graphics and color grading. Our fully staffed in-house team loves the visual effects puzzle and enjoys working with clients to help interpret their vision.

Can you name some recent projects and the services you provided?
Norris: We just worked on a new campaign for New Jersey Lottery in collaboration with Yonder Content and PureRed. Brian Neaman directed and edited the spots. In addition to editorial, Crew Cuts also handled all of the finishing, including color, conform, visual effects, graphics, sound design and mix. This was one of those all-hands-on-deck projects. Keeping everything under one roof really helped us to streamline the process.

New Jersey Lottery

Working with Brian to carefully plan the shooting strategy, we filmed a series of plate shots as elements that could later be combined in post to build each scene. We added falling stacks of cash to the reindeer as he walks through the loading dock and incorporated CG inflatable decorations into a warehouse holiday lawn scene. We also dramatically altered the opening and closing exterior warehouse scenes, allowing one shot to work for multiple seasons. Keeping lighting and camera positions consistent was mission-critical, and having our VFX supervisor, Dulany Foster, on set saved us hours of work down the line.

For the New Jersey Lottery Holiday spots, the Crew Cuts CG team, led by our creative director Ben McNamara created a 3D Inflatable display of lottery tickets. This was something that proved too costly and time consuming to manufacture and shoot practically. After the initial R&D, our team created a few different CG inflatable simulations prior to the shoot, and Dulany was able to mock them up live while on set. Creating the simulations was crucial for giving the art department reference while building the set, and also helped when shooting the plates needed to composite the scene together.

Ben and his team focused on the physics of the inflation, while also making sure the fabric simulations, textures and lighting blended seamlessly into the scene — it was important that everything felt realistic. In addition to the inflatables, our VFX team turned the opening and closing sunny, summer shots of the warehouse into a December winter wonderland thanks to heavy compositing, 3D set extension and snow simulations.

New Jersey Lottery

Any other projects you’d like to talk about?
Jacobsen: We are currently working on a project here that we are handling soup to nuts from production through finishing. It was a fun challenge to take on. The spot contains a hand model on a greenscreen showing the audience how to use a new product. The shoot itself took place here at Crew Cuts. We turned our common area into a stage for the day and were able to do so without interrupting any of the other employees and projects going on.

We are now working on editorial and finishing. The edit is coming along nicely. What really drives the piece here is the graphic icons. Our team is having a lot of fun designing these elements and implementing them into the spot. We are so proud because we budgeted wisely to make sure to accommodate all of the needs of the project so that we could handle everything and still turn a profit. It was so much fun to work in a different setting for the day and has been a very successful project so far. Clients are happy and so are we.

Main Image: (L-R) Stephanie Norris and Nancy Jacobsen


Color grading The Favourite

Yorgos Lanthimos’ historical comedy, The Favourite, has become an awards show darling. In addition to winning 10 British Independent Film Awards, it also dominated the BAFTA nominations with 12 nods, including Best Film, Best Director, Best Editing, and Best Cinematography for Robbie Ryan, BSC, ISC, who scored an ASC Award nom as well.

Final picture post on the black comedy was completed by Goldcrest Post in London using DaVinci Resolve Studio. The Century Fox film’s DI was overseen by Goldcrest producer Jonathan Collard, with senior colorist Rob Pizzey providing the grade. He was assisted by Maria Chamberlain, while Russell White completed the online edit.

The film stars Olivia Colman (who one a Golden Globe for her role), Emma Stone and Rachel Weisz.

Lensed by Ryan, The Favourite was shot on a mixture of Kodak 500T 5219 and 200T 5207 film stocks with Timothy Jones of Digital Film Bureau scanning the 35mm film negative for the grade at Goldcrest. To capture the full dynamic range of modern film stock, the 2K ARRI scanner was set to 2.5 density range with drama scanning beginning once the edit was locked.

According to colorist Pizzey, once scanned almost everything seen on-screen exposure-wise is what came straight out of the camera. “Robbie did such an amazing job; there were only a handful of shots where I had to tweak the film grain back a little bit.

“In some respects, grading on film can be harder,” he continues. “It does take a lot more balancing because of variations in the scanning process and film stocks. Conversely, with digital capture you have a pretty good balance to begin with, if you start with the CDL values from the digital rushes process.”

Rob Pizzey

He says the way the director worked was very interesting. “Basically, we kept the images very natural and didn’t rely on too many secondaries. Instead, we focused on manipulating the palette using primary color correction to achieve an organic, naturalistic look. It sounds easy, but in truth, it is quite difficult. We started early testing on some of the dailies, a mix of interior and exterior shots, both day and night, to get an idea of where the director and DP wanted to go. We then pushed on with that into the DI.”

DP Ryan wasn’t able to attend the grade, so it was just Pizzey and the director.

“There was a lot of colorization going on in the bottom end of the picture, whether it’s in the shadows and deep blacks or playing with the highlights to create something that looked interesting,” says Pizzey. “We were ultimately still creating a look, it is just a lot more subtle, which is where the challenge lies.”

Most of the film was shot relying on available light only. “There was hardly any artificial lighting used at all during principal photography,” he reports. “The candlelit scenes at night relied solely on the candles themselves and, as you can imagine, there were a lot of candles. The blacks in those scenes are really inky.”

The night scenes were especially tough to complete, with Pizzey relying on Resolve’s primary grading toolset. “Those scenes are very rich and very warm, so we automatically backed off the warmth and tried to dial it down by adding some desaturation. However, it just didn’t look right,” he explains. “We then stripped the grade back and tried to stay as close to what had come out of the camera as we could, with only a few subtle tweaks here and there.”

Looking to embrace the contrast of the film stock, everything about the grade was all very natural and subtle. “For the first couple of weeks everything was about the primaries, and it was only toward the end of the DI that we began to use window shapes and keys on shots that we couldn’t otherwise get to work using primaries alone.

“There was one scene in particular where Yorgos and Robbie had to go back and shoot it five weeks later. Coming into the grade, there were a number of notable differences between the trees, moving from winter into spring, which meant the trees were beginning to bud.”

The Favourite is in theaters now.


Catching up with Aquaman director James Wan

By Iain Blair

Director James Wan has become one of the biggest names in Hollywood thanks to the $1.5 billion-grossing Fast & Furious 7, as well as the Saw, Conjuring and Insidious films — three of the most successful horror franchises of the last decade.

Now the Malaysian-born, Australian-raised Wan, who also writes and produces, has taken on the challenge of bringing Aquaman and Atlantis to life. The origin story of half-surface dweller, half-Atlantean Arthur Curry stars Jason Momoa in the title role. Amber Heard plays Mera, a fierce warrior and Aquaman’s ally throughout his journey.

James Wan and Iain Blair

Additional cast includes Willem Dafoe as Vulko, council to the Atlantean throne; Patrick Wilson as Orm, the present King of Atlantis; Dolph Lundgren as Nereus, King of the Atlantean tribe Xebel; Yahya Abdul-Mateen II as the revenge-seeking Manta; and Nicole Kidman as Arthur’s mom, Atlanna.

Wan’s team behind the scenes included such collaborators as Oscar-nominated director of photography Don Burgess (Forrest Gump), his five-time editor Kirk Morri (The Conjuring), production designer Bill Brzeski (Iron Man 3), visual effects supervisor Kelvin McIlwain (Furious 7) and composer Rupert Gregson-Williams (Wonder Woman).

I spoke with the director about making the film, dealing with all the effects, and his workflow.

Aquaman is definitely not your usual superhero. What was the appeal of doing it? 
I didn’t grow up with Aquaman, but I grew up with other comic books, and I always was well aware of him as he’s iconic. A big part of the appeal for me was he’d never really been done before — not on the big screen and not really on TV. He’s never had the spotlight before. The other big clincher was this gave me the opportunity to do a world-creation film, to build a unique world we’ve never seen before. I loved the idea of creating this big fantasy world underwater.

What sort of film did you set out to make?
Something that was really faithful and respectful to the source material, as I loved the world of the comic book once I dove in. I realized how amazing this world is and how interesting Aquaman is. He’s bi-racial, half-Atlantean, half-human, and he feels he doesn’t really fit in anywhere at the start of the film. But by the end, he realizes he’s the best of both worlds and he embraces that. I loved that. I also loved the fact it takes place in the ocean so I could bring in issues like the environment and how we treat the sea, so I felt it had a lot of very cool things going for it — quite apart from all the great visuals I could picture.

Obviously, you never got the Jim Cameron post-Titanic memo — never, ever shoot in water.
(Laughs) I know, but to do this we unfortunately had to get really wet as over 2/3rds of the film is set underwater. The crazy irony of all this is when people are underwater they don’t look wet. It’s only when you come out of the sea or pool that you’re glossy and dripping.

We did a lot of R&D early on, and decided that shooting underwater looking wet wasn’t the right look anyway, plus they’re superhuman and are able to move in water really fast, like fish, so we adopted the dry-for-wet technique. We used a lot of special rigs for the actors, along with bluescreen, and then combined all that with a ton of VFX for the hair and costumes. Hair is always a big problem underwater, as like clothing it behaves very differently, so we had to do a huge amount of work in post in those areas.

How early on did you start integrating post and all the VFX?
It’s that kind of movie where you have to start post and all the VFX almost before you start production. We did so much prep, just designing all the worlds and figuring out how they’d look, and how the actors would interact with them. We hired an army of very talented concept artists, and I worked very closely with my production designer Bill Brzeski, my DP Don Burgess and my visual effects supervisor Kelvin McIlwain. We went to work on creating the whole look and trying to figure out what we could shoot practically with the actors and stunt guys and what had to be done with VFX. And the VFX were crucial in dealing with the actors, too. If a body didn’t quite look right, they’d just replace them completely, and the only thing we’d keep was the face.

It almost sounds like making an animated film.
You’re right, as over 90% of it was VFX. I joke about it being an animated movie, but it’s not really a joke. It’s no different from, say, a Pixar movie.

Did you do a lot of previs?
A lot, with people like Third Floor, Day For Nite, Halon, Proof and others. We did a lot of storyboards too, as they are quicker if you want to change a camera angle, or whatever, on the fly. Then I’d hand them off to the previs guys and they’d build on those.

What were the main technical challenges in pulling it all together on the shoot?
We shot most of it Down Under, near Brisbane. We used all nine of Village Roadshow Studios’ soundstages, including the new Stage 9, as we had over 50 sets, including the Atlantis Throne Room and Coliseum. The hardest thing in terms of shooting it was just putting all the actors in the rigs for the dry-for-wet sequences; they’re very cumbersome and awkward, and the actors are also in these really outrageous costumes, and it can be quite painful at times for them. So you can’t have them up there too long. That was hard. Then we used a lot of newish technology, like virtual production, for scenes where the actors are, say, riding creatures underwater.

We’d have it hooked up to the cameras so you could frame a shot and actually see the whole environment and the creature the actor is supposed to be on — even though it’s just the actors and bluescreen and the creature is not there. And I could show the actors — look, you’re actually riding a giant shark — and also tell the camera operator to pan left or right. So it was invaluable in letting me adjust performance and camera setups as we shot, and all the actors got an idea of what they were doing and how the VFX would be added later in post. Designing the film was so much fun, but executing it was a pain.

The film was edited by Kirk Morri, who cut Furious 7, and worked with you on the Insidious and The Conjuring films. How did that work?
He wasn’t on set but he’d visit now and again, especially when we were shooting something crazy and it would be cool to actually see it. Then we’d send dailies and he’d start assembling, as we had so much bluescreen and VFX stuff to deal with. I’d hop in for an hour or so at the end of each day’s shoot to go over things as I’m very hands on — so much so that I can drive editors crazy, but Kirk puts up with all that.

I like to get a pretty solid cut from the start. I don’t do rough assemblies. I like to jump straight into the real cut, and that was so important on this because every shot is a VFX shot. So the sooner you can lock the shot, the better, and then the VFX teams can start their work. If you keep changing the cut, then you’ll never get your VFX shots done in time. So we’d put the scene together, then pass it to previs, so you don’t just have actors floating in a bluescreen, but they’re in Atlantis or wherever.

Where did you do the post?
We did most of it back in LA on the Warner lot.

Do you like the post process?
I absolutely love it, and it’s very important to my filmmaking style. For a start, I can never give up editing and tweaking all the VFX shots. They have to pull it away from me, and I’d say that my love of all the elements of the post process — editing, sound design, VFX, music — comes from my career in suspense movies. Getting all the pieces of post right is so crucial to the end result and success of any film. This post was creatively so much fun, but it was long and hard and exhausting.

James Wan

All the VFX must have been a huge challenge.
(Laughs) Yes, as there’s over 2,500 VFX shots and we had everyone working on it — ILM, Scanline, Base, Method, MPC, Weta, Rodeo, Digital Domain, Luma — anyone who had a computer! Every shot had some VFX, even the bar scene where Arthur’s with his dad. That was a set, but the environment outside the window was all VFX.

What was the hardest VFX sequence to do?
The answer is, the whole movie. The trench sequence was hard, but Scanline did a great job. Anything underwater was tough, and then the big final battle was super-difficult, and ILM did all that.

Did the film turn out the way you hoped?
For the most part, but like most directors, I’m never fully satisfied.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.


Filmic adds Log V2 to FilmicPro

Filmic has added Log V2 within FilmicPro, its mobile filmmaking tool. Log V2 for FilmicPro offers to 2.5 stops of additional dynamic range for mobile devices, enabling the newest iPhone XR, XS and XS Max models to exceed 12 stops of total dynamic range at base ISO. Filmic says these results rival those of the Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera and the Panasonic Lumix GH5s.

Additionally, to further complement the new Log V2 curve, Filmic has increased the maximum target bit rate for 4K recording to 130Mbps on the latest-generation smartphones, delivering a higher-quality recording experience for mobile filmmakers.

Filmic has also released a new professional LUT pack for use with its Cinematographer Kit, that gives filmmakers the ability to color grade data rich content for cinematic results. Filmic is also offering deFlat and deLogLUT packs are also offered, free of charge, on the Filmic site.

The new FilmicPro LUT Pack uses the .cube format which ensures its compatibility with Adobe Premiere, Apple Final Cut Pro X, DaVinci Resolve and other standard industry editing solutions for the desktop. The Filmic deFlat and deLog LUTs are also pre-bundled with LumaFusion and VideoLUT apps for iOS. By partnering with leading iOS editing apps like LumaFusion and VideoLUT, Filmic will simplify advanced color grading on mobile devices for filmmakers and editors. One click will conform their Log to the Rec.709 color space while still giving them additional dynamic range.

With the release of FilmicPro Log V2 and its new Pro LUT Pack, Filmic is offering a series of new tutorials and test shot clips. All resources for mobile filmmakers are available here.

Filmic Pro Log V2 capabilities are available immediately as an in-app purchase, for optional devices, with Cinematographer Kit and is priced at $14.99. The new Pro LUT Pack is available as a free download from their website. The Filmic Pro app is available as a download from the Apple App store (for iOS devices) and on Google Play (for Android devices) for $14.99.


Inside the mind and workflow of a 14-year-old filmmaker

By Brady Betzel

From editing to directing, I have always loved how mentoring and teaching is a tradition that lives on in this industry. When I was an assistant editor, my hope was that the editors would let me watch them work, or give me a chance to edit. And a lot of the time I got that opportunity.

Years ago I worked with an editor named Robb McPeters, who edited The Real Housewives of New York City. I helped cut a few scenes, and Robb was kind enough to give me constructive feedback. This was the first time I edited a scene that ran on TV. I was very excited, and very appreciative of his feedback. Taking the time to show younger assistant editors who have their eye on advancement makes you feel good — something I’ve learned firsthand.

As I’ve become a “professional” editor I have been lucky enough to mentor assistant editors, machine room operators, production assistants and anyone else that was interested in learning post. I have found mentoring to be very satisfying, but also integral to the way post functions. Passing on our knowledge helps the community move forward.

Even with a couple of little scenes to cut for Robb, the direction I received helped make me the kind of editor I am today. Throughout the years I was lucky enough to encounter more editors like Robb and took all of the advice I could.

Last year, I heard that Robb’s son, Griffin, had made his first film at 13 years old, Calling The Shots. Then a few months ago I read an article about Griffin making a second film, at 14 years old, The Adventure of T.P. Man and Flusher. Griffin turns 15 in February and hopes to make a film a year until he turns 18.

It makes sense that someone who has been such a good mentor has produced a son with such a passion for filmmaking. I can see the connection between fatherhood and mentorship, especially between an editor and an assistant. And seeing Robb foster his son’s love for filmmaking, I realized I wanted to be able to do that with my sons. That’s when I decided to reach out to find out more.

CAN YOU TALK ABOUT YOUR MOST RECENT FILM?
The Adventure of T.P. Man and Flusher is really a story of adventure, friendship and finding love. After learning that his best friend Jim (Sam Grossinger) has attempted suicide, Tom (Adam Simpson) enlists the help of the neighborhood kingpin, Granddaddy’ (Blake Borders). Their plan is to sneak Jim out of the hospital for one last adventure before his disconnected parents move him off to Memphis. On the way they encounter a washed up ‘90s boy-band star and try to win the hearts of their dream girls.

Tom realizes that this adventure will not fix his friend, but their last night together does evolve into the most defining experience of their lives.

HOW DID YOU COME UP WITH THE IDEA FOR THIS FILM?
The Adventure of T.P. Man and Flusher is a feature film that I wrote while in 8th grade. I saved every penny I could earn and then begged my parents to let me use money from my college savings. They knew how important this film was to me so they agreed. This is my second feature and I wanted to do everything better, starting with the script to casting. I was able to cast professional actors and some of my schoolmates.

I shot in 4K UHD using my Sony A7riii. I then brought the footage into the iMac and transcoded into CineForm 720p files. This allowed me to natively edit them on the family iMac in Adobe Premiere. We have a cabin in Humboldt County, which is where I assemble my rough cuts.

I spent hours and hours this summer in my grandfather’s workshop editing the footage. Day after day my mom and sister would go swimming at the river, pick berries, all the lazy summer day stuff and I would walk down to the shop to cut, so that I could finish a version of my scene.

Once I finished my director’s cut, I would show the assembly to my parents, and they would start giving me ideas on what was working and what wasn’t. I am currently polishing the movie, adding visual effects (in After Effects), sound design, and doing a color grade in Adobe SpeedGrade. I’ll also add the final 5.1 surround sound mix in Adobe Audition to deliver for distribution.

WHERE DID YOU GET THE IDEA FOR THE FILM?
In 8th grade, a classmate attempted suicide and it affected me very deeply. I wondered if other kids were having this type of depression. After doing some research I realized that many kids suffer from deep depression. In fact, in 2016, adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 24 had a suicide rate of 13.15. That amazed and saddened me. I felt that I had to do something about it. I took my ideas and headed to our cabin in the woods to write the script over my winter break.

I was so obsessed with this story that I wrote a 120-page script.

CAN YOU TALK ABOUT PRODUCING?
It was a lot of scheduling, scheduling and scheduling. Locking locations, permits, insurance, and did I mention scheduling?

I think there was some begging in there too. “Please let us use. Please can we…” My school SCVi was extremely helpful with getting me insurance. It was heartwarming to see how many people wanted to help. Even support from companies, including Wooden Nickel who donated an entire lighting package.

WHAT ABOUT AS A DIRECTOR?
As the director I really wanted to push the fantastical and sometimes dark and lonely world these characters were living in. Of course, because I wrote the script I already had an idea of what I wanted to capture in the scene, but I put it to paper with shotlist’s and overhead camera placements. That way I had a visual reference to show of how I wanted to film from day one to the end.

Rehearsals with the actors were key with such a tight shooting schedule. Right from the start the cast responded to me as their director, which surprised me because I had just turned 14. Every question came to me for approval to represent my vision.

My dad was on set as my cinematographer, supporting me every step of the way. We have a great way of communicating. Most of the time we were on the same page, but if we were not, he deferred to me. I took my hits when I was wrong and then learned from them.

WHAT WOULD SURPRISE PEOPLE THE MOST ABOUT MAKING THIS FILM?
This was a true, small-budget, independent film that I made at 14 years old. Our production office was my mom and dad and myself. Three people usually don’t make films. Even though I am young, my parents trusted the weight of the film to me. It is my film. This means I did a little of everything all of the time, from pulling costumes to stocking the make-up kit to building my own 4K editing system.

We had no grips, no electric, no PAs. If we needed water or craft service, it was me, my dad and my mom. If a scene needed to be lit, my dad and I lit everything ourselves, we were the last ones loading costumes, extension cords and equipment. In post was all the same ordeal.

WHAT WAS YOUR FAVORITE PART?
I really love everything about filmmaking. I love crafting a story, having to plan and think of how to capture a scene. How show something that isn’t necessarily in front of your eyes. I love talking out my ideas. My mom teases me that I even sleep moviemaking because she saw me in the hall going to the bathroom the other night and I mumbled, “Slow pan on Griffin going to bathroom.”

But post is really where the movie comes together. I like seeing what works for a scene. Which reaction is better? What music or sound effects help tell the story? Music design is also very personal to me. I listen to songs for hours to find the perfect one for a scene.

WHAT’S YOUR LEAST FAVORITE?
Having to cut some really great scenes that I know an actor is looking forward to seeing in that first screening. It is a really hard decision to remove good work. I even cut my grandmother from my first film. Now that’s hard!

WHAT CAMERAS AND PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT DO YOU USE?
For recording I use the Sony A7rIII with various lenses recording to a Ninja Flame at 10-bit 4K. For sound I use a Røde NG2 boom and three lav mics. For lighting we used a few Aputure LED lights and a Mole Richardson 2k Baby Junior.

WHAT IS YOUR MOST PRODUCTIVE TIME OF THE DAY?
I am not much of a night person. I get really tired around 9:30pm. In fact, I still have a bedtime of 10:00pm. I would say my best work is done at the time I have after school until my bedtime. I edit every chance I get. I do have to break for dinner and might watch one half of a episode of The Office. Other than that I am in the bay from 3:30-10:00pm every day.

CAN YOU THINK OF ANOTHER JOB YOU MIGHT WANT SOMEDAY?
No, not really. I enjoy taking people on emotional rides, creating a presentation that evokes personal feelings and using visuals to takes my audience somewhere else. With all that said, if I couldn’t do this I would probably build professional haunted houses. Is that a real job?

IT’S STILL VERY EARLY, BUT HOW EARLY ON DID YOU KNOW THIS WOULD BE YOUR PATH?
My parents have this video of me reaching for the camera on the way to my first day of pre-school saying, “I want the camera, I want to shoot.”

When I was younger, silent films mesmerized me. I grew up wanting to be Buster Keaton. The defining moment was seeing Jaws. I watched it at five and then realized what being a filmmaker was, making a mosaic of images (as mentioned by Hitchcock on editing). I began trying to create. At 11 and 12 I made shorts, at 13 I made my first full-length feature film. The stress and hard work did not even faze me; I was excited by it.

CAN YOU TALK ABOUT YOUR FIRST FILM?
Calling the Shots, which is now available on Amazon Prime, was an experiment to see if I could make a full-length film. A test flight, if you will. With T.P. Man I really got to step behind the camera and an entirely different side of directing I didn’t get to experience with my first film since I was the lead actor in that.

I also love the fact that all the music and sound design and graphics were done with my hands and alone, most the time, in my editing suite. My dad designed it for me. I have two editing systems that I bounce back and forth between. I can set the lighting in the room, watch on a big 4K monitor and mix in 5.1 surround. Some kids have tree forts. I have my editing bay.

FINALLY, DO YOU GET STRESSED OUT FROM THE PROCESS?
I don’t allow myself to stress out about any of these things. The way I look at it is that I have a very fun and hard job. I try to keep things in perspective — there are no lives in danger here. I do my best work when I am relaxed. But, if there is a time, I walk away, take a bike ride or watch a movie. Watching others work inspires me to make my movies better.

Most importantly, I brainstorm about my next project. This helps me keep a perspective that this project will soon be over and I should enjoy it while I can and make it the best I possibly can.


Brady Betzel is an Emmy-nominated online editor at Margarita Mix in Hollywood, working on Life Below Zero and Cutthroat Kitchen. You can email Brady at bradybetzel@gmail.com. Follow him on Twitter @allbetzroff.


DP Chat: Nightflyers’ Markus Förderer, BVK

For German DP Markus Förderer, BVK, quickly developed an impressive resume of visually unique and critically acclaimed feature films. His feature film debut, Hell, earned Förderer a number of awards. He went on to shoot Mike Cahill‘s sci-fi drama, I Origins, which was awarded the Alfred P. Sloan Feature Film Prize at the 2014 Sundance Film Festival. He followed that with I Remember, which premiered at the 2015 Berlin Film Festival and won the 2016 German Camera Award for Best Cinematography.

Markus Förderer on the Nightflyers set.

His early work got him earmarked as one of Variety’s 2015 Up Next cinematographers. Most recently, Förderer collaborated with director Roland Emmerich on Stonewall and Independence Day: Resurgence and shot the pilot for Rise. He also recently shot the pilot for the highly anticipated sci-fi series Nightflyers by Game of Thrones writer George R.R. Martin, setting the look for the show’s DPs Gavin Struthers and Peter Robertson.

We reached out to him about his work…

How did you become interested in cinematography?
I was always fascinated by cinema and visual storytelling, watching movies like 2001: A Space Odyssey and Ridley Scott’s Alien. David Fincher’s early films had a big influence on me. When I learned how to use Photoshop during my time in high school in Germany, a new world of possibilities opened up. I experimented with how to manipulate the mood of images by adjusting colors, brightness and contrast.

This was still in the early days of the Internet and access to digital images online was quite limited then. There were simply not many images in decent resolution and quality on the web for me to play with. This is why I started taking my own stills with an early digital camera. It was a Fujifilm camera that had a 1.3-megapixel sensor. Hard to believe from today’s perspective, but this camera opened my eyes to the world of photography, lighting and composition.

Nightflyers

I felt limited, though, by still images and became determined to become a filmmaker to tell visual stories. Before going to film school, I started reading about filmmaking techniques and interviews with famous DPs and directors and realized that it was the DP’s role that interested me the most — the creation of a certain mood and tone that helps to tell the story and puts the audience in the character’s shoes.

What inspires you artistically?
I am most inspired by reading the scripts and talking to the director. I think each project has to have its own visual identity, and for me it all comes from the script and the director’s initial ideas. Sometimes they come with crazy ambitious ideas, and I see it as the DP’s responsibility to figure out a way to make it work. I believe in naturalism; using single sources and available light whenever possible to create cinematic images that don’t feel overly stylized. New technologies sometimes spark ideas for new or more efficient ways to create interesting shots.

You’ve shot Meridian for Netflix as a test film for 4K and Megan as a concept film for 8K. What new technology has had the most impact on the way you work?
Shooting for HDR with high dynamic range sensors has a big impact on the way I light a scene. I think you can be more extreme and explore low-light photography with very rich detail in the blacks, for example. It is tricky, though, to shoot for SDR and HDR distribution at the same time. The viewing experience is vastly different, especially in extreme lighting scenarios, like very low light or very bright scenes.

Nightflyers

Exploring larger, high-resolution sensors, gives me more freedom when capturing extreme lighting conditions and preserving natural detail the way my eyes see it. Shooting with the right combination of low-contrast lenses with a high-resolution sensor gives me very natural detail in actors’ eyes. It is amazing how much of the performance can be seen in the eyes, when projected properly in 4K.

What are some of your best practices or rules you try to follow on each job?
I think it is most important to create an environment of respectful and polite collaboration between all departments and crewmembers. Filmmaking is a team discipline and it shows if you listen to your crew’s input. I always try to listen closely to the director’s vision and find the right cinematic techniques to realize that vision.

However, following a storyboard or preplanned ideas step by step leads to a sterile movie, in my opinion. It is important to be prepared, but it is crucial to watch the actors carefully on the day and react to the rehearsal. The best days are the ones on which I was surprised by the performance of the actors in a way that inspired me to change the planned blocking and get to the core of the scene in a simple and elegant way.

I like to be surprised (in a good way) by the end results. There’s nothing more boring to me than watching dailies and having the images turn out exactly the way I imagined it beforehand. There is a richness in life that is hard to create in front of the camera, but it is always my goal to strive for that.

Nightflyers

Explain your ideal collaboration with the director when setting the look of a project.
It is great to get involved early on and start bouncing ideas back and forth with the director. Each collaboration is different, and it’s great to work with a director who trusts you and values your input, but I also love working with directors who have a very strong vision and have developed their own visual style over the years.

Tell us about Nightflyers. How would you describe the overarching look of the series pilot? Is there an example of a scene in the pilot that emphasizes this?
Nightflyers is a story about a spaceship and its crew on a very exciting mission to the edge of the solar system. The ship has very dark secrets that are revealed bit by bit. Director Mike Cahill and I focused on creating a specific atmosphere that is scary and leaves room for the audience’s imagination. It was important to us to avoid sci-fi clichés and rather focus on the characters and the way they experience the events on the ship.

The memory suite is an interesting example. It is a room that allows the crew to relive memories in a very visual way. The room by its design looks almost hostile. The first memory we experience, however, is very emotional, portraying the main character’s daughter. Mike was very specific with composition of these shots to create a sense of visual déjà vu, something we explored on a previous feature.

The framing of D’Branin’s character inside the memory suite and inside his memory is exactly the same. We replicated camera moves and used the same focal lengths. Every movement of the actors in the memory was staged, so we could recreate the same shots inside the spherical memory suite. At some point, the barrier between memory and reality starts to dissolve, and the contrast of the cold ship and the content of the memory start to collide in an interesting and scary way.

Nightflyers

How early did you get involved in the production?
Mike Cahill brought up the project quite early, and we flew to Ireland for an initial scout. The team there was fantastic, and everyone from the producers and network’s side wanted to create something really special. Production designer David Sandefur and his team designed amazing sets that gave us great flexibility to come up with interesting shots. This collaboration early on was crucial, as we integrated all the lighting into the ship. It had to be versatile enough to allow for different lighting scenarios for multiple episodes. My gaffer James McGuire did a fantastic job integrating miles of LED light strips. In the end, we could control it from his iPad, which would allow for last-minute tweaks without slowing down the shooting day for the actors and director.

How did you go about choosing the right camera and lenses for Nightflyers?
For me, it usually starts with the lens. Mike and I love the claustrophobic look you can achieve with anamorphic lenses in small contained spaces, like a spaceship. We tested a small number of lenses that would give us the desired qualities, and we decided that Panavision’s C-Series lenses would be the right choice for this. Also, I have shot many projects on Red cameras over the years, starting back on the Red-MX sensor. I had tested the Monstro 8K VV sensor from Red and felt it would open up many opportunities with its larger sensor size and incredible sensitivity.

Panavision’s Michael Cioni showed me the latest advances in the DXL camera, and I was sold when I saw how well it sits on your shoulder. We shot a lot of handheld on the pilot and contrasted it with some smooth Steadicam and gimbal shots. The ability to shoot large format and capture amazing images in low light were key for us. We employed Panavision’s DXL and a Red DSMC2 camera with the Monstro 8K VV sensor for tight spaces and lightweight rigs.

Nightflyers

Any challenging scenes that you are particularly proud of?
Shooting the scenes in the biodome was quite challenging. The spaceship is carrying several cargo domes — one of them is a biodome with living trees and a small forest inside. The domes are spinning around the ship’s center to create artificial gravity. We shot the majority in a nearby forest and some shots on stage. To connect the biodome structure with the forest, our art department built an elevator exit and airlock in the forest. The scenes in the dome take place during the day close to earth. We tested many options for lighting, but I found it most interesting to shoot the scenes at night and light them with strong daylight sources to convey the illusion of being in space during the day.

The little atmosphere in the biodome would make the sky outside the windows appear black, yet the inside would be flooded with light. In order to convey the spinning motion of the domes, we mounted a 9K HMI on a telescopic crane and moved it constantly in a circular pattern. This caused the shadows in the forest to move around. It was quite an astonishing experience to be in that forest at night and hear all the birds chirping because they must have thought it was day all of the sudden.

What’s your go-to gear that you can’t live without?
I try to be open to new gear, and I like to mix things up quite a bit from project to project. I find it hard though to go back to shooting Super 35-sized sensors, after working with the Red DSMC2 Monstro; it hits quite a sweet spot between sensor size, resolution and compact size.


DP Chat: No Activity cinematographer Judd Overton

By Randi Altman

Judd Overton, who grew up in the Australian Outback, knew he wanted to be a DP before he even knew exactly what that was, spending a lot of his time watching and re-watching movies on VHS tapes. When he was young, a documentary film crew came to his town. “I watched as the camera operator was hanging off the side of my motorbike filming as we charged over sand dunes. I thought that was a pretty cool job!”

No Activity

The rest, as they say, is history. Overton’s recent work includes the Netflix comedy series The Letdown and No Activity, which is a remake of the Australian comedy series of the same name. It stars Patrick Brammall and Tim Meadows and is produced by CBS Television Studios in association with Funny or Die, Jungle and Gary Sanchez Productions. It streams on CBS All Access.

We recently reached out to Overton, who also just completed the documentary Lessons from Joan, about one of the first female British theater directors, Joan Littlewood.

What inspires you artistically? And how do you simultaneously stay on top of advancing technology that serves your vision?
What I love about what I do is being able to see things, and show the world to audiences in a way people haven’t seen before. I always keep abreast of technology, but for me the technology really needs to service the story. I choose particular equipment in order to capture the emotion of the piece.

What new technology has changed the way you work (looking back over the past few years?
The greatest change in my world is the high-quality, high-ISO cameras now on the market. This has meant being able to shoot in a much less obtrusive way, shooting and lighting to create footage that is far closer to reality.

The use of great-quality LED lighting is something I’m really enjoying. The ability to create and capture any color and control it from your iPhone opens the floodgates for some really creative lighting.

 

Judd Overton

Can you describe your ideal collaboration with the director when setting the look of a project?
Every director is different, it’s a role and relationship I fill as required. Some directors like to operate the camera themselves. In that case, I oversee the lighting. Some directors just want to work with the actors, so my job then involves more responsibilities for coverage, camera movement and selecting locations.

I try to be open to each new experience and make creative guidelines for a project in collaboration with the director and producers, trying to preempt obstacles before they strike.

Tell us about the CBS All Access show No Activity. Can you describe the overall look of the show and what you and the director/producers wanted to achieve?
I shot the pilot for the original No Activity five years ago. Trent O’Donnell (writer/director, co-creator) wanted to make a series out of simple two hander (two actor) scenes.

We decided to use the police procedural drama genre because we knew the audience would fill in gaps with their own knowledge. In a show where very little happens, the mood and style become far more important.

How early did you get involved in the production?
I’ve been involved since the show was conceptualized. We shot the pilot in a parking lot in one of Sydney’s seedier areas. We fought off a lot of rats.

No Activity

How did you go about choosing the right camera and lenses for this project?
I had to shoot three cameras, as the show is heavily improvised. Other than my main cameras with zoom lenses, I chose the best cameras for each sequence. We used Blackmagic cameras Ursa Pro and Micro for a lot of our rigged positions. I also used Panasonic cameras for our available light work, and even an Arri 65 for some projection plates.

Were there any scenes that you are particularly proud of?
The scene I had the most fun with was the siege, which plays over the last two episodes of Season 2. We dusted off and fired up two 1930s Arc lights. Carbon Arc lights are what all the old Hollywood films used before HMIs. They are a true 5600 Kelvin, daylight source.

My gaffer’s father actually made these units, and they were refurbished for Quentin Tarantino’s film Once Upon a Time in Hollywood. We used them as searchlights for our nighttime siege, and the bright beams and plumes of smoke rising really gave the scene an epic scale.

What’s your go-to gear — things you can’t live without?
Communication is everything, and the latest toy in my toy box is HME headsets. They allow me to have constant communications with my camera operators, grips and electrics, essential when you’re running five cameras across multiple units.

Director Barry Jenkins on latest, If Beale Street Could Talk

By Iain Blair

If they handed out Oscars for shots of curling cigarette smoke, Barry Jenkins’ follow-up to his Oscar-winning Moonlight would win hands down. If Beale Street Could Talk looks certain to be an awards show darling, already picking up three Golden Globe nods — Best Drama Motion Picture, Best Screenplay for Jenkins and Best Supporting Actress for Regina King.

Based on the 1974 novel by writer and civil rights activist James Baldwin, it tells the story of a young black couple — Clementine “Tish” Rivers (KiKi Layne) and Alonzo “Fonny” Hunt (Stephan James) — who grow up together in Harlem and get engaged. But their romantic dreams soon begin to dissolve under the harsh glare of white authority and racism when Fonny is falsely accused of rape and thrown in jail, just as Tish realizes she is pregnant with their child.

While the couple is the focus of the film, the family drama also features a large ensemble cast that includes King as Tish’s mother and Colman Domingo as her father, along with Michael Beach, Brian Tyree Henry, Diego Luna, Pedro Pascal and Dave Franco.

Behind the camera, Jenkins reteamed with Moonlight cinematographer James Laxton, editors Nat Sanders and Joi McMillion, and composer Nick Britell.

I spoke with Jenkins about making the film and workflow.

Our writer Iain Blair with Barry Jenkins

It’s always a challenge to adapt an acclaimed novel for the screen. How tough was this one?
It was extremely tough, especially since I love James Baldwin so much. Every step of the way you’re deciding at which point you have to be completely faithful to the material and then where it’s OK to break away from the text and make it your own for the movie version.

I first read the novel around 2010, and in 2013 I went to Europe to get away and write the screenplay. I also wrote one for Moonlight, which then ended up happening first. This was a harder project to get made. Moonlight was smaller and more controllable. And this is told from a female’s perspective, so there were a lot of challenges.

What sort of film did you set out to make?
I wanted to take the energy of the novel and its lush romantic sensuality, and then pair it with the more biting, bitter social commentary of Baldwin’s non-fiction work. I see film as a very malleable art form, and I felt I could build it. So at times it could be extremely lush and beautiful — even distractingly so — but then it could turn very dark and angry, and contain all of that.

The film was shot by your go-to cinematographer James Laxton. Talk about the look you wanted and how you got it.
There are a lot of cinema references in Moonlight, but we couldn’t find many for this period set in this sort of neighborhood. There are nods to great directors and stylists, like Douglas Sirk and Hou Hsiao-hsien, but we ended up paying more attention to stills. We studied the work of the great photographers Roy DeCarava and Gordon Parks. I wanted it to look lush and beautiful.

You shot on location, and it’s a period piece. How hard was that?
It was pretty challenging because I’m the kind of guy — and James is too — where we like to have the freedom to point the camera anywhere and just shoot. But when you’re making a period film in New York, which is changing so fast every damn day, you just don’t have that freedom. So it was very constricting, and our production designer Mark Friedberg had to be very inventive and diligent about all the design.

Where did you post?
We split it between New York and partly in LA. We cut the whole film here in LA at this little place in Silverlake called Fancy Post, and did all the sound mix at Formosa. Then we moved to New York since the composer lives there, and we did the DI at Technicolor PostWorks in New York with colorist Alex Bickel, who did Moonlight. We spent a lot of time getting the look just right — all the soft colors. We chose to shoot on the Alexa 65, which is unusual for a small drama, but we loved the intimacy it gave us.

You reteamed with your go-to editors Nat Sanders, who’s cut all three of your films, and Joi McMillion, who cut Moonlight with Nat. Tell us how it worked this time.
Fancy Post is essentially a house, so they each had their own bedroom, and I’d come in each day and check on their progress. Both of them were at film school with me, and we all work really well together, and I love the editing process.

Can you talk about the importance of music and sound in the film?
Sound has always been so important to me, ever since film school. One of my professors there was Richard Portman, who really developed the overlapping, multi-track technique with Robert Altman.  I’ll always remember one of the first things he said to us about the importance of sound: a movie is 50 percent image and 50 percent sound, not ninety-five percent image and five percent sound. So that’s how I approach it.

We had a fantastic sound team: supervising sound editor Onnalee Blank and re-recording mixer Matt Waters. They usually do these huge projects with dragons and so on, like Game of Thrones, but they also do small dramas like this. They came on very late, but did incredible, really detailed work with all the dialogue. And there’s a lot of dialogue and conversation, most of it in interiors, and then there’s the whole soundscape that they built up layer by layer, which takes us back in time to the 1970s. They mixed all the dialogue so it comes from the front of the room, but we also created what we called “the voice of God” for all of Tish’s voiceovers.

 

In this story she really functions as the voice of James Baldwin, and while the voiceovers are in her head, we surround the audience with them. That was the approach. Just as with Moonlight, I feel that a film’s soundscape is beholden to the mental states and consciousness of the main characters, and not necessarily to a genre or story form. So in this, composer Nick Britell and I both felt that the sound of the film is paced by how Tish and Fonny are feeling. That opened it up in so many ways. Initially, we thought we’d have a pure jazz score, since it suited the era and location, but as we watched the actors working it evolved into this jazz chamber orchestra kind of thing.

This is obviously not a VFX-driven piece, but the VFX must have played a role in the final look. What was involved?
Crafty Apes in LA and Phosphene and Significant Others in New York did it all, and we had some period stuff, clean up and some augmentation, but we didn’t use any greenscreens on set. The big thing was that New York in the ‘70s was much grittier and dirtier, so all the graffiti on the subway cars was VFX. I hadn’t really worked much with visual effects before, but I loved it

There’s been so much talk in Hollywood about the lack of diversity — in front of and behind the camera. Do you see much improvement since we last spoke?
Well, look at all the diverse films out last year and now this year — Green Book, The Hate U Give, Black Panther, Widows, BlacKkKlansman — with black directors and casts. So there has been change, and I think Moonlight was part of a wave, increasing visibility around this issue. There’s more accountability now, and we’re in the middle of a cycle that is continuing. Change is a direction, not a destination.

Barry Jenkins on set.

We’re heading into awards season. How important are they for a film like this?
Super important. Look, Moonlight would not have had the commercial success it had if it hadn’t been for all the awards attention and talk.

Where do you keep your Oscar?
I used to keep it on the floor behind my couch, but I got so much shit about keeping it hidden that now it sits up high on a speaker. I’m very proud of it.

What’s next?
I’m getting into TV. I’m doing a limited series for Amazon called The Underground Railroad, and we’re in pre-production. I’ve got a movie thing on the horizon, but my focus is on this right now.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.

Review: GoPro Hero 7 Black action camera

By Brady Betzel

Every year GoPro offers a new iteration of its camera. One of the biggest past upgrades was from the Hero 4 to the Hero 5, with an updated body style, waterproofing without needing external housing and minimal stabilization. That was one of the biggest… until now.

The Hero 7 Black is by far the best upgrade GoPro users have seen, especially if you are sitting on a Hero 5 or earlier. I’ll tell you up front that the built-in stabilization (called Hypersmooth) alone is worth the Hero 7 Black’s $399 price tag, but there are a ton of other features that have been upgraded and improved.

There are three versions of the Hero 7: Black for $399, Silver for $299 and White for $199. The White is the lowest priced Hero 7 and includes features like 1080p @ 60fps video recording, a built-in battery, waterproofing to 33 feet-deep without extra housing, standard video stabilization, 2x slow-mo (1440p/1080p @ 60fps), video recording up to 40Mb/s (1440p), two-mic audio recording, 10MP Photos, and 15/1 burst photos. After reading that you can surmise that the Hero 7 White is as basic as it gets, GoPro even skipped 24fps video recording, ProTune and a front LCD display. But that doesn’t mean the Hero 7 White is a throwaway; what I love about the latest update to the Hero line is the simplicity in operating the menus. In previous generations, the GoPro Hero menus were difficult to use and would often cause me to fumble shots. The Hero 7 menu has been streamlined for a much more simple mode selection process, making the Hero 7 White a basic and relatively affordable waterproof GoPro.

The Hero 7 Silver can be purchased for $299 and has everything the Hero 7 White has, plus some extras, including 4K video recording at 30fps up to 60MB/s, 10MP photos with wide dynamic range to bring out details in the highlights and shadows and a GPS location to show you where your videos and photos were taken. .

The Hero 7 Black
The Hero 7 Black is the big gun in the GoPro Hero 7 lineup. For anyone who wants to shoot multiple frame rates; harness a flat picture profile using ProTune to have extended range when color correcting; record ultra-smooth video without an external gimbal and no post processing; or shoot RAW photos, the Hero 7 Black is for you.

The Hero 7 Black has all of the features of the White and Silver plus a bunch more, including the front-facing LCD display. One of the biggest still-photo upgrades is the ability to shoot 12MP photos with SuperPhoto. SuperPhoto is essentially a “make my image look like the GoPro photos on Instagram” look. It’s an auto-image processor that will turn good photos into awesome photos. Essentially it’s an HDR mode that gives as much latitude in the shadows and highlights as well as noise reduction.
Beyond the SuperPhoto, the Hero 7 has burst rates from 3/1 up to 30/1, a timelapse photo function with intervals ranging from .5 seconds to 60 seconds; the ability to shoot RAW photos in GPR format alongside JPG; the ability to shoot video in 4K at 60fps, 30fps and 24fps in wide mode, as well as 30 and 24fps in SuperView mode (essentially ultra-wide angle); 2.7K wide video up to 120fps and down to 24fps in linear view (no wide-angle warping) all the way down to 720p in wide at 240fps. s.

The Hero 7 records in both MP4 H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC formats at up to 78MB/s (4K). The Hero 7 Black has a bunch of additional modes including Night Photo; Looping; Timelapse Photo; Timelapse Video; Night Lapse Photo; 8x Slow Mo and Hypersmooth stabilization. It has Wake on Voice commands, as well as live streaming to Facebook Live, Twitch, Vimeo and YouTube. It also features Timewarp video (I will talk more about later); a GP1 processor created by GoPro; advanced metadata that the GoPro app uses to create videos of just the good parts (like smiling photos); ProTune; Karma compatibility; dive-housing compatibility; three-mic stereo audio; RAW audio captured in WAV format; the ability to plug in an external mic with the optional 3.5mm audio mic in cable; and HDMI video output with a micro HDMI cable.

I really love the GoPro Hero 7 and consider it a must-buy if you are on the edge about upgrading an older GoPro camera.

Out of the Box
When I opened the GoPro Hero7 Black I was immediately relieved that it was the same dimensions as the Hero 5 and 6, since I have access to the GoPro Karma drone, Karma gimbal and various accessories. (As a side note, the Hero 7 White and Silver are not compatible with the Karma Drone or Gimbal.) I quickly plugged in the Hero 7 Black to charge it, which only took half an hour. When fully drained the Hero 7 takes a little under two hours to charge.

I was excited to try the new built-in stabilization feature Hypersmooth, as well as the new stabilized in-camera timelapse creator, TimeWarp. I received the Hero 7 Black around Halloween so I took it to an event called “Nights of the Jack” at King Gillette Ranch in Calabasas, California, near Malibu. It took place after dark and featured lit-up jack-o-lanterns, so I figured I could test out the TimeWarp, Hypersmooth and low-light capabilities in one fell swoop.

It was really incredible. I used a clamp mount to hold it onto the kids’ wagon and just hit record. When I stopped recording, the GoPro finished processing the TimeWarp video and I was ready to view it or share it. Overall, the quality of video and the low-light recording were pretty good — not great but good. You can check out the video on YouTube.

The stabilization was mind blowing, especially considering it is electronic image stabilization (EIS), which is software-based, not optical, which is hardware-based. Hardware-based stabilization is typically preferred to software-based stabilization, but GoPro’s EIS is incredible. For most shooting scenarios, the built-in stabilization will be amazing — everyone who watches your clips will think that you are using a hardware gimbal. It’s that good.

The Hero 7 Black has a few options for TimeWarp mode to keep the video length down — you can choose different speeds: 2x, 5x, 10x, 15x, and 30x. For example, 2x will take one minute of footage and turn it into 30 seconds, and 30x will take five minutes of footage and turn it into 10 seconds. Think of TimeWarp as a stabilized timelapse. In terms of resolution, you can choose from 16:9 or 4:3 aspect ratio; 4K, 1440p or 1080p. I always default to 1080 if posting on Instagram or Twitter, since you can’t really see what the 4K difference, and it saves all my data bits and bytes for better image fidelity.

If you’re wondering why you would use TimeWarp over Timelapse, there are a couple of differences. Timewarp will create a smooth video when walking, riding a bike or generally moving around because of the Hypersmooth stabilization. Timelapse will act more like a camera taking pictures at a certain interval to show a passage of time (say from day to night) and will playback a little more choppy. Check out a sample day-to-night timelapse I filmed using the Hero 7 Black set to Timelapse on YouTube.

So beyond the TimeWarp what else is different? Well, just plain shooting 4K at 60fps — you now have the ability to enable the EIS stabilization where you couldn’t on the GoPro Hero 6 Black. It’s a giant benefit for anyone shooting 4K in the palm of their hands and wanting to even slow their 4K down by 50% and retain smooth motion with stabilization already done in-camera. This is a huge perk in my mind. The image processing is very close to what the Hero 6 produces and quite a bit better than the what the Hero 5 produces.

When taking still images, the low-light ability is pretty incredible. With the new Superphoto setting you can get that signature high saturation and contrast with noise reduction. It’s a great setting, although I noticed the subject in focus cannot be moving too fast or you will get some purple fringing. When used under the correct circumstances, the Superphoto is the next iteration of HDR.

I was surprised how much I used the GoPro Hero 7 Black’s auto-rotating menu feature when the camera was held vertically. The Hero 6 could shoot vertically but with the addition of the auto-rotation of the menu, the Hero 7 Black encourages more vertically photos and videos. I found myself taking more vertical photos, especially outdoors — getting a lot more sky in the shots, which adds an interesting perspective.

Summing Up
In the end, the GoPro Hero 7 Black is a must-buy if you are looking for the latest and greatest action-cam or are on the fence about upgrading from the Hero 5 or 6. The Hypersmooth video stabilization is incredible. If you want to take it a step further, combining it with a Karma gimbal will give you a silky smooth shot.

I really fell in love with the TimeWarp function, whether you are a prosumer filming your family at Disneyland or shooting a show in the forest, a quick TimeWarp is a great way to film some dynamic b-roll without any post processing.

Don’t forget the Hero 7 Black has voice control for hands-free operation. On the outside,the Hero 7 Black is actually black in color unlike the Hero 6 (which is a gray) and also has the number “7” labeled on it for easy finding in your case.

I would really love for GoPro to make these cameras charge wirelessly on a mat like my Galaxy phone. It seems like the GoPro action-cameras would be great to just throw on a wireless charger and also use the charger as a file-transfer station. It gets cumbersome to remove a bunch of tiny memory cards or use a bunch of cables to connect your cameras, so why not make it wireless?! I’m sure they are thinking of things like that, because focusing on stabilization was the right move in my opinion.

If GoPro can continue to make focused and powerful updates to their cameras, they will be here for a long time — and the Hero 7 is the right way to start.

Check out GoPro’s website for more info, including accessories like the Travel Kit, which features a little mini tripod/handle (called “Shorty”), a rubberized cover with a lanyard and a case for $59.99.

If you need the ultimate protection for your GoPro Hero 7 Black, look into GoPro Plus, which, for $4.99 a month, gives you VIP support; automatic cloud backup, access for editing on your phone from anywhere and camera replacement for up to two cameras per year of the same model, no questions asked, when something goes wrong. Compare all the new GoPro Hero 7 Models on their website website.


Brady Betzel is an Emmy-nominated online editor at Margarita Mix in Hollywood, working on Life Below Zero and Cutthroat Kitchen. You can email Brady at bradybetzel@gmail.com. Follow him on Twitter @allbetzroff.

Director Peter Farrelly gets serious with Green Book

By Iain Blair

Director, producer and writer Peter Farrelly is best known for the classic comedies he made with his brother Bob: Dumb and Dumber; There’s Something About Mary; Shallow Hal; Me, Myself & Irene; The Three Stooges; and Fever Pitch. But for all their over-the-top, raunchy and boundary-pushing comedy, those movies were always sweet-natured at heart.

Peter Farrelly

Now Farrelly has taken his gift for heartfelt comedy and put his stamp on a very different kind of film, Green Book, a racially charged feel-good drama inspired by a true friendship that transcended race, class and the 1962 Mason-Dixon line.

Starring Oscar-nominee Viggo Mortensen and Oscar-winner Mahershala Ali, it tells the fact-based story of the ultimate odd couple: Tony Lip, a bouncer from The Bronx and Dr. Don Shirley, a world-class black pianist. Lip is hired to drive and protect the worldly and sophisticated Shirley during a 1962 concert tour from Manhattan to the Deep South, where they must rely on the titular “Green Book” — a travel guide to safe lodging, dining and business options for African-Americans during the segregation era.

Set against the backdrop of a country grappling with the valor and volatility of the civil rights movement, the two men are confronted with racism and danger as they challenge long-held assumptions, push past their seemingly insurmountable differences and embrace their shared humanity.

The film also features Linda Cardellini as Tony Vallelonga’s wife, Dolores, along with Dimiter D. Marinov and Mike Hatton as two-thirds of The Don Shirley Trio. The film was co-written by Farrelly, Nick Vallelonga and Brian Currie and reunites Farrelly with editor Patrick J. Don Vito, with whom he worked on the Movie 43 segment “The Pitch.” Farrelly also collaborated for the first-time with cinematographer Sean Porter (read our interview with him), production designer Tim Galvin and composer Kris Bowers.

I spoke with Farrelly about making the film, his workflow and the upcoming awards season. After its Toronto People’s Choice win and Golden Globe nominations (Best Director, Best Musical or Comedy Motion Picture, Best Screenplay, Best Actor for Mortensen, Best Supporting Actor for Ali), Green Book looks like a very strong Oscar contender.

You told me years ago that you’d love to do a more dramatic film at some point. Was this a big stretch for you?
Not so much, to be honest. People have said to me, “It must have been hard,” but the hardest film I ever made was The Three Stooges… for a bunch of reasons. True, this was a bit of a departure for me in terms of tone, and I definitely didn’t want it to get too jokey — I tend to get jokey so it could easily have gone like that.  But right from the start we were very clear that the comedy would come naturally from the characters and how they interacted and spoke and moved, and so on, not from jokes.

So a lot of the comedy is quite nuanced, and in the scene where Tony starts talking about “the orphans” and Don explains that it’s actually about the opera Orpheus, Viggo has this great reaction and look that wasn’t in the script, and it’s much funnier than any joke we could have made there.

What sort of film did you set out to make?
A drama about race and race relations set in a time when it was very fraught, with light moments and a hopeful, uplifting ending.

It has some very timely themes. Was that part of the appeal?
Absolutely. I knew that it would resonate today, although I wish it didn’t. What really hooked me was their common ground. They really are this odd couple who couldn’t be more different — an uneducated, somewhat racist Italian bouncer, and this refined, highly educated, highly cultured doctor and classically trained pianist. They end up spending all this time together in a car on tour, and teach each other so much along the way. And at the end, you know they’ll be friends for life.

Obviously, casting the right lead actors was crucial. What did Viggo and Mahershala bring to the roles?
Well, for a start they’re two of the greatest actors in the world, and when we were shooting this I felt like an observer. Usually, I can see a lot of the actor in the role, but they both disappeared totally into these characters — but not in some method-y way where they were staying in character all the time, on and off the set. They just became these people, and Viggo couldn’t be less like Tony Lip in real life, and the same with Mahershala and Don. They both worked so hard behind the scenes, and I got a call from Steven Spielberg when he first saw it, and he told me, “This is the best buddy movie since Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid,” and he’s right.

It’s a road picture, but didn’t you end up shooting it all in and around New Orleans?
Yes, we did everything there apart from one day in northern New Jersey to get the fall foliage, and a day of exteriors in New York City with Viggo for all the street scenes. Louisiana has everything, from rolling hills to flats. We also found all the venues and clubs they play in, along with mansions and different looks that could double for places like Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, as well as Carolinas and the Deep South.

We shot for just 35 days, and Louisiana has great and very experienced crews, so we were able to work pretty fast. Then for scenes like Carnegie Hall, we used CGI in post, done by Pixel Magic, and we were also amazingly lucky when it came to the snow scenes set in Maryland at the end. We were all ready to use fake snow when it actually started snowing and sticking. We got a good three, four inches, which they told us hadn’t happened in a decade or two down there.

Where did you post?
We did most of the editing at my home in Ojai, and the sound at Fotokem, where we also did the DI with colorist Walter Volpatto.

Do you like the post process?
I love it. My favorite part of filmmaking is the editing. Writing is the hardest part, pulling the script together. And I always have fun on the shoot, but you’re always having to make sure you don’t screw up the script. So when you get to the edit and post, all the hard work is done in that sense, and you have the joy of watching the movie find its shape as you cut and add in the sound and music.

What were the big editing challenges, given there’s such a mix of comedy and drama?
Finding that balance was the key, but this film actually came together so easily in the edit compared with some of the movies I’ve done. I’ll never forget seeing the first assembly of There’s Something About Mary, which I thought was so bad it made me want to vomit! But this just flowed, and Patrick did a beautiful job.

Can you talk about the importance of music and sound in the film.
It was a huge part of the film and we had a really amazing pianist and composer in Kris Bowers, who worked a lot with Mahershala to make his performance as a musician as authentic as possible. And it wasn’t just the piano playing — Mahershala told me right at the start, “I want to know just how a pianist sits at the piano, how he moves.” So he was totally committed to all the details of the role. Then there’s all the radio music, and I didn’t want to use all the obvious, usual stuff for the period, so we searched out other great, but lesser-known songs. We had great music supervisors, Tom Wolfe and Manish Raval, and a great sound team.

We’re already heading into the awards season. How important are awards to you and this film?
Very important. I love the buzz about it because that gets people out to see it. When we first tested it, we got 100%, and the studio didn’t quite believe it. So we tested again, with “a tougher” audience, and got 98%. But it’s a small film. Everyone took pay cuts to make it, as the budget was so low, but I’m very proud of the way it turned out.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.

DP Chat: Green Book’s Sean Porter

Sean Porter has worked as a cinematographer on features, documentaries, short films and commercials. He was nominated for a Film Independent Spirit Award for Best Cinematography for his work on It Felt Like Love, and his credits include 20th Century Women, Green Room, Rough Night and Kumiko, the Treasure Hunter.

His most recent collaboration was with director Peter Farrelly on Green Book, which is currently in theaters. Set in 1962, the film follows Italian-American bouncer/bodyguard Tony Lip (Academy Award-nominee Viggo Mortensen) and world-class black pianist Dr. Don Shirley (Academy Award-winner Mahershala Ali) on a concert tour from Manhattan to the Deep South. They must rely on “The Green Book” to guide them to the few establishments that were then safe for African-Americans. Confronted with racism and danger — as well as unexpected humanity and humor — they are forced to set aside differences to survive and thrive on the journey of a lifetime.

Green Book director Peter Farrelly (blue windbreaker) with DP Sean Porter (right, brown jacket).

Porter chose the Alexa Mini mounted with Leica Summilux-C lenses to devise the look for “Green Book.” End-to-end post services were provided by FotoKem, from dailies at their New Orleans site to final color and deliverables at Burbank.

We spoke to him recently about his rise to director of photography and his work on Green Book:

How did you become interested in cinematography?
My relationship with cinematography, and really filmmaking, developed over many years during my childhood. I didn’t study fine art or photography in school, but discovered it later as many others do. I went in through the front door when I was probably 12 or so, and it’s been a long road.

I’m the oldest of four — two brothers and a sister. We grew up in a small town about an hour outside of Seattle, we had a modest yard that butted up to the “back woods.” It was an event when the neighborhood kids got on bikes and road a half mile or so to the only small convenience store around. There wasn’t much to do there, so we naturally had to be pretty inventive in our play. We’d come home from school, put on the TV and at the time Movie Magic was airing on The Discovery Channel. I think that show honestly was a huge inspiration, not only to me but to my brothers as well, who are also visual artists. It was right before Jurassic Park changed the SFX landscape — it was a time when everything was still done photographically, by hand. There were episodes showing how these films achieved all sorts of amazing images using rather practical tools and old school artistry.

My dad was always keen on technology and he had various camcorders throughout the years, beginning with the VHS back when the recorder had to be carried separately. As the cameras became more compact and easier to use, my brothers and I would make all kinds of films, trying to emulate what we had seen on the show. We were experimenting with high-level concepts at a very young age, like forced perspective, matte paintings, miniatures (with our “giant” cat as the monster) and stop motion.

I picked up the technology bug and by the time I was in middle school I was using our family’s first PC to render chromakeys — well before I had access to NLEs. I was conning my teachers into letting me produce “video” essays instead of writing them. Later we moved closer to Seattle and I was able to take vocational programs in media production and went on to do film theory and experimental video at the University of Washington, where I think I started distilling my focus as a cinematographer.

What inspires you artistically? And how do you simultaneously stay on top of advancing technology that serves your vision?
As I mentioned earlier, I didn’t discover film via fine art or photography, so I didn’t have that foundation of image making and color theory. I learned it all just by doing and paying attention to what I responded to. I didn’t have famous artists to lean on. You could say it was much more grassroots. My family was a lover of popular films, especially American comedies and action adventure. We watched things like Spies like Us, Star Wars, Indiana Jones and The Princess Bride. It was all pure entertainment, of course. I wasn’t introduced to Bergman or Fellini until much, much later. As we got older, my film language expanded and I started watching films by Lynch and Fincher. I will say that those popular ‘90s films had a great combination of efficient storytelling and technical craft that I still resonate with to this day. It’s very much a sort of “blue-collar” film language.

Staying on top of the technology oscillates between an uncontrollable obsession and an unbearable chore. I’ve noticed over the years that I’m becoming less and less invigorated by the tech — many of the new tools are invaluable, but I love relying on my team to filter out the good from the hype so I can focus on how best to tell the story. Some developments you simply can’t ignore; I remember the day I saw footage in class from a Panasonic DVX100. It changed everything!

What new technology has changed the way you work (looking back over the past few years)?
I feel like the digital cameras, while continuing to get better, have slowed down a bit. There was such a huge jump between the early 2000s and the late 2000s. There’s no question digital acquisition has changed the way we make images — and it’s up for debate if it’s been a wholly positive shift. But generally, it’s been very empowering for filmmakers, especially on smaller budgets. It’s given me and my peers the chance to create cinema-quality images on projects that couldn’t afford to shoot on 16mm or 35mm. And over the last five years, the gap between digital and film has diminished, even vanished for many of us.

But if I had to single out one development it’s probably been LEDs over the last two or three years. Literally, five years ago it was all HMI and Kino Flos, and now I don’t remember the last time I touched a Kino. Sometimes we go entire jobs without firing up an HMI. The LEDs have gotten much better recently, and the control we have on set is unprecedented. It makes you wonder how we did it before!

What are some of your best practices or rules you try to follow on each job?
Every time I start a new project, I say to myself, “This time I’m going to get my shit together.” I think I’m going to get organized, develop systems, databases, Filemaker apps, whatever, and streamline the process so I can be more efficient. I’ll have a method for combining scouting photos with storyboards and my script notes so everything is in one place and I can disseminate information to relevant departments. Then I show up at prep and realize the same thing I realize every movie: They are all so, so different.

It’s an effort in futility to think you can adopt a “one-size-fits-all” mentality to preproduction. It just doesn’t work. Some directors storyboard every shot. Some don’t even make shot lists. Some want to previs every scene during the scouting process using stand-ins, others won’t even consider blocking until the actors are there, on the day. So I’ve learned that the efficiency is found in adaptation. My job is to figure out how to get inside my director’s head, see things the way they are seeing them and help them get those ideas into actions and decisions. There’s no app for that, unfortunately! I suppose I try to really listen, and not just to the words my director uses to describe things, but to the subtext and what is between the lines. I try to understand what’s really important to them so I can protect those things and fight for them when the pressure to compromise starts mounting.

Linda Cardellini as Dolores Vallelonga and Viggo Mortensen as Tony Vallelonga in “Green Book,” directed by Peter Farrelly.

On a more practical note, I read many years ago about a DP who would stand on the actor’s mark and look back toward the camera — just to be aware of what sort of environment they were putting the talent in. Addressing a stray glare or a distracting stand might make a big difference to the actor’s experience. I try to do that as often as I can.

Explain your ideal collaboration with the director when setting the look of a project.
It’s hard to reduce such an array of possible experiences down to an “ideal,” as an ideal situation for one film might not be ideal for another depending on the experience the director wants to create on set. I’ve had many different, even conflicting, “processes” with my directors because it suited that specific collaboration. Again, it’s about adapting, being a chameleon to their process. It’s not about coming in and saying, “This is the best way to do this.”

I remember with one director we basically locked ourselves in her apartment for three days and just watched films. We’d pause them now and then and discuss a shot or a scene, but a lot of the time it was just about being together experiencing this curated body of work and creating a visual foundation for us to work from. With another director, we didn’t really watch any films at all, but we did lots and lots of testing. Camera tests, lens tests, lighting tests, filter tests, makeup and SFX tests. And we’d go into a DI suite and look at everything and talk about what was working and what wasn’t. He was also a DP so I think that technical, hands-on approach made sense to him. I think I tested every commercially available fluorescent tube that was on the market to find the right color for that film. I’ll admit as convenient as it would be to have a core strategy to work from, I think I would tire of it. I love walking onto a film and saying, “Ok, how are we going do this?”

Tell us about Green Book. How would you describe the overarching look of the film that you and Peter Farrelly wanted to achieve?
I think, maybe more than I want to admit, that the look of my films is a culmination of the restraints that are imparted by either myself or by production. You’re only going to have a certain amount of time and money for each scene, so calculations and compromises must be made there. You have to work with the given location, time of day and how it’s going be art decorated, so that adds a critical layer. Peter wanted to work a certain way with his actors and have lots of flexibility, so you adapt your process to make that work. Then you give yourself certain creative constraints, and somewhere in between all those things pushing on each other, the look of the film emerges.

That sounds a little arbitrary and Pete and I had some discussions about how it should look, but they were broad conversations. Honesty and authenticity were very important to Pete. He didn’t want things to ever look or feel disingenuous. My very first conversation with him after I was hired was about the car work. He was getting pressure to shoot it all on stage with LED screens. I was honest with him. I told him he’d probably get more time with his actors, and more predictable results on stage, but he’d get more realism from the look and from the performances dragging the entire company out onto the open road and battling the elements.

So we shot all the car work practically, save for a few specific night scenes. I took his words to heart and tried to shape the look out of what was authentic to the time. My gaffer and I researched what lighting fixtures were used then — it wasn’t like it is now with hundreds of different light sources. Back then it was basically tungsten, fluorescent, neon mercury and sodium. We limited our palette to those colors and tuned all our fixtures accordingly. I also avoided stylistic choices that would have made the film feel dated or “affected” — the production design, wardrobe and MCU departments did all of that. Pete and I wanted the story to feel just as relevant now as it did then, so I kept the images clean and largely unadulterated.

How early did you get involved in the production?
I came on about five weeks before shooting. I prepped for one week and then we were all sent home! Some negotiations had stalled production and for several weeks I didn’t know if we would start up again. I’m very grateful everyone made it work so we could make the film.

How did you go about choosing the right camera and lenses for Green Book?
While 35mm would have been a great choice aesthetically for the film, there were some real production advantages to shooting digitally. As we were shooting all the car work practically, it was my prerogative to get as much of the coverage inside the car accomplished at a go. Changing lighting conditions, road conditions and tight schedules prohibited me from shooting an angle, then pulling over and re-rigging the camera. We had up to three Alexa Mini cameras inside the car at once, and many times that was all the coverage planned for the scene, save for a couple cutaways. This allowed us to get multi-page scenes done very efficiently while maintaining light continuity, keeping the realism of the landscapes and capturing those happy (and sometimes sad) accidents.

I chose some very clean, very fast, and very portable lenses: the Leica Summilux-Cs. I used to shoot stills with various Leica film cameras and developed an affinity for the way the lenses rendered. They are always sharp, but there’s some character to the fall off and the micro-contrast that always make faces look great. I had shot many of my previous films with vintage lenses with lots of character and could have easily gone that route, but as I mentioned, I was more interested in removing abstractions — finding something more modern yet still classic and utilitarian.

Any challenging scenes that you are particularly proud of?
Not so much a particular scene, but a spanning visual idea. Many times, when you start a film, you’ll have some cool visual arc you want to try to employ, and along the way various time, location or schedule constraints eventually break it all down. Then you’re left with a few disparate elements that don’t connect the way you wanted them to. Knowing I would face those same challenges but having a bit more resources than some of my other films, I aimed low but held my ground: I wanted the color of the streetlights to work on a spectrum, shifting between safety and danger deepening on the scene or where things were heading in the story.

I broke the film down by location and worked with my gaffer to decide where the environment would be majority sodium (safe/familiar/hopeful) and where it would be mercury (danger/fear/despair). It sounds very rudimentary but when you try to actually pull it off with so many different locations, it can get out of hand pretty quickly. And, of course, many scenes had varying ratios of those colors. I was pleased that I was able to hold onto the idea and not have it totally disintegrate during the shoot.

What’s your go-to gear (camera, lens, mount/accessories) — things you can’t live without?
Go-to tools change from job to job, but the one I rely on more than any is my crew. Their ideas, support and positive energy keep me going in the darkest of hours! As for the nuts and bolts — lately I rarely do a job without SkyPanels and LiteMats. For my process on set, I’ve managed to get rid of just about everything except my light meter and my digital still camera. The still camera is a very fast way to line up shots, and I can send images to my iPad and immediately communicate framing ideas to all departments. It saves a lot of time and guess work!

Main Image: Sean Porter (checkered shirt) on set of Green Book, pictured with director Peter Farrelly.

Steve McQueen on directing Widows

By Iain Blair

British director/writer/producer Steve McQueen burst onto the international scene in 2013 when his harrowing 12 Years a Slave dominated awards season, winning as Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and a host of others. His directing was also recognized with many nominations and awards.

Now McQueen, who also helmed the 2011 feature Shame (Michael Fassbender, Carey Mulligan) is back with the film Widows.

A taut thriller, 20th Century Fox’s Widows is set in contemporary Chicago in a time of political and societal turmoil. When four armed robbers are killed in a botched heist, their widows — with nothing in common except a debt left behind by their dead husbands’ criminal activities — take fate into their own hands to forge a future on their own terms.

With a screenplay by Gillian Flynn and McQueen himself — and based on the old UK television miniseries of the same name — the film stars, among others, Viola Davis, Michelle Rodriguez, Colin Farrell, Brian Tyree Henry, Daniel Kaluuya, Carrie Coon, Jon Bernthal, Robert Duvall and Liam Neeson.

The production team includes Academy Award-nominated editor Joe Walker (12 Years a Slave), Academy Award-winning production designer Adam Stockhausen (The Grand Budapest Hotel) and director of photography Sean Bobbit (12 Years a Slave).

I spoke with McQueen, whose credits also include 2008’s Hunger, about making the film and his love of post.

This isn’t just a simple heist movie, is it?
No, it isn’t. I wanted to make an all-encompassing movie, an epic in a way, about how we live our daily lives and how they’re affected by politics, race, gender, religion and corruption, and do it through this story. I remember watching the TV series as a kid and how it affected me — how strong all these women were — and I decided to change the location from London to Chicago, which is really an under-used city in movies, and make it a more contemporary view of all these issues.

You assembled a great cast, led by Oscar-winner Viola Davis. What did she bring to the table?
So much weight and gravitas. She’s like an iceberg. There’s so much hidden depth in everything she does, and there’s this well of meaning and emotion she brings to the role, and then everyone has to step up to that.

What were the main technical challenges in pulling it all together?
The big one was logistics and dealing with all the Chicago locations. We had over 60 locations, all over the city, and 81 speaking parts. So there was a lot of planning, and if one thing got stuck it threw off the whole schedule. It would have been almost impossible to reschedule some of the scenes.

How tough was the shoot?
Pretty tough. They’re always grueling, and when you’re writing a script you don’t always think about how many night shoots you’re going to face, and you forget about this big machine you have to bring with you to all the locations. Trying to make any quick change or adjustment is like trying to turn the Titanic. It takes a while.

How early on did you start integrating post and all the VFX?
From day one. You have to when you have a big production with a set release date, so we began cutting and assembling while I shot.

Where did you post?
In Amsterdam, where I live, and then we finished it off in London.

Do you like the post process?
I love it. It’s my favorite part as you have civilized hours — 9 till 5 or whatever —and you’re in total control. You’re not having to deal with 40 or 50 people. It’s just you and the editor in a dark room, actually making the film.

Joe Walker has cut all of your films, including Hunger and Shame, as well Blade Runner 2049, Arrival and Sicario. Can you talk about working with him?
He wasn’t on set, and we had someone else assembling stuff as Joe was still finishing up Blade Runner. He came in when I got back to Amsterdam. Joe and I go way back to 2007, when we did Hunger, and we always work very closely together. I sit right next to him, and I’m there for every single cut, dissolve, whatever. I’m very present. I’m not one of those directors who comes in, gives some notes and then disappears. I don’t know how you do that. I love editing and finding the pace and rhythm. What makes Joes such a great editor is that he started off in music, so he has a great sense of how to work with sound.

What were the big editing challenges?
There are all these intertwined stories and characters, so it’s about finding the right balance and tone and rhythm. The whole opening sequence is all about pulling the audience in and then grabbing them with a caress and then a slap — and another caress and slap — as we set up the story and the main characters. Then there are so many parts to the story that it’s like this big Swiss watch: all these moving parts and different functions. But you always go back to the widows. A script isn’t a film, it’s a guide, so you’re feeling your way in the edit, and seeing what works and what doesn’t. The whole thing has to be cohesive, one thing. That’s your goal.

What about the visual effects?
They were all done by One Of Us and Outpost VFX (both in the UK), but the VFX were all about enhancing stuff, not dazzling the audience. The aim was always for realism, not fantasy.

Talk about the importance of sound and music.
They’re huge for me, and it’s interesting as a lot of the movie has no sound or music. At the beginning, there’s just this one chord on a violin when we get to the title card, and that’s it. There’s no sound for 2/3 of the movie, and then we only have some ambient music and Procul Harum’s “Whiter Shade of Pale” and a Van Morrison song. That’s why all the sound design is so important. When the women lose their husbands, I didn’t want it to be hammy and tug at your heartstrings. I wanted you to feel that pain and that grief and that journey. When they start to act and take control of their lives, that’s when the music and sound kick in, almost like this muscular drive. Our supervising sound editor James Harrison did a great job with all that. We did all the mixing in Atmos at De Lane Lea in London.

Where did you do the DI and how important is it to you?
We did it at Company 3 London with colorist Tom Poole, and it’s very important. We shot on film, and our DP Sean and I spent a lot of time just talking about the palette and the look. When you’re shooting in over 60 locations, it’s not so much about putting your own stamp and look on them, but about embracing what they offer you visually and then tweaking it.

For the warehouse scenes, there was a certain mood and it had crappy tungsten lighting, so we changed it a bit to feel more tactile, and it was the same with most of the locations. We’d play with the palette and the visual mood, which the DI allows you to do so well.

Did the film turn out the way you hoped?
(Laughs) I always hope it turns out better than I hoped or imagined, as your imagination can only take you so far. What’s great is when you go beyond that and come up with something cooler than you could have imagined. That’s what I always want.

What’s next?
I’ve got a few things cooking on the stove, and I should finish writing something in the next few months and then start it next year.

All Images Courtesy of 20th Century Fox/Merrick Morton


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.

First Man: Oscar-winning director Damien Chazelle

He talks about his most recent film, First Man

By Iain Blair

It’s been two years since I spoke to writer/director Damien Chazelle for postPerspective about his film La La Land. While he only had three feature films on his short resume at the time, he was already viewed by Hollywood as a promising major talent.

That promise was fulfilled in a big way when La La Land — a follow-up to his 2014 release Whiplash (which received five Oscar noms, including Best Picture and Best Adapted Screenplay for Chazelle) — earned 14 Academy Award nominations, winning six awards, including Best Director for Chazelle. He was the youngest to receive the award. The film also won a record-breaking seven Golden Globe Awards and was honored with five BAFTA wins and 11 nominations.

Damian Chazelle working with DP Linus Sandgren on the set of “First Man.”

Recently, Chazelle reteamed with that film’s star, Ryan Gosling, who plays astronaut Neil Armstrong in Universal Pictures’ First Man, the story behind the first manned mission to the moon. Focusing on Armstrong and the decade leading to the Apollo 11 flight, it’s an intimate account that puts the audience squarely inside the planes and rockets, fully immersing the viewer in the exciting and terrifying test flights and space missions.

Based on the book by James R. Hansen, the film also explores the triumphs and the cost — on Armstrong, his family, his colleagues and the nation itself — of one of the most dangerous missions in history.

The film co-stars Claire Foy, as the unsung hero Janet Armstrong, and a supporting cast that includes Jason Clarke, Kyle Chandler, Patrick Fugit, Ethan Embry, Pablo Schreiber, Christopher Abbott and Corey Stoll.

Written by Academy Award-winner Josh Singer (Spotlight, The Post) — with Steven Spielberg as an executive producer — the film also reunites Chazelle with his Oscar-winning cinematographer Linus Sandgren (American Hustle), Oscar-winning editor Tom Cross (Whiplash) and Oscar-winning composer Justin Hurwitz (Whiplash). The director also teamed for the first time with Oscar-winning visual effects supervisor Paul Lambert (Blade Runner 2049, The Huntsman: Winter’s War).

I recently talked to Chazelle about making the film, which has already generated a lot of Oscar buzz, and his love of editing and post.

What sort of film did you set out to make?
I wanted to strip away the mythology a bit, as it’s very easy to forget these are real human beings who risked their lives in glorified sardine cans. It was a time before personal computers, and they were using technology that seems so antiquated now. It was about figuring out the edges of their potential. To me it felt like a story of resilience and sacrifice that was really worth telling, and my hope was to make it totally immersive. I wanted it to feel like you’re right there — in the capsules, in the test flights, wherever the characters are. I wanted to give it a feel of being almost like virtual reality.

What were the main technical challenges in pulling it all together?
The big thing was, we all wanted to get it technically right, down to the very smallest details, so all the help we got from NASA was invaluable. And first, we had to deal with the sheer density of material. There was so much knowledge we had to quickly gain in order to reflect it accurately. There was so much research and trips to landing sites and space museums, and meeting and talking to former colleagues and former astronauts. We also got the input and support of Neil’s sons and family. Then there was a lot of prep time where our production designer Nathan Crowley started designing and building all the spacecraft pretty much to scale.

How early on did you start integrating post and all the VFX?
Right away, but Nathan and I agreed that we should do as many of the VFX as in-camera as possible rather than using greenscreen, so we used a lot of full-scale models and also some miniatures. We used gimbals, motion-control and LED technology and some other in-camera effects, so the result felt like a very physicalized approach. I thought really suited the subject matter. I didn’t want to glamorize it, but show just how raw and tough it all was.

We looked at a lot of archival footage, and I storyboarded every scene in space and then made animatics set to Dustin’s music, so it gave us a very precise sense of, “OK, this is the shot. How are we going to do this other shot? How are we going to combine this effect with that one?” It was figuring out the methodology, shot by shot, and we had lots of multi-departmental meetings around tables with models and art work laid out. This allowed us to walk each other through the process. It was a bit like a relay race.

Can you talk about how you collaborated again with Linus Sandgren?
He did such a beautiful job on La La Land, and I knew what he was capable of, so it was great to collaborate with him and watch him work on this bigger canvas. He was able to tackle all the technical challenges, yet he was also always able to ensure that his photography had humanity to it. The human beings are at the center of it all, and he captured all the emotions in their faces, all the poetic moments in between all the big set pieces. He’s always searching for those things, which is what I love about his work. He built special light rigs for scenes with the sun, and then we shot the moon sequences at this gray-colored quarry near Atlanta, which we then sculpted.

To get that harsh lunar light, he developed the biggest film light ever built — around 200,000 watts. That gave us that black sky look and stark shadows. We also did a lot of testing of formats to figure out what the balance should be because we planned to shoot a lot in 16mm, some in 35mm, and then all the moon stuff in IMAX. All the transitions were important in telling the story.

(See your interview with Sandgren about his work on La La Land here.)

Where did you post?
All on the Universal lot in LA, including the sound mix.

Do you like the post process?
I love it, especially the editing. It’s my favorite part of the whole process, and where it all comes together.

Talk about editing with your go-to guy Tom Cross. What were the big editing challenges?
The big one was the huge amount of film I shot — two million feet — and a short editing schedule, shorter than La La Land. So figuring out how to take all that, and a lot of it was documentary style, and wrangle it into a narrative space and make the movie feel visceral, kinetic and propulsive was very challenging. Then finding the balance between the big set pieces in space and the quiet moments at home was demanding, but Tom’s so good at that and finding gems. Our first cut was over three hours long, so we had to cut a lot and find the most economical ways to work through the footage. This wasn’t like our last film, which was full of cuts and close ups. This was more a first-person point of view, and we had to edit in a way that gave clarity, structure and a kineticism to make it feel like this one big breathless ride.

All the VFX play a big role. Can you talk about working on them with visual effects supervisor Paul Lambert.
He was there right from the start, and he also designed all of the in-camera effects, and he’d refer to it as “doing the VFX in prep rather than leaving them all to post.” We used archival footage projected onto LED screens through the windows of the spacecraft, and that gave us our backgrounds. We didn’t have a lot of CG stuff created from scratch, but there was a lot of fine-tuning and finessing, so it was a big endeavor both in prep and post. But it never felt like that kind of effects movie where you shoot a ton of greenscreen and then fix it all in post.

(See our interview with Tom Cross about his work on First Man here.)

Talk about the importance of sound and music.
It’s huge for me, and that’s why music drives a lot of my films. I used to be a jazz drummer and I’m always thinking in terms of rhythm and sound. The sound team collected a huge range of sounds we could play with. Our sound designer Ai-Ling Lee would go down to the Cape and record stuff, and we also recorded sounds in old hangars and sounds from the old space suits and their cooling tubes and so on. It was really specific. Our set sound mixer Mary Ellis also recorded a ton of stuff, and it all went into a pile. The mixing took a long time, and we’d also augment the authentic sounds with animal noises, gunfire and other things, so it was quite experimental. Then there’s the absolute silence of the moon.

(Stay tuned for our interview with the audio post team on First Man.)

Where did you do the DI, and how important is it to you?
We did it at Universal with colorist Natasha Leonnet from EFilm. She did La La Land and Whiplash for me and is very experienced and an artist. The DI is such a key part of post, and I love the look we got.

What’s next?
I’m doing pre-prep on this TV musical drama, The Eddy, for Netflix. It’s set in Paris and we’ll start shooting there in March. Then I’m also writing this drama series for Apple TV, which I’ll direct and also executive produce. I have some movie ideas in development, but nothing set yet. I’m excited about the TV stuff.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.

DP Chat: Polly Morgan, ASC, BSC

Cinematographer Polly Morgan, who became an active member of the ASC in July, had always been fascinated with films, but she got the bug for filmmaking as a teenager growing up in Great Britain. A film crew shot at her family’s farmhouse.

“I was fixated by the camera and cranes that were being used, and my journey toward becoming a cinematographer began.”

We reached out to Morgan recently to talk about her process and about working on the FX show Legion.

What inspires you artistically? And how do you simultaneously stay on top of advancing technology that serves your vision?
I am inspired by the world around me. As a cinematographer you learn to look at life in a unique way, noticing elements that you might not have been aware of before. Reflections, bouncing light, colors, atmosphere and so many more. When I have time off, I love to travel and experience different cultures and environments.

I spend my free time reading various periodicals to stay of top of the latest developments in technology. Various publications, such as the ASC’s magazine, help to not only highlight new tools but also people’s experiences with them. The filmmaking community is united by this exploration, and there are many events where we are able to get together and share our thoughts on a new piece of equipment. I also try to visit different vendors to see demos of new advances in technology.

Has any recent or new technology changed the way you work?
Live on-set grading has given me more control over the final image when I am not available for the final DI. Over the last two years, I have worked more on episodic television, and I am often unable to go and sit with the colorist to do the final grade, as I am working on another project. Live grading enables me to get specific with adjustments on the set, and I feel confident that with good communication, these adjustments will be part of the final look of the project.

How do you go about choosing the right camera and lenses to achieve the right look for a story?
I like to vary my choice of camera and lenses depending on what story I am telling.
When it comes to cameras, resolution is an important factor depending on how the project is going to be broadcast and if there are specific requirements to be met from the distributor, or if we are planning to do any unique framing that might require a crop into the sensor.

Also, ergonomics play a part. Am I doing a handheld show, or mainly one in studio mode? Or are there any specifications that make the camera unique that will be useful for that particular project? For example, I used the Panasonic VariCam when I needed an extremely sensitive sensor for night driving around downtown Los Angeles. Lenses are chosen for contrast and resolution and speed. Also, sometimes size and weight play a part, especially if we are working in tight locations or doing lots of handheld.

What are some best practices, or rules, you try to follow on each job?
Every job is different, but I always try to root my work in naturalism to keep it grounded. I feel like a relatable story can have the most impact on its viewer, so I want to make images that the audience can connect with and be drawn into emotionally. As a cinematographer, we want our work to be invisible but yet always support and enhance the narrative.

On set, I always ensure a calm and pleasant working environment. We work long and bizarre hours, and the work is demanding so I always strive to make it an enjoyable and safe experience for everyone,

Explain your ideal collaboration with the director when setting the look of a project.
It is always my aim to get a clear idea of what the director is imagining when they describe a certain approach. As we are all so different, it is really about establishing a language that can be a shorthand on set and help me to deliver exactly what they want. It is invaluable to look at references together, whether that is art, movies, photography or whatever.

As well as the “look,” I feel it is important to talk about pace and rhythm and how we will choose to represent that visually. The ebb and flow of the narrative needs to be photographed, and sometimes directors want to do that in the edit, or sometimes we express it through camera movement and length of shots. Ideally, I will always aim to have a strong collaboration with a director during prep and build a solid relationship before production begins.

How do you typically work with a colorist?
This really varies from project to project, depending if I am available to sit in during the final DI. Ideally, I would work with the colorist from pre-production to establish and build the look of the show. I would take my camera tests to the post house and work on building a LUT together that would be the base look that we work off while shooting.

I like to have an open dialogue with them during the production stage so they are aware and involved in the evolution of the images.

During post, this dialogue continues as VFX work starts to come in and we start to bounce the work between the colorist and the VFX house. Then in the final grade, I would ideally be in the room with both the colorist and the director so we can implement and adjust the look we have established from the start of the show.

Tell us about FX’s Legion. How would you describe the general look of the show?
Legion is a love letter to art. It is inspired by anything from modernist pop art to old Renaissance masters. The material is very cerebral, and there are many mental planes or periods of time to express visually, so it is a very imaginative show. It is a true exploration of color and light and is a very exciting show to be a part of.

How early did you get involved in the production?
I got involved with Legion starting in Season 2. I work alongside Dana Gonzales, ASC, who established the look of the show in Season one with creator Noah Hawley. My work begins during the production stage when I worked with various directors both prepping and shooting their individual episodes.

Any challenging scenes that you are particularly proud of how it turned out?
Most of the scenes in Legion take a lot of thought to figure out… contextually as well as practically. In Season 2, Episode 2, a lot of the action takes place out in the desert. After a full day, we still had a night shoot to complete with very little time. Instead of taking time to try to light the whole desert, I used one big soft overhead and then lit the scene with flashlights on the character’s guns and headlights of the trucks. I added blue streak filters to create multiple horizontal blue flares from each on-camera source (headlights and flashlights) that provided a very striking lighting approach.

FX’s Legion, Season 2, Episode 2

With the limited hours available, we didn’t have enough time to complete all the coverage we had planned so, instead, we created one very dynamic camera move that started overhead looking down at the trucks and then swooped down as the characters ran out to approach the mysterious object in the scene. We followed the characters in the one move, ending in a wide group shot. With this one master, we only ended up needing a quick reverse POV to complete the scene. The finished product was an inventive and exciting scene that was a product of limitations.

What’s your go-to gear (camera, lens, mount/accessories you can’t live without)?
I don’t really have any go-to gear except a light meter. I vary the equipment I use depending on what story I am telling. LED lights are becoming more and more useful, especially when they are color- and intensity-controllable and battery-operated. When you need just a little more light, these lights are quick to throw in and often save the day!

DevinSuperTramp: The making of a YouTube filmmaker

Devin Graham, aka DevinSuperTramp, made the unlikely journey from BYU dropout to a viral YouTube sensation who has over five million followers. After leaving school, Graham went to Hawaii to work on a documentary. The project soon ran out of money and he was stuck on the island… feeling very much a dropout and a failure. He started making fun videos with his friends to pass the time, and DevinSuperTramp was born. Now he travels, filming his view of the world, taking on daring adventures to get his next shot, and risking life and limb.

Shooting while snowboarding behind a trackhoe with a bunch of friends for a new video.

We recently had the chance to sit down with Graham to hear firsthand what lessons he’s learned along his journey, and how he’s developed into the filmmaker he is today.

Why extreme adventure content?
I grew up in the outdoors — always hiking and camping with my dad, and snowboarding. I’ve always been intrigued by pushing human limits. One thing I love about the extreme thing is that everyone we work with is the best at what they do. Like, we had the world’s best scooter riders. I love working with people who devote their entire lives to this one skillset. You get to see that passion come through. To me, it’s super inspiring to show off their talents to the world.

How did you get DevinSuperTramp off the ground? Pun intended.
I’ve made movies ever since I can remember. I was a little kid shooting Legos and stop-motion with my siblings. In high school, I took photography classes, and after I saw the movie Jurassic Park, I was like, “I want to make movies for a living. I want to do the next Jurassic Park.” So, I went to film school. Actually, I got rejected from the film program the first time I applied, which made me volunteer for every film thing going on at the college — craft service, carrying lights, whatever I could do. One day, my roommate was like, “YouTube is going to be the next big thing for videos. You should get on that.”

And you did.
Well, I started making videos just kind of for fun, not expecting anything to happen. But it blew up. Eight years later, it’s become the YouTube channel we have now, with five million subscribers. And we get to travel around the world creating content that we love creating.

Working on a promo video for Recoil – all the effects were done practically.

And you got to bring it full circle when you worked with Universal on promoting Fallen Kingdom.
I did! That was so fun and exciting. But yeah, I was always making content. I didn’t wait ‘til after I graduated. I was constantly looking for opportunities and networking with people from the film program. I think that was a big part of (succeeding at that time), just looking for every opportunity to milk it for everything I could.

In the early days, how did you promote your work?
I was creating all my stuff on YouTube, which, at that time, had hardly any solid, quality content. There was a lot of content, but it was mostly shot on whatever smartphone people had, or it was just people blogging. There wasn’t really anything cinematic, so right away our stuff stood out. One of the first videos I ever posted ended up getting like a million views right away, and people all around the world started contacting me, saying, “Hey, Devin, I’d love for you to shoot a commercial for us.” I had these big opportunities right from the start, just by creating content with my friends and putting it out on YouTube.

Where did you get the money for equipment?
In the beginning, I didn’t even own a camera. I just borrowed some from friends. We didn’t have any fancy stuff. I was using a Canon 5D Mark II and the Canon T2i, which are fairly cheap cameras compared to what we’re using now. But I was just creating the best content I could with the resources I had, and I was able to build a company from that.

If you had to start from scratch today, do you think you could do it again?
I definitely think it’s 100 percent doable, but I would have to play the game differently. Even now we are having to play the game differently than we did six months ago. Social media is hard because it’s constantly evolving. The algorithms keep changing.

Filming in Iceland for an upcoming documentary.

What are you doing today that’s different from before?
One thing is just using trends and popular things that are going on. For example, a year and a half ago, Pokémon Go was very popular, so we did a video on Pokémon and it got 20 million views within a couple weeks. We have to be very smart about what content we put out — not just putting out content to put out content.

One thing that’s always stayed true since the beginning is consistent content. When we don’t put out a video weekly, it actually hurts our content being seen. The famous people on YouTube now are the ones putting out daily content. For what we’re doing, that’s impossible, so we’ve sort of shifted platforms from YouTube, which was our bread and butter. Facebook is where we push our main content now, because Facebook doesn’t favor daily content. It just favors good-quality content.

Teens will be the first to say that grown-ups struggle with knowing what’s cool. How do you chase after topics likely to blow up?
A big one is going on YouTube and seeing what videos are trending. Also, if you go to Google Trends, it shows you the top things that were searched that day, that week, that month. So, it’s being on top of that. Or, maybe, Taylor Swift is coming out with a new album; we know that’s going to be really popular. Just staying current with all that stuff. You can also use Facebook, Twitter and Instagram to get an idea of what people are really excited about.

Can you tell us about some of the equipment you use, and the demands that your workflow puts on your storage needs?
We shoot so much content. We own two Red 8K cameras that we film everything with, and we’re shooting daily for the most part. On an average week, we’re shooting about eight terabytes, and then backing that up — so 16 terabytes a week. Obviously, we need a lot of storage, and we need storage that we can access quickly. We’re not putting it on tape. We need to pull stuff up right there and start editing on it right away.

So, we need the biggest drives that are as fast as possible. That’s why we use G-Tech’s 96TB G-Speed Shuttle XL towers. We have around 10 of those, and we’ve been shooting with those for the last three to four years. We needed something super reliable. Some of these shoots involve forking out a lot of money. I can’t take a hard drive and just hope it doesn’t fail. I need something that never fails on me — like ever. It’s just not worth taking that risk. I need a drive I can completely trust and is also super-fast.

What’s the one piece of advice that you wish somebody had given you when you were starting out?
In my early days, I didn’t have much of a budget, so I would never back up any of my footage. I was working on two really important projects and had them all on one drive. My roommate knocked that drive off the table, and I lost all that footage. It wasn’t backed up. I only had little bits and pieces still saved on the card — enough to release it, but a lot of people wanted to buy the stock footage and I didn’t have most of the original content. I lost out on a huge opportunity.

Today, we back up every single thing we do, no matter how big or how small it is. So, if I could do my early days over again, even if I didn’t have all the money to fund it, I’d figure out a way to have backup drives. That was something I had to learn the hard way.

Tom Cross talks about editing First Man

By Barry Goch

As a child, First Man editor Tom Cross was fascinated with special effects and visual effects in films. So much so that he would take out library books that went behind the scenes on movies and focused on special effects. He had a particular interest in the artists who made miniature spacecraft, which made working on Damien Chazelle’s First Man feel like it was meant to be.

“When I learned that Damien wanted to use miniatures and do in-camera effects on this film, my childhood and adulthood kind of joined hands,” shares Cross, who is now a frequent collaborator of Chazelle’s, having cut Whiplash, La La Land and now First Man.

We recently spoke with Cross about his work on this Universal Pictures film, which stars another Chazelle favorite, Ryan Gosling, and follows the story of Neil Armstrong and the decade leading up to our country’s first mission to the moon.

Which sci-fi films influenced the style of First Man?
I remember seeing the original Star Wars movies as a kid, and they were life changing… seeing those in the theater really transported me. They opened my eyes to other movies and other movie experiences, like 2001: A Space Odyssey. Along the way, I saw and loved The Right Stuff and Apollo 13.

Tom Cross

Damien is a big fan of all those movies as well, but he really wanted to try a different stylistic approach. He knew that 2001 owns that particular look and style, where you’re super high resolution, antiseptic and sleek in a futuristic way.

For First Man, Damien decided to go with something more personal and intimate. He watched hours of 16mm NASA archival footage, which was often shot by astronauts. He loved the idea of First Man feeling like we put a documentary cameraman in the space capsules. He also saw that these spacecrafts appeared more machine-age than space-age. All the gauges and rivets looked like they belonged in a tank from World War II. So I think all of that lo-fi, analog feel informed the cinema vérité-style that he chose.

As a creative editor, you have animatics, previz or temp comps in the Avid, how do you determine the pacing? Could you talk about the creative process working on a big visual effects film?
Damien preplans everything down to the letter. He did that on Whiplash and La La Land, and he did that on First Man, especially all of the big action set pieces — the X-15, the Gemini 8 and Apollo 11 scenes. He had storyboards done, and animatics that he cut with some rough sound effects. So I always used those as a starting point.

I rely heavily on sound. I really try to use it to help illustrate what we’re looking at, especially if we’re using placeholder shots. In general, I’m most reliant on the performances to help me time things out. What the actors bring is really the heartbeat of any action scene. If you don’t identify with the character or get into a point of view, then the action scene becomes something else. It might work on some formal level, but it’s less subjective, which is the opposite of what Damien was going for.

Can you talk about him capturing things in-camera?
Damien made the choice with production designer Nathan Crowley, VFX supervisor Paul Lambert and cinematographer Linus Sandgren to try to shoot as many things in-camera as possible. The backgrounds that you see out all the spacecraft windows were projected on LED screens and then captured in-camera. Later, our VFX artists would improve, or sometimes replace, those windows. But the beautiful thing that in-camera gave us were these amazing reflections on the visors, faces and eyes. That sort of organic play of light is very difficult to replicate later. Having the in-camera VFX was invaluable to me when I was editing and great for rough cut screenings.

A big part of the film played with only the point of view of the astronaut and feeling like it’s a VR experience. Could you talk about that?
It came down to what Damien and Ryan Gosling would refer to as “the moon and the kitchen sink.” That meant that the movie would hinge on the balance between the NASA space missions and the personal domestic storylines. For the earthbound scenes with Neil and his family, Damien wanted the audience to feel like a fly on the wall in their home. He wanted it to feel intimate, and that called for a cinema verité documentary approach to the camera and the cutting.

He wanted to continue that documentary style inside the space capsules but then take it even further. He wanted to make those scenes as subjective as possible. He shot these beautiful POV shots of everything that Neil sees — the Gemini 8 seat before he climbs in, the gauges inside, the view out the window — and we intercut those with Ryan’s face and eyes. Damien really encouraged me to lean into a simple but effective cutting pattern that went back and forth between those elements. It all had to feel immersive.

What about the sound in those POV shots?
It was brilliantly created by our sound designer Ai-Ling Lee and then mixed by Ai-Ling, Frank Montano and Jon Taylor. Damien and I sketched out where all those sounds would be in our Avid rough cuts. Then Ai-Ling would use our template and take it to the next level. We played around with sound in a way that we hadn’t done on Whiplash or La La Land. We made room for sound. We would linger on POV shots of the walls of the space capsule so that we’d have room to put creaks and metal groans from Ai-Ling. We really played those moments up and then tried to answer those sounds with a look from Neil or one of the other astronauts. The goal was to make the audience feel like they were experiencing what the astronauts were experiencing. I never knew how close they were to not even making it to the lunar surface.

There was that pressure of the world watching as alarms are going off in this capsule, and was fuel running out. It was very dramatic. Damien always wanted to honor how heroic these astronauts were by showing how difficult their missions were. They risked everything. We tried to illustrate this by creating sequences that were experiential. We tried to do that through subjective cutting patterns, through sound and by using the big screen in certain ways.

Can you talk about working in IMAX?
Damien is a big canvas director. He always thinks about the big screen. On La La Land, he and Linus shoot in Fox’s original Cinemascope aspect ratio, which is 2:55.

On First Man, he again wanted to tell the story on a wide canvas but then, somehow, take it up a notch at the appropriate moment. He wanted to find a cinematic device that would adequately transport the audience to another world. He came up with this kind of Wizard of Oz transition where the camera passes through the hatch door and out onto the moon. The image opens up from 2.40 to full 1.43 IMAX.

The style and the pace changes after that point. It slows down so that the audience can take in the breathtaking detail that IMAX renders. The scene becomes all about the shadows and the texture of the lunar surface. All the while, we linger even longer on the POV shots so that the viewer feels like they are climbing down that ladder.

What editing system did you use?
We edited on the Avid Media Composer using DNxHD 115. I found that resolution really helpful to assess the focus and detail of the image, especially because we shot a lot of 16mm and 35mm 2-perf.

Tom Cross

I would love to give a shout out to your team, for your assistants and apprentices and anybody else that helped.
I was pretty blessed with a very strong editorial crew. If it weren’t for those guys we’d still be editing the movie since Damien shot 1.75 million feet of film. I need to give credit to my editing team’s great organizational prowess. I also had two great additional editors who worked closely with me and Damien — Harry Yoon and John To. They’re great storytellers and they inspired me everyday with their work.

Ryan Chavez, our VFX editor, also did a lot of great cutting. At the same time, he kept me on target with everything VFX-related. Because of our tight schedule, he was joined by a second VFX editor Jody Rogers, who I had previously worked with on David O. Russell’s movie Joy. She was fantastic.

Then I had two amazing first assistants: Jennifer Stellema and Derek Drouin. Both of them were often sent on missions to find needles in haystacks. They had to wade through hundreds of hours of NASA radio comms, stock footage, and also a plethora of insert shots of gauges and switches. Somehow they always knew where to find everything. The Avid script was also an indispensable resource and that was set up and maintained by Assistant Editors Eric Kench and Phillip Trujillo.

On the VFX end, we were very lucky to have our VFX producer Kevin Elam down the hall. We also had two incredible postviz artists — John Weckworth and Joe DiValerio — who fed us shots constantly. It was a very challenging schedule, which got more difficult once we got into film festivals.

Fortunately, our great post supervisors from La La Land —Jeff Harlacker and Jason Miller — were onboard. They’re the ones who really kept us all on track and had the big picture in mind. Together, with our trusted post PA Ryan Cunningham, we were covered.

The truly unsung heroes of this project had to be the families and loved ones of our crew. As we worked the long hours to make this movie, they supported us in every way imaginable. Without them, none of this would be possible.


Barry Goch is a finishing artist at The Foundation, a boutique post facility in the heart of Burbank’s Media District. He is also an instructor for post production at UCLA Extension. You can follow him on Twitter @gochya

Tamara Jenkins talks writing, directing the Netflix film Private Life

By Iain Blair

Writer/director Tamara Jenkins has never been shy about mining her personal life for laughs and tears — or taking her time with a project. Her debut feature film, 1998’s semi-autobiographical dark comedy Slums of Beverly Hills, which she wrote and directed, was partly based on her own childhood growing up poor in the mega-wealthy city. The cult hit went on to score two Independent Spirit Awards nominations. Nearly a decade later, she premiered The Savages at Sundance. The comedy, starring Philip Seymour Hoffman and Laura Linney as neurotic siblings dealing with their dementia-afflicted father, went on to receive two Oscar noms — a Best Actress nod for Linney and a Best Original Screenplay nod for Jenkins.

Tamara Jenkins

Now, another decade later, Jenkins and her husband’s own real-life struggle to have a child has provided fertile material for her new film, Private Life, which stars Kathryn Hahn and Paul Giamatti as a middle-aged married couple who have been repeatedly trying to get pregnant, undergoing multiple fertility treatments while also exploring adoption and other options. Just as the possibilities of conception seem to get further away with each passing attempt, an unexpected Hail Mary arrives in the form of a recent college dropout who might just prove to be the last, unconventional piece of their fertility puzzle.

I talked recently with Jenkins about making the film and her advice for aspiring women directors.

So just how autobiographical is this new film?
Quite a bit. The experience of dealing with infertility and IVF is something me and my husband went through for years. I’d discuss it all with a friend who kept telling me, “You should write all this stuff down because it’s so hilarious and so heartbreaking. You should make a movie about this.” But I didn’t quite see it that way at the time (laughs). So the emotional core of the story is true, and I felt like quite an expert on the subject and it informed it all, but then the demands of fiction take over and invention comes in and stuff is made up. So it’s a combination of both fact and fiction.

It’s been over a decade since Savages, partly because of your battle to get pregnant. I assume this can’t have been easy to get greenlit?
No kidding! Infertility is a tough sell. I actually had notes for this back in ’08, right on the heels of The Savages, and I remember going back to them years later and wondering why I hadn’t carried on writing it. Then I remembered, “Oh yeah, I had a baby in 2009!” I’d forgotten that little detail. And then deals fell through until Netflix got involved, so it was a long process.

It’s about infertility, but it’s also really about a marriage, right?
Exactly. I always thought of it as a portrait of a marriage, but one that takes place in the land of IVF and doctors. I had this guiding principle: that it’s like a road movie, and these two characters are in a car and they’re off to infertility land. The key thing was, ‘How do they handle it and endure it, and how does it affect the marriage?’ I was also interested in writing about middle-aged marriage, and how they’re almost having a mutual mid-life crisis together — when you find yourself hitting your head up against what your expectations were for your life and dreams, and what the reality actually is. I think everyone can relate to that.

You assembled a great cast that’s so believable. No one’s super-rich or super-beautiful. What did Paul and Kathryn bring to the roles?
I wanted to make a film about a real couple, not a movie couple, set in a New York that also feels real and not like a movie version of it. They’re so great and grounded in the roles, and have such great chemistry. What’s funny is that you assume actors like Paul and Kathryn know each other having been in the business for a long time, but they’d never even met before. So I ended up organizing a dinner for them at Paul’s house, and I cooked, and they did the dishes together and then we had a read-through. Then a couple of months later we had a few days rehearsal when they both got back to town from other projects.

How long was the shoot?
Just 30 days, which wasn’t long enough. We shot in a real apartment and had to work very fast, but it was pretty smooth.

Where did you do the post?
At Sim Post New York, which used to be Post Factory.

Do you like post?
I absolutely love it. I feel like you always learn so much about filmmaking in post. It’s probably the best way to teach people about what a movie really is, and how it comes together and gets cut and made. For me, post is very exciting but also terrifying. Every movie has this plasticity and you’re trying to find your way. Do you have all the pieces you need? Are they the right stuff for it? But then I love when you start to drop music in and work on all the sound design, and things start to emerge. It’s truly amazing how it takes on a life of its own, like some science experiment.

You worked with The Savages editor Brian Kates. What did he bring to the project, and was he on set?
He visited once, just to check it out, but he then began to do his assembly while I shot. He’s a great collaborator. There was one scene we shot in the apartment that I was a bit worried about, so he cut that early on and then showed me so I could get a sense of how it was working, in case I needed to go back to it. That was very helpful.

What were the main editing challenges?
Tone and pacing are always crucial, but I felt like the tone was pretty well established with the writing and the performances. I suppose the big challenge was finding the right takes, the best performances, but there were tonal things. Maybe it was a bit too broad here, it needed to be a bit more subtle there, that sort of thing.

Can you talk about the VFX in this film?
We had a bit of seasonal stuff, adding snow where there wasn’t enough, doing signage, cleanup, and we used a few fluid morphs, which Brian is really good at on the Avid, and I loved those.

What about the DI?
We also did that at Sim, with colorist Alex Bickel, who is this brilliant artist. I love the DI process, and I think he gave it this beautiful look. We were actually the first people to use their brand new DI stage, so that was a thrill.

There’s been a lot of talk about the lack of opportunity for women directors. Are things improving?
I think the idealism for the improvement is there, but it just takes so long for that to translate into real action and bear fruit. There’s a lot of talk and thinking, but it hasn’t hit the ground yet. It’s still tough for women.

Tamara Jenkins on set.

What’s your advice to a woman who wants to direct?
The best thing I can say is you should probably write and learn to make your own material, so you actually have something to bring to the table. You also have to stick to your guns. I remember years ago going to a writing workshop when I was working on Slums of Beverly Hills, and this big Hollywood screenwriter said, “You can’t open a movie with five pages on a girl getting fitted for a bra!” And I felt like an idiot. It took a while for me to reclaim my sense of self. So if someone tells you something like that, just don’t listen to them.

We’re already heading into the awards season. You’ve been nominated for an Oscar. How important are awards to you and your films?
They’re so important for smaller films like mine because they bring attention they probably wouldn’t get otherwise.

What’s next?
I have an idea I’m developing. I just hope people don’t have to wait another decade for it to arrive (laughs).


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.

Our Virtual Production Roundtable

By Randi Altman

Evolve or die. That old adage, while very dramatic, fits well with the state of our current production workflows. While most productions are now shot digitally, the warmth of film is still in the back of pros’ minds. Camera makers and directors of photography often look for ways to retain that warmth in digital. Whether it’s through lighting, vintage lenses, color grading, newer technology or all of the above.

There is also the question of setting looks on-set and how 8K and HDR are affecting the picture and workflows. And let’s not forget shooting for OTT series. There is a lot to cover!

In an effort to get a variety of perspectives, we reached out to a few cinematographers and some camera manufacturers to talk trends and technology. Enjoy!

Claudio Miranda, ASC

Claudio Miranda is a Chilean cinematographer who won an Oscar for his work on Life of Pi. He also worked on The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, the first movie nominated for a cinematography Oscar that was shot entirely on digital. Other films include Oblivion, Tomorrowland and the upcoming Top Gun: Maverick.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Seems like everyone is shooting large format. Chris Nolan and Quentin Tarantino shot 65mm film for their last projects. New digital cameras such as the Alexa LF and Sony Venice cater to this demand. People seem to like the shallow depth of field of these larger format lenses.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
For me, too much grain in HDR can be distracting. This must be moderated in the camera acquisition format choice and DI. Panning in a high-contrast environment can cause painful strobing. This can be helped in the DI and set design. HDR done well is more important than 8K or even 3D.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
8K can be important for VFX plates. For me, creatively it is not important, 4K is enough. The positive of 8K is just more K. The downside is that I would rather the camera companies focus on dynamic range, color latitude, sensitivity and the look and feel of the captured image instead of trying to hit a high K number. Also, there are storage and processing issues.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?
I have not shot for a streaming service. I do think we need to pay attention to all deliverables and make adjustments accordingly. In the DI, I am there for the standard cinema pass, HDR pass, IMAX pass, home video pass and other formats that arise.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
I choose the camera that will fit the job. It is my job in prep to test and pick the camera that best serves the movie.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
On set, I am able to view HDR or 709. I test the pipeline and make sure the LUT is correct and make modifications if needed. I do not play with many LUTs on set, I normally just have one. I treat the camera like a film stock. I know I will be there in the DI to finalize the look. On set is not the place for futzing with LUTs on the camera. My plate is full enough as it is.

If not already covered, how has production changed in the last two years?
I am not sure production has changed, but there are many new tools to use to help make work more efficient and economical. I feel that I have always had to be mindful of the budget, no matter how large the show is. I am always looking for new solutions.

Daryn Okada, ASC
Daryn Okada is known for his work on films such as Mean GirlsAnna Karenina and Just Like Heaven. He has also worked on many TV series, such as Scandal, Grey’s Anatomy and Castle. He served as president of the ASC from 2006 to 2009.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses? 

Modern digital cinema cameras can achieve a level of quality with the proper workflows and techniques to evolve a story’s visual identity parallel explorations shooting on film. Larger image sensors, state-of-the-art lenses and mining historic optics enable cinematographers to use their experience and knowledge of the past to paint rich visual experiences for today’s audience.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
HDR is a creative and technical medium just as shooting and projecting 65mm film would be. It’s up to the director and the cinematographer to decide how to orchestrate the use of HDR for their particular story.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives, and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
8K will is working its way into production like 65mm and 35mm VistaVision did by providing more technical resolution for use in VFX or special-venue exhibition. The enormous amount of data and cost to handle it must be justified by its financial return and does it benefit a particular story. Latitude and color depth are paramount to creating a motion picture’s pallet and texture. Trying to use a format just because it’s technically possible may be distracting to an audience’s acceptance of a story or creative concept.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?

I think the delivery specifications of OTT have generally raised the bar, making 4K and wide color gamut the norm. For cinematographers that have spent years photographing features, we are accustomed to creating images with detail for a big screen and a wide color pallet. It’s a natural creative process to shoot for 4K and HDR in that respect. 

Are the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance? 
Having the best imaging available is always welcomed. Even if a camera is not technically exploited, the creation of subtle images is richer and possible through the smoother transition and blending of color, contrast and detail from originating with higher resolutions and color range.

Can you talk about color management from the sensor/film to the screen? How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post, the DI and final delivery?
As a cinematographer we are still involved in workflows for dailies and post production to ensure everyone’s creative efforts to the final production are maintained for the immediate viewer and preserved for the audiences in the future.

How has production changed over the last two years?
There are more opportunities to produce content with creative high-quality cinematography thanks to advancements in cameras and cost-effective computing speed combined with demands of high quality displays and projection.

Vanja Černjul, ASC
This New York-based DP recently worked on the huge hit Crazy Rich Asians. In addition to feature film work, Černjul has shot TV shows (Deuce’s season 1 finale and two seasons of Marco Polo, as well as commercials for Panasonic and others.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
One interesting trend I noticed is the comeback of image texture. In the past, cinematographers used to expose film stock differently according to the grain texture they desired. Different exposure zones within the same frame had different grain character, which produced additional depth of the image. We lost that once we switched to digital. Crude simulations of film grain, such as overall filters, couldn’t produce the dimensionality we had with film.

Today, I am noticing new ways of bringing the texture back as a means of creative expression. The first one comes in the form of new, sophisticated post production tools designed to replicate the three-dimensional texturing that occurs naturally when shooting film, such as the realtime texturing tool LiveGrain. Monitoring the image on the set with a LiveGrain texture applied can impact lighting, filtration or lens choices. There are also new ways to manipulate texture in-camera. With the rise of super-sensitive, dual-native ISO sensors we can now shoot at very low-light levels and incorporate so-called photon shot noise into the image. Shot noise has organic character, very much like film grain.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?

The creative potential of HDR technology is far greater than that of added resolution. Unfortunately, it is hard for cinematographers to take full advantage of HDR because it is still far from being the standard way the audience sees our images. We can’t have two completely different looks for a single project, and we have to make sure the images are working on SDR screens. In addition, it is still impractical to monitor in HDR on the set, which makes it difficult to adjust lighting and lens choices to expanded dynamic range. Once HDR screens become a standard, we will be able to really start creatively exploring this new territory.

Crazy Rich Asians

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
Additional resolution adds more available choices regarding relationship of optical systems and aspect ratios. I am now able to choose lenses for their artifacts and character regardless of the desired aspect ratio. I can decide to shoot one part of the film in spherical and the other part in anamorphic and crop the image to the project’s predetermined aspect ratio without fear of throwing away too much information. I love that freedom.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices and workflows, if at all?
For me, the only practical difference between shooting high-quality content for cable or streaming is the fact that Netflix demands their projects to be capt
ured in true 4K RAW. I like the commitment to higher technical standards, even though this may be an unwelcome restriction for some projects.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
I like choices. As large format lenses become more available, shooting across formats and resolutions will become easier and simpler.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
The key for correct color management from the set to final color grading is in preproduction. It is important to take the time to do proper tests and establish the communication between DIT, the colorist and all other people involved as early as possible. This ensures that original ideas aren’t lost in the process.

Adjusting and fine-tuning the LUT to the lenses, lighting gels and set design and then testing it with the colorist is very important. Once I have a bulletproof LUT, I light and expose all the material for it specifically. If this part of the process is done correctly, the time in final color grading can be spent on creative work rather than on fixing inconsistencies.

I am very grateful for ACES workflow, which offers long-overdue standardization. It is definitely a move in the right direction.

How has production changed over the last two years?
With all the amazing post tools that are becoming more available and affordable, I am seeing negative trends of further cutting of preproduction time, and lack of creative discipline on the set. I sincerely hope this is just a temporary confusion due to recalibration of the process.

Kate Reid, DP
Kate Reid is a UK-based DP working in TV and film. Her recent work includes the TV series Hanna (Amazon) Marcella 2 (Netflix) and additional photography on the final season Game of Thrones for HBO. She is currently working on Press for BBC.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as Large Format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Large format cameras are being used increasingly on drama productions to satisfy the requirement for additional resolution by certain distribution platforms. And, of course, the choice to use large format cameras in drama brings with it another aesthetic that DPs now have as another tool: Choosing if increased depth-of-field fall off, clarity in the image etc., enhances the particular story they wish to portray on screen.

Like many other DPs, I have always enjoyed using older lenses to help make the digital image softer, more organic and less predictable, but the larger format cameras now mean that much of this older glass designed for 35mm size sensor may not cover the increased sensor size, so newer lenses designed for the larger format cameras may become popular by necessity, alongside older larger format glass that is enjoying a renaissance.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
I have yet to shoot a show that requires HDR delivery. It hasn’t yet become the default in drama production in the UK.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and frame rate more important currently?
I don’t inherently find an ultra sharp image attractive. Through older glass and diffusion filters on the lens, I am usually looking to soften and break down my image, so I personally am not all about the extra Ks. How the camera’s sensor reproduces color and handles highlights and shadows is of more interest to me, and I believe has more impact on the picture.

Of primary importance is how practical a camera is to work with — size and how comfortable the camera is to handle would supersede excessive resolution — as the first requirement of any camera has got to be whether it allows you to achieve the shots you have in mind, because a story isn’t told through its resolution.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content for OTTs, like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?
The major change is the requirement by Netflix for true 4K resolution, determining which cameras cinematographers are allowed to shoot on. For many cinematographers the Arri Alexa was their digital camera of choice, which was excluded by this rule, and therefore we have had to look to other cameras for such productions. Learning a new camera, its sensor, how it handles highlights, produces color, etc., and ensuring the workflow through to the post facility is something that requires time and testing, which has certainly added to a DP’s workload.

From a creative perspective, however, I found shooting for OTTs (I shot two episodes of the TV series Hanna made by Working Title TV and NBC Universal for Amazon) has been more liberating than making a series for broadcast television as there is a different idea and expectation around what the audience wants to watch and enjoy in terms of storytelling. This allowed for a more creative way of filming.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
Where work is seen now can vary from a mobile phone screen to a digital billboard in Times Square, so it is good for DPs to have a choice of cameras and their respective resolutions so we can use the best tool of each job. It only becomes a hindrance if you let the technology lead your creative process rather than assist it.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
Ideally, I will have had the time and opportunity to shoot tests during prep and then spend half a day with the show’s colorist to create a basic LUT I can work with on set. In practice, I have always found that I tweak this LUT during the first days of production with the DIT, and this is what serves me throughout the rest of the show.

I usually work with just one LUT that will be some version of a modified Rec. 709 (unless the look of the show drastically requires something else). It should then be straight forward in that the DIT can attach a LUT to the dailies, and this is the same LUT applied by editorial so that exactly what you see on set is what is being viewed in the edit.

However, where this fails is that the dailies uploaded to FTP sites — for viewing by the execs, producers and other people who have access to the work — are usually very compressed with low resolution, so it bears little resemblance to how the work looked on set or looks in the edit. This is really unsatisfying as for months, key members of production are not seeing an accurate reflection of the picture. Of course, when you get into the grade this can be restored, but it’s dangerous if those viewing the dailies in this way have grown accustomed to something that is a pale comparison of what was shot on set.

How has production changed over the last two years?
There is less differentiation between film and television in how productions are being made and, critically, where they are being seen by audiences, especially with online platforms now making award-winning feature films. The high production values we’ve seen with Netflix and Amazon’s biggest shows has seen UK television dramas pushing to up their game, which does put pressure on productions, shooting schedules and HODs, as the budgets to help achieve this aren’t there yet.

So, from a ground-level perspective, for DPs working in drama this looks like more pressure to produce work of the highest standard in less time. However, it’s also a more exciting place to be working as the ideas about how you film something for television versus cinema no longer need apply. The perceived ideas of what an audience is interested in, or expect, are being blown out the water by the success of new original online content, which flies in the face of more traditional storytelling. Broadcasters are noticing this and, hopefully, this will lead to more exciting and cinematic mainstream television in the future.

Blackmagic’s Bob Caniglia
In addition to its post and broadcast tools, Blackmagic offers many different cameras, including the Pocket Cinema Camera, Pocket Cinema Camera 4K, Micro Studio Camera 4K, Micro Cinema Camera, Studio Camera, Studio Camera 4K, Ursa Mini Pro, Ursa Mini 4.6K, Ursa Broadcast.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Lens freedom is on everyone’s mind right now… having the freedom to shoot in any style. This is bringing about things like seeing projects shot on 50-year-old glass because the DP liked the feel of a commercial back in the ‘60s.

We actually just had a customer test out actual lenses that were used on The Godfather, The Shining and Casablanca, and it was amazing to see the mixing of those with a new digital cinema camera. And so many people are asking for a camera to work with anamorphic lenses. The trend is really that people expect their camera to be able to handle whatever look they want.

For large format use, I would say that both Hollywood and indie filmmakers are using them more often. Or, at least they trying to get the general large format look by using anamorphic lenses to get a shallow depth of field.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
Right now, HDR is definitely more of a concern for DPs in Hollywood, but also with indie filmmakers and streaming service content creators. Netflix and Hulu have some amazing HDR shows right now. And there is plenty of choice when it comes to the different HDR formats and shooting and monitoring on set. All of that is happening everyday, while 8K still needs the industry to catch up with the various production tools.

As for impacting shooting, HDR is about more immersive colors, and a DP needs to plan for it. It gives viewers a whole new level of image detail in what they shoot. They have to be much more aware of every surface or lighting impact so that the viewer doesn’t get distracted. Attention to detail gets even higher in HDR, and DPs and colorists will need to keep a close eye on every shot, including when an image in a sideview mirror’s reflection is just a little too sharp and needs a tweak.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? Or are latitude and framerate more important currently?
You can never have enough Ks! Seriously. It is not just about getting a beautiful 8K TV, it is about giving the production and post pros on a project as much data as possible. More data means more room to be creative, and is great for things like keying.

Latitude and framerate are important as well, and I don’t think any one is more important than another. For the viewers, the beauty will be in large displays, you’re already seeing 8K displays in Times Square, and though you may not need 8K on your phone, 8K on the side of a building or highway will be very impactful.

I do think one of the ways 8K is changing production practices is that people are going to be much more storage conscious. Camera manufacturers will need to continue to improve workflows as the images get larger in an effort to maximize storage efficiencies.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content, for OTTs like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices, and workflows, if at all?
For streaming content providers, shoots have definitely been impacted and are forcing productions to plan for shooting in a wider number of formats. Luckily, companies like Netflix have been very good about specifying up front the cameras they approve and which formats are needed.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
While it can be a bit overwhelming, it does give creatives some options, especially if they have a smaller delivery size than the acquisition format. For instance, if you’re shooting in 4K but delivering in HD, you can do dynamic zooms from the 4K image that look like an optical zoom, or you can get a tight shot and wide shot from the same camera. That’s a real help on a limited budget of time and/or money.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
Have the production and the post people planning together from the start and create the look everyone should be working on right up front.

Set the LUTs you want before a single shot is done and manage the workflow from camera to final post. Also, choose post software that can bring color correction on-set, near-set and off-set. That lets you collaborate remotely. Definitely choose a camera that works directly with any post software, and avoid transcoding.

How has production changed in the last two years?
Beyond the rise of HDR, one of the other big changes is that more productions are thinking live and streaming more than ever before. CNN’s Anderson Cooper now does a daily Facebook Live show. AMC has the live Talking Dead-type formats for many of their shows. That trend is going to keep happening, so cinematographers and camera people need to be thinking about being able to jump from scripted to live shooting.

Red Digital Cinema’s Graeme Nattress
Red Digital Cinema manufactures professional digital cameras and accessories. Red’s DSMC2 camera offers three sensor options — Gemini 5K S35, Helium 8K S35 and Monstro 8K VV.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing?
Industry camera trends continue to push image quality in all directions. Sensors are getting bigger, with higher resolutions and more dynamic range. Filmmakers continue to innovate, making new and amazing images all the time, which drives our fascination for advancing technology in service to the creative.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days?
One of the benefits of a primary workflow based on RAW recording is that HDR is not an added extra, but a core part of the system. Filmmakers do consider HDR important, but there’s some concern that HDR doesn’t always look appealing, and that it’s not always an image quality improvement. Cinematography has always been about light and shade and how they are controlled to shape the image’s emotional or storytelling intent. HDR can be a very important tool in that it greatly expands the display canvas to work on, but a larger canvas doesn’t mean a better picture. The increased display contrast of HDR can make details more visible, and it can also make motion judder more apparent. Thus, more isn’t always better; it’s about how you use what you have.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? What’s more important, resolution or dynamic range?
Without resolution, we don’t have an image. Resolution is always going to be an important image parameter. What we must keep in mind is that camera resolution is based on input resolution to the system, and that can — and often will — be different to the output resolution on the display. Traditionally, in video the input and output resolutions were one and the same, but when film was used — which had a much higher resolution than a TV could display — we were taking a high-resolution input and downsampling it to the display, the TV screen.

As with any sampled system, in a digital cinema camera there are some properties we seek to protect and others to diminish. We want a high level of detail, but we don’t want sharpening artifacts and we don’t want aliasing. The only way to achieve that is through a high-resolution sensor, properly filtered (optical low-pass) that can see a large amount of real, un-enhanced detail. So yes, 8K can give you lots of fine detail should you want it, but the imaging benefits extend beyond downsampling to 4K or 2K. 8K makes for an incredibly robust image, but noise is reduced, and what noise remains takes on more of a texture, which is much more aesthetically pleasing.

One challenge of 8K is an increase in the amount of sensor data to be recorded, but that can be addressed through quality compression systems like RedCode.

Addressing dynamic range is very important because dynamic range and resolution work together to produce the image. It’s easy to think that high resolutions have a negative impact upon dynamic range, but improved pixel design means you can have dynamic range and resolution.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
Color management is vitally important and so much more than just keeping color control from on-set through to delivery. Now with the move to HDR and an increasing amount of mobile viewing, we have a wide variety of displays, all with their own characteristics and color gamuts. Color management allows content creators to display their work at maximum quality without compromise. Red cameras help in multiple ways. On camera, one can monitor in both SDR and HDR simultaneously with the new IPP2 image processing pipeline’s output independence, which also allows you to color via CDL and creative 3D LUT in such a way as to have those decisions represented correctly on different monitor types.

In post and grading, the benefits of output independence continue, but now it’s critical that scene colors, which can so easily go out of gamut, are dealt with tastefully. Through the metadata support in the RedCode format, all the creative decisions taken on set follow through to dailies and post, but never get in the way of producing the correct image output, be it for VFX, editorial or grading.

Panavision’s Michael Cioni 
Panavision designs and manufactures high-precision camera systems, including both film and digital cameras, as well as lenses and accessories for the motion picture and television industries.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing?
With the evolution of digital capture, one of the most interesting things I’ve noticed in the market are new trends emerging from the optics side of cinematography. At a glance, it can appear as if there is a desire for older or vintage lenses based on the increasing resolution of large format digital cameras. While resolution is certainly a factor, I’ve noticed the larger contributor to vintage glass is driven by the quality of sensors, not the resolution itself. As sensors increase in resolution, they simultaneously show improvements in clarity, low-light capability, color science and signal-to-noise ratio.

The compounding effect of all these elements are improving images far beyond what was capable with analog film technology, which explains why the same lens behaves differently on film, S35 digital capture and large-format digital capture. As these looks continue to become popular, Panavision is responding through our investments in both restoration of classic lenses as well as designing new lenses with classic characteristics and textures that are optimized for large format photography on super sensors.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look?
Creating images is not always about what component is better, but rather how they elevate images by working in concert. HDR images are a tool that increases creative control alongside high resolution and 16-bit color. These components work really well together because a compelling image can make use of more dynamic range, more color and more clarity. Its importance is only amplified by the amalgamation of high-fidelity characteristics working together to increase overall image flexibility.

Today, the studios are still settling into an HDR world because only a few groups, led by OTT, are able to distribute in HDR to wide audiences. On-set tools capable of HDR, 4K and 16-bit color are still in their infancy and currently cost-prohibitive. 4K/HDR on the set is going to become a standard practice by 2021. 4K wireless transmitters are the first step — they are going to start coming online in 2019. Smaller OLED displays capable of 750 nits+ will follow in 2020, creating an excellent way to monitor higher quality images right on set. In 2021, editorial will start to explore HDR and 4K during the offline process. By 2024, all productions will be HDR from set to editorial to post to mobile devices. Early adopters that work out the details today will find themselves ahead of the competition and having more control as these trends evolve. I recommend cinematographers embrace the fundamentals of HDR, because understanding the tools and trends will help prevent images from appearing artificial or overdone.

Can you address 8K? What are the positives and the negatives? Do we just have too many Ks these days? What’s more important, resolution or dynamic range?
One of the reasons we partnered with Red is because the Monstro 8K VV sensor makes no sacrifice in dynamic range while still maintaining ultra high smoothness at 16 bits. The beauty of technology like this is that we can finally start to have the best from all worlds — dynamic range, resolution, bit depth, magnification, speed and workflow — without having to make quality sacrifices. When cinematographers have all these elements together, they can create images previously never seen before, and 8K is as much part of that story as any other element.

One important way to view 8K is not solely as a thermometer for high-resolution sharpness. A sensor with 35 million pixels is necessary in order to increase the image size, similar to trends in professional photography. 8K large format creates a larger, more magnified image with a wider field of view and less distortion, like the difference in images captured by 70mm film. The biggest positive I’ve noticed is that DXL2’s 8K large-format Red Monstro sensor is so good in terms of quality that it isn’t impacting images themselves. Lower quality sensors can add a “fingerprint” to the image, which can distort the original intention or texture of a particular lens.

With sensors like Monstro capable of such high precision, the lenses behave exactly as the lens maker intended. The same Panavision lenses on a lower grade sensor, or even 35mm film, are exhibiting characteristics that we weren’t able to see before. This is literally breathing new life into lenses that previously didn’t perform the same way until Monstro and large format.

Is the availability of so many camera formats a help or a hindrance?
You don’t have to look far to identify individuals who are easily fatigued by having too many choices. Some of these individuals cope with choices by finding ways to regulate them, and they feel fewer choices means more stability and perhaps more control (creative and economic). As an entrepreneur, I find the opposite to be true: I believe regulating our world, especially with regards to the arts and sciences, is a recipe for protecting the status quo. I fully admit there are situations in which people are fatigued by too many complex choices.

I find that failure is not of the technology itself, rather it’s the fault of the manufactures who have not provided the options in easy-to-consume ways. Having options is exactly what creatives need in order to explore something new and improved. But it’s also up to manufacturers to deliver the message in ways everyone can understand. We’re still learning how to do that, and with each generation the process changes a bit. And while I am not always certain which are the best ways to help people understand all the options, I am certain that the pursuit of new art will motivate us to go out of our comfort zones and try something previously thought not possible.

Have you encountered any examples of productions that have shot streaming content (i.e. for Netflix/Amazon) and had to change production practices and workflows for this format/deliverable?
Netflix and Amazon are exceptional examples of calculated risk takers. While most headlines discuss their investment in the quantity of content, I find the most interesting investment they make is in relationships. Netflix and Amazon are heavily invested in standards groups, committees, outreach, panels and constant communication. The model of the past and present (incumbent studios) are content creators with technology divisions. The model of the future (Netflix, Amazon, Hulu, Apple, Google and YouTube) are all the technology companies with the ability to create content. And technology companies approach problems from a completely different angle by not only embracing the technology, they help invent it. In this new technological age, those who lead and those who follow will likely be determined by the tools and techniques used to deliver. What I call “The Netflix Effect” is the impact Netflix has on traditional groups and how they have all had to strategically pivot based on Netflix’s impact.

How do you ensure correct color management from the set into dailies and post production, the DI and final delivery?
The DXL2 has an advanced color workflow. In collaboration with LiveGrade by Pomfort, DXL2 can capture looks wirelessly from DITs in the form of CDLs and LUTs, which are not only saved into the metadata of the camera, but also baked into in-camera proxy files in the form of Apple ProRes or Avid DNx. These files now contain visual references of the exact looks viewed on monitors and can be delivered directly to post houses, or even editors. This improves creative control because it eliminates the guess work in the application of external color decisions and streamlines it back to the camera where the core database is kept with all the other camera information. This metadata can be traced throughout the post pipeline, which also streamlines the process for all entities that come in contact with camera footage.

How has production changed over the last two years?
Sheesh. A lot!

ARRI‘s Stephan Ukas-Bradley
The ARRI Group manufactures and distributes motion picture cameras, digital intermediate systems and lighting equipment. Their camera offerings include the Alexa LF, Alexa Mini, Alexa 65, Alexa SXT W and the Amira.

Can you talk about some camera trends you’ve been seeing? Such as large format? The use of old/vintage lenses?
Large format opens some new creative possibilities, using a shallow depth of field to guide the audience’s view and provide a wonderful bokeh. It also conveys a perspective truer to the human eye, resulting in a seemingly increased dimensional depth. The additional resolution combined with our specially designed large format Signature Primes result in beautiful and emotional images.

Old and vintage lenses can enhance a story. For instance, when Gabriel Beristain, ASC, used Bausch & Lomb Super Baltar on the Starz show Magic City, and Bradford Young used detuned DNA lenses in conjunction with Alexa 65 on Solo: A Star Wars Story, certain characteristics like flares, reflections, distortions and focus fall-off are very difficult to recreate in post organically, so vintage lenses provide an easy way to create a unique look for a specific story and a way for the director of photography to maintain creative control.

How is HDR affecting the way things are being shot these days? Do you find HDR more important than 8K at the moment in terms of look? Are productions shooting/monitoring HDR on-set?
Currently, things are not done much differently on set when shooting HDR versus SDR. While it would be very helpful to monitor in both modes on-set, HDR reference monitors are still very expensive and very few productions have the luxury to do that. One has to be aware of certain challenges when shooting for an HDR finish. High contrast edges can result in a more pronounced stutter/strobing effect when panning the camera, windows that are blown out in SDR might retain detail in the HDR pass and now all of a sudden, a ladder or grip stand are visible.

In my opinion, HDR is more important than higher resolution. HDR is resolution-independent in regard to viewing devices like phone/tablets and gives the viewer a perceived increased sharpness, and it is more immersive than increased resolution. Also, let’s not forget that we are working in the motion picture industry and that we are either capturing moving objects or moving the camera, and with that introducing motion blur. Higher resolution only makes sense to me in combination with higher frame rates, and that in return will start a discussion about aesthetics, as it may look hyper-real compared to the traditional 24fps capture. Resolution is one aspect of the overall image quality, but in my opinion extended dynamic range, signal/noise performance, sensitivity, color separation and color reproduction are more important.

Can you talk about how shooting streaming content for OTTs, like Netflix/Amazon, has changed production practices and workflows, if at all?
Shooting streaming content has really not changed production practices or workflows. At ARRI, we offer very flexible and efficient workflows and we are very transparent documenting our ARRIRAW file formats in SMPTE RDD 30 (format) and 31 (processing) and working with many industry partners to provide native file support in their products.

Is the availability of all those camera resolutions a help or a hindrance?
I would look at all those different camera types and resolutions as different film stocks and recommend to creatives to shoot their own test and select the camera systems based on what suits their project best.

We offer the ARRI Look Library for Amira, Alexa Mini and Alexa SXT (SUP 3.0), which is a collection of 87 looks, each of them available in three different intensities provided in Rec. 709 color space. Those looks can either be recorded or only used for monitoring. These looks travel with the picture, embedded in the metadata of the ARRIRAW file, QuickTime Atom or HD/SDI stream in form of the actual LUT and ASC CDL. One can also create a look dynamically on set, feeding the look back to the camera and having the ASC CDL values embedded in the same way.

More commonly, one would record in either ARRIRAW or ProRes LogC, while applying a standard Rec. 709 look for monitoring. The “C” in LogC stands for Cineon, which is a film-like response very much the like of a scanned film image. Colorists and post pros are very familiar with film and color grading LogC images is easy and quick.

How has production changed over the last two years?
I don’t have the feeling that production has changed a lot in the past two years, but with the growing demand from OTTs and increased production volume, it is even more important to have a reliable and proven system with flexible workflow options.

Main Image: DP Kate Reid.

DITs: Maintaining Order on Set

By Karen Moltenbrey

The DIT, or digital imaging technician, can best be described as that important link between on-set photography and post production. Part of the camera crew, the DIT works with the cinematographer and post production on the workflow, camera settings, signal integrity and image acquisition. Much more than a data wrangler, a DIT ensures the technical quality control, devises creative solutions involving photography technology and sees that the original camera data and metadata are backed up regularly.

Years ago, the DIT’s job was to solve issues as the industry transitioned from film to digital. But today, with digital being so complex and involving many different formats, this job is more vital than ever, sweating the technical stuff so that the DP and others can focus on their work for a successful production. In fact, one DIT interviewed for this piece notes that the job today focuses less on fine-tuning the live look than it did in the past. One reason for that is the many available tools that enable the files to be shaped more carefully in post.

The DITs interviewed here note that the workflow usually changes from production to production. “If you ask 10 different DITs what they do, they would probably give you 10 different answers,” says one. Still, the focus remains the same: to assist the DP and others, ensuring that everyone and everything is working in concert.

And while some may question whether a production needs the added expense of a DIT, perhaps a better question would be whether they can afford not to have one.

Here, two DITs discuss their ever-changing workflows for this important job.

Michele deLorimier 
Veteran DIT Michele deLorimier describes the role of a digital imaging technician as a problem solver. “It’s like doing puzzles — multiple, different-size puzzles that have to be sorted out,” she says. “It always involves problem solving, from trying to fix the director’s iPhone to the tech parameter settings in the cameras to the whole computer having to be torn apart and put back together. All the while, shooting has not stopped and footage is accumulating.”

There are often multiple cameras, and the footage needs to be downloaded and QC’d, and cards erased and sent back into rotation in order to continue shooting. “So, I guess the greatest tool on the cart is the complete computer workstation, and if it is having a problem, it requires high-gear, intense problem solving,” she adds.

And through it all, deLorimier and her fellow DITs must keep their cool and come up with a solution — and fast.

deLorimier has been working as a DIT for many years now. She honed her problem-solving skills working at live concerts, where she had to be fast on her feet while working with live control of multiple cameras through remote control units and paint boxes. “I’d sit at a switcher, with a stack of monitors and one big monitor, and keep the look consistent — black levels, paint controls — on all cameras, live.”

Later, this segued into setting up and controlling on- and off-board videotape and data-recorder digital cinema cameras on set for commercial film production.

“I just kind of fell into [DIT work] because of what I had done, and then it just continued to evolve,” says deLorimier. With the introduction of digital cinema cameras, DITs with a film and video background were needed during the transition period — spawning the term “digital imaging technician.”

“It went from being tape-based, where you’re creating and baking in a look while you’re shooting, to tape-based where you’re shooting sort of a flat pass and creating a timeline of looks you’re delivering alongside the videotape. And then to data recording, delivering files and additionally honing the look after the footage is ingested,” she says.

Among the equipment deLorimier uses is a reference grade monitor “that must be calibrated properly,” she says, a way to objectively assess exposure, such as with a waveform monitor, and some method of objectively assessing color, so a type of vectorscope. That is the base-level equipment. For commercials, efficient hardware and software are needed for downloading, manipulating and QC’ing the footage, color correcting it and creating deliverables for post.”

deLorimier prefers Flanders Scientific monitors — she has six for various tasks: a pair of 25 inch, a 24 inch, a pair of 21 inch and a 17 inch — as well as a Leader waveform monitor/vectorscope.

“We’re using wireless video a lot these days so we can move around freely and the cables aren’t all over the ground to trip on,” she says. “That part of the chain can have the incorrect setting, so it’s important to ensure that everything is [set at] baseline and that what you are adding to it — usually some form of a LUT to the livestream — is baseline too.” This starts with settings in the camera and then anything the video signal chain might touch.

Then there is various software, drivers, readers, cables and power management, which change and get updated regularly. Thus, deLorimier stresses that any software change should be tested and updated during prep, to ensure compatibility. “There are unexpected things that you can’t prep for. There are times when you show up at a shoot and will be told, ‘We shot some drone footage yesterday,’ and it’s with a camera that you had no control over the settings,” she says. “So, the more you can prep for, the higher the rate of success you will have.”

Over the years, deLorimier has worked on a variety of productions, from features to TV commercials, with each type of project requiring a different setup. Preparing for a commercial usually entails physically prepping equipment and putting pieces together, as well as checking its end-to-end signal chain, from camera settings, through distribution of the video signal, to the final destination for monitoring and data delivery.

A day before this interview, deLorimier finished a Subaru commercial, shooting in Sequoia National Forest for the first few days, then Griffith Park and some areas around LA. Before that was a multi-unit job for a Nike spot that was filmed in numerous cities over the course of five days. For that project, each of the DITs for the A, B and C units had to coordinate with one another for consistency, ensuring that the cameras would be set up the same way, that they had the same specs and were delivering a similar look. “We were shooting with big projectors onto buildings and screens, and the cameras needed to sync to the projectors in some instances,” deLorimier explains.

According to deLorimier, it is unusual for the work of a DIT not to be physical. “We’re on the move a lot,” she says, crediting her past concert experience for her ability to adjust to adverse and unexpected conditions. “And we are not working in a controlled environment, but we do our best under the constraints we have and always try to keep post in mind.”

She recalls one physically demanding job that required three consecutive nights of shooting in the rain near Santa Barbara, to film a train coming down the tracks. Part of the crew was on one side of the tracks, and part on the other. And deLorimier was in a cornfield with her carts, computer system and monitors, inside a tent to keep dry. “They kept calling me to come to B camera. But I was also remotely setting up live looks inside my tent.

“I had a headlamp on because I had to deal with cables and stuff in my tent, and at one point illuminated by my headlamp, I could see that there were at least 45 snails crawling up the inside of my tent and cart. I was getting mud on my glasses and in my eyes. Then my whole cart, which was pretty heavy, started tipping and tilting, and I was bracing myself and my feet were starting to get sucked into the mud in the mole holes that were filling with rainwater. I couldn’t even call for help because it took both of my hands to hold up the cart, and the snails were everywhere! And, through it all, they kept calling on the walkie-talkie, ‘Michele, B camera needs you. The train’s coming.’”

Insofar as acquisition formats are concerned, deLorimier says that it’s higher resolution and almost always raw files for commercials these days. “A minimum of 4K is almost mandatory across the board,” she notes. And if the project is shooting with Red Digital Cinema cameras, it is between 6K and 8K, as the team she works with mostly use Red Monstros or ARRIRAW. She also works with Phantom Cine raw files.

“The higher data rates have definitely given me more gray hairs,” says deLorimier with a smile. “There’s no downtime. There’s always six or seven balls in the air, and there’s very little room for error or any fixing on set. This is also why the prep day is vital; so much can be worked out and pre-run during the prep, and this pays off for production during the shoot.”

Francesco Luigi Giardiello
Francesco Luigi Giardiello defines his role as that of an on-set workflow supervisor, as opposed to a traditional DIT. “Over the last five to 10 years, I have been designing a workflow that basically extends from set to post production, focusing on the whole pipeline so we don’t have to throw away what has been done on set,” he says.

Giardiello has been designing a pipeline based on a white balance match, which he says is quite unusual in the business because everything gets done through a simplified and more standardized color grading. “We designed something that goes a bit deeper into the color science and works with the Academy’s ACES workflow, trying to establish a common working colorspace, common color pipeline and a common method to control and manipulate colors. This — across any possible camera or source media used in production — is to provide balanced and consistent footage to the DI and visual effects teams. This allows the CG to be applied without having to spend time on balancing and tweaking the color of the shots.”

The Thor team (L-R): Francesco Giardiello, Kramer Morgenthau ASC (DP), Fabio Ferrantini (data manager).

This is important, especially today, where people are shooting with different digital systems. Or maybe even film and digital cameras, plus different lenses, so the shots look very different, even with the same lighting conditions. To this end, Giardiello’s role as DIT would be to grade or match everything so it all looks the same.

“Normally this gets done by using color tools, some of which are more sophisticated than others. When the tools are too sophisticated, they are intractable in the workflow and, therefore, become useless after leaving the set. When they are too ‘simple,’ like CDLs, often they are insufficient in correctly balancing the shots. And, because they are applied during a stage of the pipeline where the cinematographer’s look is introduced, they end up lost or often convolute the pipeline,” he notes. “We designed a system where the color balance occurs before any other color grading, and then the color grading is applied just as a look.”

Giardiello is currently in production on Marvel Studios’ Spider-Man: Far from Home, scheduled for release July 5, 2019. Not his first trip into the Marvel universe, he has worked on Thor: The Dark World, in addition to a number of episodic TV series and other big VFX productions, including Jurassic World and Aladdin. “You are the ambassador of the post production and VFX work,” he explains. “You have to foresee any technical issue and establish a workflow that will facilitate them. So, doing my job without being on set would be a complete waste of time. Sure, I can work in the studios and post production facilities to design workflows that will work without a DIT, but the problem is that things happen on set because that’s where decisions get made.”

As Giardiello points out, the other departments, such as camera and VFX, even the cinematographers, have different priorities and different jobs to fulfill. So, they’re not necessarily spending the time to ensure that every camera, every lens and every setting is in line with a consistent workflow to match the others. “They tend to shoot with whatever camera or medium they think is best and then expect that VFX or post will be able to fit that into an existing workflow.”

On average, Giardiello spends a few weeks of prep to design a project’s workflow, probably longer than producers and production companies would like. But, he believes that the more you plan, the less you have to deal with on set and in post production. When a shoot is finished, he will spend a week or two with the post facility, more to facilitate the handoff than to fix major issues.

Jurassic World was shot with 6K Arri Alexa 65s and the 8K Red Digital Cinema Helium camera, but the issue with high-resolution cameras is the amount of data they generate. “When you start shooting 4, 5, 6 or 8 terabytes a day, you have to make sure you are on set as a data point and that post production is capable of handling all this incoming data,” Giardiello advises. To this end, he had been working with Pinewood Digital to streamline a workflow for moving the data from set to post, whereby rather than sending the original mags to post, his group packaged up the data into very fast, very secure Codex Digital SLEDs.

The most important challenge on a VFX-oriented film, Giardiello says, is the color pipeline, as large studios, like Marvel, Disney, Warner Bros. and Universal, are focused on making sure that the so-called “digital negatives,” or raw footage, that arrive to post and VFX is well balanced and doesn’t require a lot of fixing before those departments can begin their work. “So, having balanced footage has been, and still is, one of the biggest concerns for any major studio when it comes to managing color from set to post production,” he notes.

So, for the last few years, this issue has been handled through the in-camera white balance with a system developed by Giardiello. “We changed the white balance on every single camera, using that to match every single shot before it gets to post production. So when it arrives in front of a VFX compositor and the DI suite, the average color and density of every single shot is consistent,” he adds.

Francesco Giardiello’s rig on Jurassic World.

Giardiello’s workflow is one that he has designed and developed over a five-year period and shines particularly when it comes to facilitating VFX interaction with action footage. “If you have to spend weeks fixing things in VFX on a big job like Jurassic World, Aladdin or Spider-Man, we’re talking about losing thousands of dollars every day,” he points out.

The work entails using a range of tools, some of which are designed for each new job. One tool that has been used on Giardiello’s last few films modifies the metadata for Red cameras to match them with that of the Alexa camera. Meanwhile, on set he uses Filmlight’s Prelight for light grading or to design CDLs. Probably the most important tool for dealing with RAW footage, he maintains, is Codex Digital’s Codex Production Suite. “It allows us to streamline the cloning and backup processes, to perform a visual QC near set and to access the metadata of raw footage and change it (when it is not changed in-camera).

“When those files get to post production in [Filmlight’s] Daylight, which is mostly used these days to process rushes, Daylight doesn’t recognize that change as an actual change, but as something that the DIT does on set in-camera,” Giardiello says.

In addition, he also uses the new SSD SLED designed by Codex, which offers encryption — an important feature for studios like Marvel or Sony. Then, on set, he uses BoxIOs, a LUT box from Flanders Scientific, as well as Flanders monitors, either DM240s (LCDs) or DM250s (OLEDs), depending on the type of project.

Over the years, Giardiello has often worked with the same DPs, but in the past three years, his major clients instead have been studios: Universal, Marvel and Warner Bros. “But my boss is still the DP,” he adds.

During the past 12 years, Giardiello has witnessed an evolution in the role of DIT and expects this to continue, particularly as media continues to converge and merge — from cinema or television to mobile devices. “So yeah, I would say our job has changed and is going to change, but I think it’s more important now than it was 10 years ago, and obviously it’s going to be even more important in the next 10 years.”


Karen Moltenbrey is a longtime writer and editor in the CG and post industries.

Behind the Camera: Television DPs

By Karen Moltenbrey

Directors of photography on television series have their work cut out for them. Most collaborate early on with the director on a signature “look.” Then they have to make sure that aesthetic is maintained with each episode and through each season, should they continue on the series past the pilot. Like film cinematographers, their job entails a wide range of responsibilities aside from the camera work. Once shooting is done, they are often found collaborating with the colorists to ensure that the chosen look is maintained throughout the post process.

Here we focus on two DPs working on two popular television series — one drama, one sitcom — both facing unique challenges inherent in their current projects as they detail their workflows and equipment choices.

Ben Kutchins: Ozark
Lighting is a vital aspect in the look of the Netflix family crime drama Ozark. Or perhaps more accurate, the lack of lighting.

Ben Kutchins (left) on set with actor/director Jason Bateman.

“I’m going for a really naturalistic feel,” says DP Ben Kutchins. “My hope is that it never feels like there’s a light or any kind of artificial lighting on the actors or lighting the space. Rather, it’s something that feels more organic, like sunlight or a lamp that’s on in the room, but still offers a level of being stylized and really leans into the darkness… mining the shadows for the terror that goes along with Ozark.”

Ozark, which just kicked off its second season, focuses on financial planner Marty Byrde, who relocates his family from the Chicago suburbs to a summer resort area in the Missouri Ozarks. After a money laundering scheme goes awry, he must pay off a debt to a Mexican drug lord by moving millions of the cartel’s money from this seemingly quiet place, or die. But, trouble is waiting for them in the Ozarks, as Marty is not the only criminal operating there, and he soon finds himself in much deeper than he ever imagined.

“It’s a story about a family up against impossible odds, who constantly fear for their safety. There is always this feeling of imminent threat. We’re trying to invoke a heightened sense of terror and fear in the audience, similar to what the characters might be feeling,” explains Kutchins. “That’s why a look that creates a vibe of fear and danger is so important. We want it to feel like there is danger lurking around every corner — in the shadows, in the trees behind the characters, in the dark corners of the room.”

In summary, the look of the show is dark — literally and figuratively.

“It is pretty extreme by typical television standards,” Kutchins concedes. “We’ve embraced an aesthetic and are having fun pushing its boundaries, and we’re thrilled that it stands out from a pretty crowded market.”

According to Kutchins, there are numerous examples where the actor disappears into the shadows and then reappears moments later in a pool of light, falling in and out of shadow. For instance, a character may turn off a light and plunge the room into complete darkness, and you do not see that character again until they reappear, until they’re lit by moonlight coming through a window or silhouetted against a window.

“We’re not spending a lot of time trying to fill in the shadows. In fact, we spend most of our time creating more shadows than exist naturally,” he points out.

Jason Bateman, who plays Marty, is also an executive producer and directed the first two and last two episodes of Season 1. Early on, he, along with Kutchins and Pepe Avila del Pino, who shot the pilot, hashed out the desired look for the show, leaning into a very cyan and dark color palette — and leaning in pretty strongly. “Most people think of [this area as] the South, where it’s warm and bright, sweaty and hot. We just wanted to lean into something more nuanced, like a storm was constantly brewing,” Kutchins explains. “Jason really pushed that aesthetic hard across every department.”

Alas, that was made even more difficult since the show was mainly shot outdoors in the Atlanta area, and a good deal of work went into reacting to Mother Nature and transforming the locations to reflect the show’s Ozark mountain setting. “I spent an immense amount of time and effort killing direct sunlight, using a lot of negative fill and huge overheads, and trying to get rid of that direct, harsh sun,” says Kutchins. “Also, there are so many windows inside the Byrde house that it’s essentially like shooting an exterior location; there’s not a lot of controlled light, so you again are reacting and adapting.”

Kutchins shoots the series on a Panasonic VariCam, which he typically underexposes by a stop or two, mining the darker part of the sensor, “the toe of the exposure curve.” And by doing so, he is able to bring out the dirtier, more naturalistic, grimy parts of the image, rather than something that looks clean and polished. “Something that has a little bit of texture to it, some grit and grain, something that’s evocative of a memory, rather than something that looks like an advertisement,” he says.

To further achieve the look, Kutchins uses an in-camera LUT that mimics old Fuji film stock. “Then we take that into post,” he says, giving kudos to his colorist, Company 3’s Tim Stipan, who he says has been invaluable in helping to develop the “vibe” of the show. “As we moved along through Season 1 and into Season 2, he’s been instrumental in enhancing the footage.”

A lot of Kutchins’ work occurs in post, as the raw images captured on set are so different from the finals. Insofar as the digital intermediate is concerned, significant time is spent darkening parts of the frame, brightening small sections of the frame and working to draw the viewer into the frame. “I want people to be leaning on the edge of their seat, kind of wanting to look inside of the screen and poke their head in for a look around,” Kutchins says. “So I do a lot of vignetting and darkening of the edges, and darkening specific things that I think are distracting.”

Nevertheless, there is a delicate balance he must maintain. “I talk about the darkness of Ozark, but I am trying to ride that fine line of how dark it can be but still be something that’s pleasant to watch. You know, where you’re not straining to see the actor’s face, where there’s just enough information there and the frame is just balanced enough so your eyes feel comfortable looking at it,” he explains. “I spend a lot of time creating a focal point in the frame for your eyes to settle on — highlighting certain areas and letting some areas go black, leaving room for mystery in every frame.”

When filming, Kutchins and his crew use Steadicams, cranes, dollies and handheld. He also uses Cooke Optics’ S4 lenses, which he tends to shoot wide open, “to let the flaws and character of the lenses shine through.”

Before selecting the Panasonic VariCam, Kutchins and his group tested other cameras. Because of Netflix’s requirement for 4K, that immediately ruled out the ARRI Alexa, which is Kutchins’ preferred camera. “But the Panasonic ended up shining,” he adds.

In Ozark, the urban family is pitted against nature, and thus, the natural elements around them need to feel dangerous, Kutchins points out. “There’s a line in the first season about how people drown in the lake all the time. The audience should always feel that; when we are at the water’s edge, that someone could just slip in and disappear forever,” he says. “So, the natural elements play a huge role in the inspiration for the lighting and the feel of the show.”

Jason Blount:The Goldbergs
A polar opposite to Ozark in almost every way, The Goldbergs is a single-camera comedy sitcom set in the ’80s about a caring but grumpy dad, an overbearing mother and three teens — the oldest, a popular girl; the middle one, who fancies himself a gifted athlete and strives to be popular; and the youngest, a geek who is obsessed with filmmaking, as he chronicles his life and that of his family on film. The series is created and executive-produced by Adam F. Goldberg and is based on his own life and childhood, which he indeed captured on film while growing up.

The series is filmed mostly on stage, with the action taking place within the family home or at the kids’ schools. For the most part, The Goldbergs is an up-lit, broad comedy. The colors are rich, with a definite nod to the vibrant palette of the ’80s. “Our colorist, Scott Ostrowsky [from Level 3], has been grading the show from day one. He knows the look of the show so well that by the time I sit with him, there are very few changes that have to be made,” says Blount.

The Goldbergs began airing in 2013 and is now entering its sixth season. And the series’ current cinematographer, Jason Blount, has been involved since the start, first serving as the A camera/Steadicam operator before assuming the role of DP for the Season 1 finale — for a total of 92 episodes now and counting.

As this was a Sony show for ABC, the plan was to shoot with a Sony PMW-F55 CineAlta 4K digital camera, but at the time, it did not record at a fast enough frame rate for some of the high-speed work the production wanted. So, they ended up using the ARRI Alexa for Season 1. Blount took over as DP full time from Season 2 onward, and the decision was made to switch to the F55 for Season 2, as the frame rate issue had been resolved.

“The look of the show had already been established, and I wanted to make sure that the transition between cameras was seamless,” says Blount. “Our show is all about faces and seeing the comedy. From the onset, I was very happy with the Sony F55. The way the camera renders skin tone, the lack of noise in the deep shadows and the overall user-friendly nature of the camera impressed me from the beginning.”

Blount points to one particular episode where the F55 really shined. “The main character was filming a black-and-white noir-style home movie. The F55 handled the contrast beautifully. The blacks were rich and the highlights held onto detail very well,” he says. “We had a lot of smoke, hard light directly into the lens, and really pushed the limits of the sensor. I couldn’t have been happier with the results.”

In fact, the camera has proved its mettle winter, spring, summer and fall. “We’ve used it in the dead of winter, at night in the rain and during day exterior [shots] at the height of summer when it’s been over 100 degrees. It’s never skipped a beat.”

Blount also commends Keslow Camera in Los Angeles, which services The Goldbergs’ cameras. In addition, the rental house has accessorized the F55 camera body with extra bracketry and integrated power ports for more ease of use.

Due to the fast pace at which the show is filmed — often covering 10-plus pages of script a day — Blount uses Angenieux Optimo zoom lenses. “The A camera has a full set of lightweight zooms covering 15mm to 120mm, and the B camera always has the [Optimo] 24-290,” he says. “The Optimo lenses and F55 are a great combination, making it easy to move fast and capture beautiful images.”

Blount points out that he also does all the Steadicam work on the show, and with the F55 being so lightweight, compact and versatile, it makes for a “very comfortable camera in Steadicam mode. It’s perfect to use in all shooting modes.”

The Goldbergs’ DP always shoots with two cameras, sometimes three depending on the scene or action. And, there is never an issue of the cameras not matching, according to Blount. “I’m not a big fan of the GoPro image in the narrative world, and I own a Sony a7S. It’s become my go-to camera for mounts or tight space work on the show, and works perfectly with the F55.”

And, there is something to say for consistency, too. “Having used the same camera and lens package for the past five seasons has made it easy to keep the look consistent for The Goldbergs,” says Blount. “At the beginning of this season, I looked at shooting with the new Sony Venice. It’s a fantastic-looking camera, and I love the options, like the variable ND filters, more color temperature options and the dual ISO, but the limit of 60fps at this stage was a deal-breaker for me; we do a fair amount of 72fps and 120fps.”

“If only the F55 had image stabilization to take out the camera shake when the camera operators are laughing so hard at the actors’ performances during some scenes. Then it would be the perfect camera!” he says with a laugh himself.


Karen Moltenbrey is a longtime writer and editor in the CG and post industries.

Q&A: Camera Operators

By Randi Altman

Camera operators might not always get the glory, but they certainly do get the job done. Working hand in hand with DPs and directors, these artists make sure the camera is in the right place for the right shot, and so much more. As one of the ops we spoke to says, “The camera operator is the “protector of the frame.”

We reached out to three different camera operators, all of whom are members of the Society of Camera Operators (SOC), to find out more about their craft and how their job differs from some of the others on set.

Lisa Stacilauskas

Lisa Stacilauskas, SOC
What is the role of the camera operator? What is the camera operator accountable for on set?
The role of the camera operator varies quite a bit depending on the format. I work primarily in scripted television on “single camera” comedies. Don’t let the name “single camera” fool you. It’s meant to differentiate the shooting format from multicam, but these days most single camera shows shoot with two or three cameras. The show I work on, American Housewife, uses three cameras. I am the C camera operator.

In the most basic sense, the camera operator is responsible for the movement of the camera and the inclusion or exclusion of what is in frame. It takes a team of craftspeople to accomplish this. My immediate team includes a 1st and 2nd camera assistant and a dolly grip. Together we get the camera where it needs to be to get the shots and to tell the story as efficiently as possible.

In a larger sense, the camera operator is a storyteller. It is my responsibility to know the story we are trying to tell and assist the director in attaining their vision of that story. As C camera operator, I think about how the scene will come together in editing so I know which pieces of coverage to get.

Another big part of my job is keeping lighting equipment and abandoned water bottles out of my shot. The camera operator is the “protector of the frame”!

How do you typically work with the DP?
The DP is the head of the camera department. Each DP has nuances in the way they work with their operators. Some DPs tell you exactly where to put your camera and what focal length your lenses should be. Others give you an approximate position and an indication of the size (wide, medium, close-up) and let you work it out with the actors or stand-ins.

American Housewife

How does the role of the camera operator and a DP differ?
The DP is in charge of camera and lighting. Officially, I have no responsibility for lighting. However, it’s very important for a camera operator to think like a DP; to know and pay attention to the lighting. Additionally, especially when shooting digitally, once the blocking is determined, camera operators stay on set, working with all the other departments to prepare a shot while the DP is at the monitors evaluating the lighting and/or discussing set ups with the director.

What is the relationship between the operator and the director?
The relationship between the operator and director can vary depending on the director and the DP. Some directors funnel all instructions through the DP and only come to you with minor requests once the shots have already been determined.

If the director comes to me directly without going through the DP, it is my responsibility to let the DP know of the requested shot, especially if she/he hasn’t lit for it! Sometimes you are a mediator between the two and hopefully steer them closer to being on the same page. It can be a tough spot to be in if the DP and director have different visions.

Can you talk about recent projects you’ve worked on?
I’m currently working on Season 3 of American Housewife. The C camera position was a day-playing position at the beginning of Season 1, but DP Andrew Rawson loves to work with three cameras, and really knows how to use all three efficiently. Once production saw how much time we saved them, they brought us on full time. Shooting quickly and efficiently is especially important on American Housewife because three of our five principal actors are minors, whose hours on set are restricted by law.

During a recent hiatus, I operated B camera on a commercial with the DP operating A camera. It seemed like the DP appreciated the “extra set of eyes.”

Prior to American Housewife, I worked on several comedies operating the B camera, including Crazy Ex- Girlfriend (Season 1), Teachers (Season 1) and Playing House (Season 2).

Stephen Campanelli, SOC
What is the role of the camera operator? What is the camera operator accountable for on set?
The role of the camera operator on the set is to physically move the camera around to tell the story. The camera operator is accountable for what the director and the director of photography interpret to be the story that needs to be told visually by the camera.

Stephen Campanelli (center) on the set of American Sniper.

As a camera operator, you listen to their input, and sometimes have your own input and opinion to make the shot better or to convey the story point from a different view. It is the best job on set in my opinion, as you get to physically move the camera to tell great stories and work with amazing actors who give you their heart and soul right in front of you!

How do you typically work with the DP?
I have been very fortunate in my career to have worked with some very collaborative DPs. After 24 years of working with Clint Eastwood, I have absorbed so much of his directing style and visual nature that working closely with the DP we have created the Eastwood-style of filmmaking. When I am doing other films with other DPs we always talk about conveying the story in the truest, most visual way without letting the camera get in the way of a good story. That is one of the most important things to remember: A camera operator is not to bring attention to the camera, but bring attention to the story!

How does the role of the camera operator and a DP differ?
A DP usually is in charge of the lighting and the look of the entire motion picture. Some DPs also operate the camera, but that is a lot of work on both sides. A camera operator is very essential, as he or she can rehearse with the actors or stand-ins while the director of photography can concentrate solely on the lighting.

What is the relationship between the operator and the director?
As I mentioned earlier, my relationship with Clint Eastwood has been a very close one, as he works closely with the camera operator rather than the director of photography. We have an incredible bond where very few words are spoken, but we each know how to tell the story once we read the script. On some films, the director and the DP are the ones that work together closely to cohesively set the tone for the movie and to tell the story, and the camera operator interprets that and physically moves the camera with the collaboration of both the director and director of photography.

Can you talk about recent projects you’ve worked on?
I recently just wrapped my 22nd movie with Clint Eastwood as his camera operator, it is called The Mule. We filmed in Atlanta, New Mexico and Colorado. It is a very good script and Clint is back in front of the camera again, acting in it. It also stars Bradley Cooper, Laurence Fishburne and Michael Pena. [Editor’s note: He recently worked on A Star is Born, also with Bradley Cooper.]

Recently, I moved up to directing. In 2015, I directed a movie called Momentum, and this year I directed an award-winning film called Indian Horse that was a big hit in Canada and will soon be released in the United States.

Jamie Hitchcock

Jamie Hitchcock, SOC
What is the role of the camera operator? What is the camera operator accountable for on set?
The role of a camera operator is to compose an assigned shot and physically move the camera if necessary to perform that shot or series of shots as many times as needed to achieve the final take. The camera operator is responsible for maintaining the composition of the shot while also scanning the frame for anything that shouldn’t be there. The camera operator is responsible for communicating to all departments about elements that should or should not be in the frame.

How do you typically work with the DP?
The way a camera operator works with a director of photography varies depending on the type of project they are working on. On a feature film, episodic or commercial, the director of photography is very involved. The DP will set each shot and the operator then repeats it as many times as necessary. On a variety show, live show or soap opera, the DP is usually a lighting designer/director, and the director works with the camera operators to set the shots. On multi-camera sitcoms, the shots are usually set by the director… with the camera operator. When the production requires a complicated scene or location, the DP will become more actively involved with the selection of the shots.

How does the role of the camera operator and a DP differ?
The role of the DP and operator are quite different yet the goal is the same. The DP is involved with the pre-production process, lighting, running the set, managing the crew and the post process. The operator is involved on set working shot by shot. Ultimately, both the DP and operator are responsible for the final image the viewing audience will see.

What is the relationship between the operator and the director?
The relationship between the operator and the director, like that of the operator and DP, varies depending on the type of project. On a feature-type project, the director may be only using one camera. On a sports or variety program the director might be looking at 15 or more cameras. In all cases, the director is counting on the operators to perform their assigned shots each time. Ultimately, when a shot or take is complete, the director is the person who decides to move on or do it again, and they trust the operator to tell them if the shot was good or not.

CBS’s Mom

Can you talk about recent projects you’ve worked on?
I am currently working on The Big Bang Theory and Mom for CBS. Both are produced by Chuck Lorre Productions and Warner Bros. Television. Steven V. Silver, ASC, is the DP for both shows. Both shows use four cameras and are taped in front of a studio audience. We work in what I like to call the “Desilu-type” format because all four cameras are on a J.L. Fisher dolly with a 1st assistant working the lens and a dolly grip physically moving the camera. This format was perfected by Desi Arnez for I Love Lucy and still works well for this format.

The working relationship with the DP and director on our shows falls somewhere in the middle. Mark Cendroski and Jamie Widdoes direct almost all of our shows, and they work directly with the four operators to set the required shots. They have a lot of trust in us to know what elements are needed in the frame, and sometimes the only direction we receive is the type of shot they want. I work on a center camera, which is commonly referred to as a “master” camera, however it’s not uncommon to have a master, close-up and two or three shots all in the same scene. Each scene is shot beginning to end with all the coverage set, and a final edit is done in post. We do have someone cutting a live edit that feeds to the audience so they can follow along.

Our process is very fast, and our DP usually only sees the lighting when we start blocking shots with stand-ins. Steve spends a lot of time at the monitor and constantly switches between all four cameras — he’s looking at composition and lighting, and setting the final look with our video controller. Generally, when the actors are on set we roll the cameras. It’s a pretty high-pressure way to work for a product that will potentially be seen by millions of people around the world, but I love it and can’t imagine doing anything else.

Main Image Caption: Stephen Campanelli


The SOC, which celebrates 40 years in 2019, is an international organization that aims to bring together camera operators and crew. The Society also hosts an annual Lifetime Achievement Awards show, publishes the magazine Camera Operator and has a charitable commitment to The Vision Center at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles.

The ASC: Mentoring and nurturing diversity

Cynthia Pusheck, ASC, co-chairs the ASC Vision Committee, along with John Simmons, ASC. Working together they focus on encouraging and supporting the advancement of underrepresented cinematographers, their crews and other filmmakers. They hope their efforts inspire others in the industry to help positive change through hiring talent that better reflects society.

In addition to her role on the ASC Vision Committee, Pusheck is a VP of the ASC board. She became a member in 2013. Her credits include Sacred Lies, Good Girls Revolt, Revenge and Brothers & Sisters. She is currently shooting Limetown for Facebook Watch.

To find out more about their work, we reached out to Pusheck.

Can you talk about what the ASC Vision Committee has done since its inception? What it hopes to accomplish?
The ASC Vision Committee was formed in January 2016 as a way for the ASC to actively support those who face unique hurdles as they build their cinematography careers. We’ve held three full-day diversity events, and some individual panel discussions.

We’ve also awarded a number of scholarships to the ASC Master Class and will continue awarding a handful each year. Our mentorship program is getting off the ground now with many ASC members offering to give time to young DPs from underrepresented groups. There’s a lot more that John Simmons (my co-chair) and our committee members want to accomplish, and with the support of the ASC staff, board members and president, we will continue to push things forward.

(L-R) Diversity Day panel: Rebecca Rhine, Dr. Stacy Smith, Alan Caso, Natasha Foster-Owens, Xiomara Comrie, Tema Staig, Sarah Caplan.

The word “progress” has always been part of the ASC mission statement. So, with the goal of progress in mind, we redesigned an ASC red lapel pin and handed it out at the ASC Awards earlier this year (#ASCVision). We wanted to use it to call attention to the work of our committee and to encourage our own community of cinematographers and camera people to do their part. If directors of photography and their department heads (camera, grip and set lighting) hire with inclusivity in mind, then we can change the face of the industry.

What do you think is contributing to more females becoming interested in camera crew careers? What are you seeing in terms of tangible developments?
Gender inequality in this industry has certainly gotten a lot of attention the last few years, which is fantastic but despite all that attention, the actual facts and figures don’t show as much change as you’d think.

The percentage of women or people of color shooting movies and TV shows hasn’t really changed much. There certainly is a lot more “content” getting produced for TV, and that has been great for many of us, and it’s a very exciting time. But, we have a long way to go still.

What’s very hopeful, though, is that more producers and studios are really pushing for inclusivity. That means hiring more women and people of color in positions of leadership, and encouraging their crews to bring more underrepresented crew members onto the production.

Currently we’re also seeing more young female DPs getting some really good shooting opportunities very early in their careers. That didn’t happen so much in the past, and I think that continues to motivate more young women to consider the camera department, or cinematography, as a viable career path.

We also have to remember that it’s not just about getting more women on set, it’s about having our sets look like society at large. The ultimate goal should be that everyone has a fair chance to succeed in this industry.

How can women looking to get into this part of the industry find mentors?
The union (Local 600), and also now the ASC have mentorship programs. The union’s program is great for those coming up the ranks looking for help or advice as they build their career.

For example, an assistant can find another assistant, or an operator, to help them navigate the next phase of their career and give them advice. The ASC mentorship program is aimed more for young cinematographers or operators from underrepresented groups who may benefit from the support of an experienced DP.

Another way to find a mentor is by contacting someone whom you admire directly. Many women would be surprised to find that if they reach out and request a coffee or phone call, often that person will try and find time for them.

My advice would be to do your homework about the person you’re contacting and be specific in your questions and your goals. Asking broad questions like “How do I get a job” or “Will you hire me?” won’t get you very far.

What do you think will create the most change? What are the hurdles that still must be overcome?
Bias and discrimination, whether conscious or unconscious, is still a problem on our sets. It may have lessened in the last 25 years, but we all continue to hear stories about crew members (at all levels) who behave badly, make inappropriate comments or just have trouble working for woman or people of color. These are all unnecessary stresses for those trying to get hired and build their careers.

Behind the Camera: Feature Film DPs

By Karen Moltenbrey

The responsibilities of a director of photography (DP) span far more than cinematography. Perhaps they are best known for their work behind the camera capturing the action on set, but that is just one part of their multi-faceted job. Well before they step onto the set, they meet with the director, at times working hand-in-hand to determine the overall look of the project. They also make a host of technical selections, such as the type of camera and lenses they will use as well as the film stock if applicable – crucial decisions that will support the director’s vision and make it a reality.

Here we focus on two DPs for a pair of recent films with specialized demands and varying aesthetics, as they discuss their workflows on these projects as well as the technical choices they made concerning equipment and the challenges each project presented.

Hagen Bogdanski: Papillon
The 2018 film Papillon, directed by Michael Noer, is a remake of the 1973 classic. Set in the 1930s, it follows two inmates who must serve, and survive, time in a French Guyana penal colony. The safecracker nicknamed Papillon (Charlie Hunnam) is serving a life sentence and offers protection to wealthy inmate Louis Dega (Rami Malek) in exchange for financing Papillon’s escape.

“We wanted to modernize the script, the whole story. It is a great story but it feels aged. To bring it to a new, younger audience, it had to be modernized in a more radical way, even though it is a classic,” says Hagen Bogdanski, the film’s DP, whose credits include the film The Beaver and the TV series Berlin Station, among others. To that end, he notes, “we were not interested in mimicking the original.”

This was done in a number of ways. First, through the camera work, using a semi-documentary style. The director has a history of shooting documentaries and, therefore, the crew shot with two cameras at all times. “We also shot the rehearsals,” notes Bogdanski, who was brought onto the project and given nearly five weeks of prep before shooting began. Although this presented a lot of potential risk for Bogdanski, the film “came out great in the end. I think it’s one of the reasons the look feels so modern, so spontaneous.”

In the film, the main characters face off against the harsh environment of their prison island. But to film such a landscape required the cinematographer and crew to also contend with these trying conditions. They shot on location outdoors for the majority of the feature, using just one physical structure: the prison. Also helping to define the film’s aesthetic was the lighting, which, as is typical with Bogdanski’s films, is as natural as possible without large artificial sources.

Most of the movie was shot in Montenegro, near sun-drenched Greece and Albania. Bogdanski does not mince words: “The locations were difficult.”

Weather seemed to impact Bogdanski the most. “It was very remote, and if it’s raining, it’s really raining. If it’s getting dark, it’s dark, and if it’s foggy, there is fog. You have to deal with a lot of circumstances you cannot control, and that’s always a bit of a nightmare for any cinematographer,” he says. “But, what is good about it is that you get the real thing, and you get texture, layers, and sometimes it’s better when it rains than when the sun is shining. Most of the time we were lucky with the weather and circumstances. The reality of location shooting adds quite heavily to the look and to the whole texture of the movie.”

The location shooting also affected this DP’s choice of cameras. “The footprint [I used] was as small as possible because we basically visited abandoned locales. Therefore, I chose as small a kit — lenses, cameras and lights — as possible,” Bogdanski points out. “Because [the camera] was handheld, every pound counted.” In this regard, he used ARRI’s Arriflex Mini cameras and one Alexa SXT, and only shot with Zeiss Ultra Prime lenses – “big zooms, no big filters, nothing,” he adds.

The prison build was on a remote mountain. On the upside, Bogdanski could shoot 360 degrees there without requiring the addition of CGI later. On the downside, the crew had to get up the mountain. A road was constructed to transport the gear and for the set construction, but even so, the trek was not easy. “It took two hours or longer each day from our hotel. It was quite an adventure,” he says.

As for the lighting, Bogdanski tried to shoot when the light was good, taking advantage of the location’s natural light as much as possible — within his documentary style. When this was not enough, LEDs were used. “Again, small footprint, smaller lens, smaller electrical power, smaller generators….” The night scenes were especially challenging because the nights were very short, no longer than five to six hours. When artificial rain had to be used, shooting was “a little painful” due to the size of the set, requiring the use of more traditional lighting sources, such as large Tungsten light units.

According to Bogdanski, filming Papillon followed what he calls an “eclectic” workflow, akin to the European method of filming whereby rehearsal occurred in the morning and was quite long, as the director rehearsed with the actors. Then, scenes were shot in script order, on the first take without technical rehearsals. “From there, we tried to cover the scene in handheld mode with two cameras in a kind of mash-up. We did pick up the close-ups and all that, but always in a very spontaneous and quick way,” says Bogdanski.

Looking back, Bogdanski describes Papillon as a “modern-period film”: a period look, without looking “period.” “It sounds a bit Catch-22, which it is, in my opinion, but that’s what we aimed for, a film that plays basically in the ’40s and ’50s, and later in the ’60s,” he says.

During the time since the original film was made in 1973, the industry has witnessed quite a technical revolution in terms of film equipment, providing the director and DP on the remake with even more tools and techniques at their disposal to leave their own mark on this classic for a new generation.

Nancy Schreiber: Mapplethorpe
Award-winning cinematographer Nancy Schreiber, ASC, has a resume spanning episodic television (The Comeback), documentaries (Eva Hesse) and features (The Nines). Her latest film, Mapplethorpe, paints an unflinching portrait of controversial-yet-revered photographer Robert Mapplethorpe, who died at the age of 42 from AIDS-related complications in 1989. Mapplethorpe, whose daring work influenced popular culture, rose to fame in the 1970s with his black-and-white photography.

In the early stages of planning the film, Schreiber worked with director Ondi Timoner and production designer Jonah Markowitz while they were still in California prior to the shoot in New York, where Mapplethorpe (played by The Crown’s Matt Smith) lived and worked at the height of his popularity.

“We looked at a lot of reference materials — books and photographs — as Ondi and I exchanged look books. Then we honed in on the palette, the color of my lights, the set dressing and wardrobe, and we were off to the races,” says Schreiber. Shooting began mid-July 2017.

Mapplethorpe is a period piece that spans three decades, all of which have a slightly different feel. “We kept the ’60s and into the ’70s quite warm in tone,” as this is the period when he first meets Patty Smith, his girlfriend at the time, and picks up a camera, explains Schreiber. “It becomes desaturated but still warm tonally when he and Patti visit his parents back home in Queens while the two are living at the Chelsea Hotel. The look progresses until it’s very much on the cool blue/gray side, almost black and white, in the later ’70s and ’80s.” During that time period, Mapplethorpe is successful, with an enormous studio, photographically exploring male body parts like no other person has ever done, while continuing to shoot portraits of the rich and famous.

Schreiber opted to use film, Super 16, rather than digital to capture the life of this famed photographer. “He shot in film, and we felt that format was true to his photography,” she notes. Despite Mapplethorpe’s penchant for mostly shooting in black and white, neither Timoner nor Schreiber considered using that format for the feature, mostly because the ’60s through ’80s in New York had very distinctive color palettes. They felt, however, that film in and of itself was very “textural and beautiful,” whereas you have to work a little harder with digital to make it look like film — even though new ways of adding grain to digital have become quite sophisticated. “Yet, the grain of Super 16 is so distinctive,” she says.

In addition, Kodak had just opened a lab in New York in the spring of 2017, facilitating their ability to shoot film by having it processed quickly nearby.

Schreiber used an ARRI Arriflex 416 camera for the project; when possible, she used two. She also had a set of Zeiss 35mm Super Speed lenses, along with two zoom lenses she used only occasionally for outdoor shots. “The Super Speeds were terrific. They’re vintage and were organic to the look of this period.”

She also used a light meter faithfully. Although Schreiber occasionally uses light meters when shooting digital, it was not optional for shooting film. “I had to use it for every shot, although after a couple of days, I was pretty good at guessing [by eyeing it],” Schreiber points out, “as I used to do when we only shot film.”

Soon after ARRI had introduced the Arriflex 416 – which is small and lightweight – the industry started moving to digital, prompting ARRI to roll out the now-popular Alexa. “But the [Arriflex 416] camera really caught on for those still shooting Super 16, as they do for the series The Walking Dead, Schreiber says, adding she was able to get her pair from TCS Technological Cinevideo Services rental house in New York.

“I had owned an Aaton, a French camera that was very popular in the 1980s and ’90s. But today, the 416 is very much in demand, resembling the shape of my Aaton, both of which are ergonomic, fitting nicely on your shoulder. There were numerous scenes in the car, and I could just jump in the car with this very small camera, much smaller than the digital cameras we use on movies; it was so flexible and easy to work with,” recalls Schreiber.

As for the lenses, “again, I chose the Super Speed Primes not only because they were vintage, but because I needed the speed of the 1.3 lens since film requires more light.” She tested other lenses at TCS, but those were her favorites.

While Schreiber has used film on some commercials and music videos, it had been some time since she had used it for an entire movie. “I had forgotten how freeing it is, how you can really move. There are no cables to worry about. Although, we did transmit to a tiny video village,” she says. “We didn’t always have two cameras [due to cost], so I needed to move fast and get all the coverage the editor needed. We had 19 days, and we were limited in how long we could shoot each day; our budget was small and we couldn’t afford overtime.” At times, though, she was able to hire a Steadicam or B operator who really helped move them along, keeping the camera fluid and getting extra coverage. Timoner also shot a bit of Super 8 along the way.

There was just one disadvantage to using film: The stocks are slow. As Schreiber explains, she used a 500 ASA stock. Therefore, she needed very fast lenses and a fair amount of light in order to compensate. “That worked OK for me on Mapplethorpe because there was a different sense of lighting in the 1970s, and films seemed more ‘lit.’ For example, I might use backlight or hair light, which I never would do for [a film set in] present day,” she says. “I rated that stock at 400 to get rich blacks; that also slightly minimized the grain when the day interior stock was 250 that I rated at 200. We are so used to shooting at 800 or 1280 ISO these days. It was an adjustment.”

Schreiber on set with “Mapplethorpe” director Ondi Timoner.

Shooting with film was also more efficient for Schreiber. “We had monitors for the video village, but we were standard def, old-school, which is not an exact representation. So, I could move quickly to get enough coverage, and I never looked at a monitor except when we had Steadicam. What you see is not what you get with an SD tap. I was trusted to create the imagery as I saw fit. I think many people today are used to seeing the digital image on the monitor as what the final film will look like and may be nervous about waiting for the processing and transfer, not trusting the mystery or mystique of how celluloid will look.”

To top things off, Schreiber was backed by an all-female A camera team. “I know how hard it is for women to get work,” she adds. “There are so many competent women working behind the camera these days, and I was happy to hire them. I remember how challenging it was when I was a gaffer or started to shoot.”

As for costs, digital camera equipment is more expensive than Super 16 film equipment, yet there were processing and transfer costs associated with getting the film into the edit suite. So, when all was said and done, film was indeed more expensive to use, but not by much.

“I am really proud that we were able to do the movie in 19 days with a very limited budget, in New York, covering many periods,” concludes Schreiber. “We had a great time, and I am happy I was able to hire so many women in my departments. Women are still really under-represented, and we must demonstrate that there is not a scarcity of talent, just a lack of exposure and opportunity.”

Mapplethorpe is expected in theaters this October.


Karen Moltenbrey is a longtime writer and editor in the CG and post industries.

DP Rick Ray: Traveling the world capturing stock images

By Randi Altman

It takes a special kind of human to travel the world, putting himself in harm’s way to collect hard-to-find stock imagery, but Rick Ray thrives on this way of life. This Adobe Stock contributor has a long history as a documentary filmmaker and a resume that includes 10 Questions for the Dalai Lama (2006), Letters Home from the South China Seas: Adventures in Singapore & Borneo (1989) and Letters Home from Iceland (1990).

Let’s find out more about what makes Ray tick.

As a DP, are you just collecting footage to sell or are you working on films, docs and series as well?
I used to be a documentary filmmaker and have about 24 published titles in travel and biography, including the 10 Questions For The Dalai Lama and the TV series Raising The Bamboo Curtain With Martin Sheen. However, I found that unless you are Ken Burns or Michael Moore, making a living in the world of documentary films can be very difficult. It wasn’t until I came to realize that individual shots taken from my films and used in other productions were earning me more income than the whole film itself that I understood how potentially lucrative and valuable your footage can be when it is repurposed as stock.

That said, I still hire myself out as a DP on many Hollywood and independent films whenever possible. I also try to retain the stock rights for these assignments whenever possible.

A Bedouin man in Jordan.

How often are you on the road, and how do you pick your next place to shoot?
I travel for about three to four months each year now. Lately, I travel to places that interest me from a beauty or cultural perspective, whether or not they may be of maximal commercial potential. The stock footage world is inundated with great shots of Paris, London or Tokyo. It’s very hard for your footage to be noticed in such a crowded field of content. For that reason, lesser known locations of the world are attractive to me because there is less good footage of those places.

I also enjoy the challenges of traveling and filming in less comfortable places in the world, something I suppose I inherited from my days as a 25-year-old backpacking and hitchhiking around the world.

Are you typically given topics to capture — filling a need — or just shooting what interests you?
Mostly what interests me, but also I see a need for many topics of political relevance, and this also informs my shooting itinerary.

For example, immigration is in the news intensively these days, so I have recently driven the border wall from Tijuana to the New Mexico border capturing imagery of that. It’s not a place I’d normally go for a shoot, but it proved to be very interesting and it’s licensing all the time.

Rick Ray

Do you shoot alone?
Yes, normally. Sometimes I go with one other person, but that’s it. To be an efficient and effective stock shooter, you are not a “film crew” per se. You are not hauling huge amounts of gear around. There are no “grips,” and no “craft services.” In stock shooting around the world, as I define it, I am a low-key casual observer making beautiful images with low-key gear and minimal disruption to life in the countries I visit. If you are a crew of three or more, you become a group unto yourself, and it’s much more difficult to interact and experience the places you are visiting.

What do you typically capture with camera-wise? What format? Do you convert footage or let Adobe Stock do that?
I travel with two small (but excellent) Sony 4K handicams (FDR-AX100), two drones, a DJI Osmo handheld steady-grip, an Edelkrone slider kit and two lightweight tripods. Believe it or not, these can all fit into one standard large suitcase. I shoot in XDCAM 4K and then convert it to Apple ProRes in post. Adobe Stock does not convert my clips for me. I deliver them ready to be ordered.

You edit on Adobe Premiere. Why is that the right system for you, and do you edit your footage before submitting? How does that Adobe Stock process work?
I used to work in Final Cut Pro 7 and Final Cut Pro X, but I switched to Adobe Premiere Pro after struggling with FCPX. As for “editing,” it doesn’t really play a part in stock footage submission. There is no editing as we are almost always dealing with single clips. I do grade, color correct, stabilize and de-noise many clips before I export them. I believe in having the clips look great before they are submitted. They have to compete with thousands of other clips on the site, and mine need to jump out at you and make you want to use them. Adobe allows users to submit content directly from Premiere to Adobe Stock, but since I deal in large volumes of clips in submitting, I don’t generally use this approach. I send a drive in with a spreadsheet of data when a batch of clips are done.

A firefighter looks back as a building collapses during the Thomas Fire in Ventura, California.

What are the challenges of this type of shooting?
Well, you are 100% responsible for the success or failure of the mission. There is no one to blame but yourself. Since you are mostly traveling low-key and without a lot of protection, it’s very important to have a “fixer” or driver in difficult countries. You might get arrested or have all of your equipment stolen by corrupt customs authorities in a country like Macedonia, as happened to me. It happens! You have to roll with the good and the bad, ask forgiveness rather than permission and be happy for the amazing footage you do manage to get,

You left a pretty traditional job to travel the world. What spurred that decision, and do you ever see yourself back at a more 9-to-5  type of existence?
Never! I have figured out the perfect retirement plan for myself. Every day I can check my sales from anywhere in the world, and on most days the revenue more than justifies the cost of the travel! And it’s all a tax write-off. Who has benefits like that?

A word of warning, though — this is not for everyone. You have to be ok with the idea of spending money to build a portfolio before you see significant revenue in return. It can take time and you may not be as lucky as I have been. But for those who are self-motivated and have a knack for cinematography and travel, this is a perfect career.

Can you name some projects that feature your work?
Very often this takes me by surprise since I often don’t know exactly how my footage is used. More often than not, I’m watching CNN, a TV show or a movie and I see my footage. It’s always a surprise and makes me laugh. I’ve seen my work on the Daily Show, Colbert, CNN, in commercials for everything from pharmaceuticals to Viking Cruises, in political campaign ads for people I agree and disagree with, and in music videos for Neil Young, Bruce Springsteen, Coldplay and Roger Waters.

Fire burns along the road near a village in the Palestinian territories.

Shooting on the road must be interesting. Can you share a story with us?
There have been quite a few. I have had my gear stolen in Israel (twice). In Thailand my gear was confiscated by corrupt customs authorities in Macedonia, as I mentioned earlier. I have been jailed by Ethiopian police for not having a valid filming permit, which was not necessary. Once a proper bribe was arranged they changed clothes from police into costumed natives and performed as tour guides and cultural emissaries for me.

In India, I was on a train to the Kumba Mela, which was stopped by a riot and burned. I escaped with minor injuries. I was also accosted by communist revolutionaries in Bihar, India. Rather than be a victim, I got out of the car and filmed it, and the leader and his generals then reviewed the footage and decided to do it over. After five takes of them running down the road and past the camera, the leader finally approved the take and I was left unharmed.

I’ve been in Syria and Lebanon and felt truly threatened by violence. I’ve been chased by Somali bandits at night in a van in Northern Kenya. Buy me a beer sometime, I’ll tell you more.

Review: Mobile Filmmaking with Filmic Pro, Gnarbox, LumaFusion

By Brady Betzel

There is a lot of what’s become known as mobile filmmaking being done with cell phones, such as the iPhone, Samsung Galaxy and even the Google Pixel. For this review, I will cover two apps and one hybrid hard drive/mobile media ingest station built specifically for this type of mobile production.

Recently, I’ve heard how great the latest mobile phone camera sensors are, and how those embracing mobile filmmaking are taking advantage of them in their workflows. Those workflows typically have one thing in common: Filmic Pro.

One of the more difficult parts of mobile filmmaking, whether you are using a GoPro, DSLR or your phone, is storage and transferring the media to a workable editing system. The Gnarbox, which is designed to help solve this issue, is in my opinion one of the best solutions for mobile workflows that I have seen.

Finally, editing your footage together in a professional nonlinear editor like Adobe Premiere Pro or Blackmagic’s Resolve takes some skills and dedication. Moreover, if you are doing a lot of family filmmaking (like me), you usually have to wait for the kids to go to sleep to start transferring and editing. However, with the iOS app LumaFusion — used simultaneously with the Gnarbox — you can transfer your GoPro, DSLR or other pro camera shots, while your actors are taking a break, allowing you to clear your memory cards or get started on a quick rough cut to send to executives that might be waiting off site.

Filmic Pro
First up is Filmic Pro V.6. Filmic Pro is an iOS and Android app that gives you fine-tuned control over your phone’s camera, including live image analyzation features, focus pulling and much more.

There are four very useful live analytic views you can enable at the top of the app: Zebra Stripes, Clipping, False Color and Focus Peaking. There is another awesome recording view that allows simultaneous focus and exposure adjustments, conveniently placed where you would naturally rest your thumbs. With the focus pulling feature you can even set start and end focus points that Filmic Pro will run for you — amazing!

There are many options under the hood of Filmic Pro, including the ability to record at almost any frame rate and aspect ratio, such as 9:16 vertical video (Instagram TV anyone?). You can also film at one particular frame rate, such as 120fps and record at a more standard frame rate of 24fps, essentially processing your high-speed footage in the phone. Vertical video is one of those constant questions that arises when producing video for mobile viewing. If you don’t want the app to automatically change to vertical video recording mode, you can set an orientation lock in the settings. When recording video there are four data rate options: Filmic Extreme, with 100Mb/s for any frame size 2K or higher and 50Mb/s for 1080p or lower; Filmic Quality, which limits the data rate to 35Mb/s (your phone’s default data rate); or Economy, which you probably don’t need to use.

I have only touched on a few of the options inside of Filmic Pro. There are many more, including mic input selections, sample rate selections (including 48kHz), timelapse mode and, in my opinion, the most powerful feature, Log recording. Log recording inside of a mobile phone can unlock some unnoticed potential in your phone’s camera chip, allowing for a better ability to match color between cameras or expose details in shadows when doing color correction in post.

The only slightly bad news is that on top of the $14.99 price for the Filmic Pro app itself, to gain access to the Log ability (labeled Cinematographer’s Toolkit) you have to pay an additional $9.99. In the end, $25 is a really, really, really small price to pay for the abilities that Filmic Pro unlocks for you. And while this won’t turn your phone into an Arri Alexa or Red Helium (yet), you can raise your level of mobile cinematography quickly, and if you are using your phone for some B-or C-roll, Filmic Pro can help make your colorist happy, thanks to Log recording.

One feature that I couldn’t test because I do not own a DJI Osmo is that you can control the features on your iOS device from the Osmo itself, which is pretty intriguing. In addition, if you use any of the Moondog Labs anamorphic adapters, Filmic Pro can be programmed to de-squeeze the footage properly.

You can really dive in with Filmic Pro’s library of tutorials here.

Gnarbox 1.0
After running around with GoPro cameras strapped to your (or your dog’s) head all day, there will be some heavy post work to get it offloaded onto your computer system. And, typically, you will have much more than just one GoPro recording during the day. Maybe you took some still photos on your DSLR and phone, shot some drone footage and had GoPro on a chest mount.

As touched on earlier, the Gnarbox 1.0 is a stand-alone WiFi-enabled hard drive and media ingestion station that has SD, microSD, USB 3.0 and USB 2.0 ports to transfer media to the internal 128GB or 256GB Flash memory. You simply insert the memory cards or the camera’s USB cable and connect to the Gnarbox via the App on your phone to begin working or transferring.

There are a bunch of files that will open using the Gnarbox 1.0 iOS and Android apps, but there are some specific files that won’t open, including ProRes, H.265 iPhone recordings, CinemaDNG, etc. However, not all hope is lost. Gnarbox is offering up the Gnarbox 2.0 via IndieGogo and can be pre-ordered. Version 2.0 will offer compatibility with file types such as ProRes, in addition to having faster transfer times and app-free backups.

So while reading this review of the Gnarbox 1.0, keep Version 2 in the back of your mind, since it will likely contain many new features that you will want… if you can wait until the estimated delivery of January 2019.

Gnarbox 1.0 comes in two flavors: a 128GB version for $299.99, and the version I was sent to review, which is 256GB for $399.99. The price is a little steep, but the efficiency this product brings is worth the price of admission. Click here for all the lovely specs.

The drive itself is made to be used with an iPhone or Android-based device primarily, but it can be put into an external hard drive mode to be used with a stand-alone computer. The Gnarbox 1.0 has a write speed of 132MB/s and read speed of 92MB/s when attached to a computer in Mass Storage Mode via the USB 3.0 connection. I actually found myself switching modes a lot when transferring footage or photos back to my main system.

It would be nice to have a way to switch to the external hard drive mode outside of the app, but it’s still pretty easy and takes only a few seconds. To connect your phone or tablet to the Gnarbox 1.0, you need to download the Gnarbox app from the App Store or Google Play Store. From there you can access content on your phone as well as on the Gnarbox when connected to it. In addition to the Gnarbox app, Gnarbox 1.0 can be used with Adobe Lightroom CC and the mobile NLE LumaFusion, which I will cover next in the review.

The reason I love the Gnarbox so much is how simply, efficiently and powerfully it accomplishes its task of storing media without a computer, allowing you to access, edit and export the media to share online without a lot of technical know-how. The one drawback to using cameras like GoPros is it can take a lot of post processing power to get the videos on your system and edited. With the Gnarbox, you just insert your microSD card into the Gnarbox, connect your phone via WiFi, edit your photos or footage then export to your phone or the Gnarbox itself.

If you want to do a full backup of your memory card, you open the Gnarbox app, find the Connected Devices, select some or all of the clips and photos you want to backup to the Gnarbox and click Copy Files. The same screen will show you which files have and have not been backed up yet so you don’t do it multiple times.

When editing photos or video there are many options. If you are simply trimming down a video clip, stringing out a few clips for a highlight reel, adding some color correction, and even some music, then the Gnarbox app is all you will need. With the Gnarbox 1.0, you can select resolution and bit rates. If you’re reading this review you are probably familiar with how resolutions and bit rates work, so I won’t bore you with those explanations. Gnarbox 1.0 allows for 4K, 2.7K. 1080p and 720p resolutions and bitrates of 65 Mbps, 45Mbps, 30Mbps and 10Mbps.

My rule of thumb for social media is that resolution over 1080p doesn’t really apply to many people since most are watching it on their phone, and even with a high-end HDR, 4K, wide gamut… whatever, you really won’t see much difference. The real difference comes in bit rates. Spend your megabytes wisely and put all your eggs in the bit rate basket. The higher the bit rates the better quality your color will be and there will be less tearing or blockiness. In my opinion a higher bit rate 1080p video is worth more than a 4K video with a lower bit rate. It just doesn’t pay off. But, hey, you have the options.

Gnarbox has an awesome support site where you can find tutorial GIFs and writeups covering everything from powering on your Gnarbox to bitrates, like this one. They also have a great YouTube playlist that covers most topics with the Gnarbox, its app, and working with other apps like LumaFusion to get you started. Also, follow them on Instagram for some sweet shots they repost.

LumaFusion
With Filmic Pro to capture your video and with the Gnarbox you can lightly edit and consolidate your media, but you might need to go a little further in the editing than just simple trims. This is where LumaFusion comes in. At the moment, LumaFusion is an iOS only app, but I’ve heard they might be working on an Android version. So for this review I tried to get my hands on an iPad and an iPad Pro because this is where LumaFusion would sing. Alas, I had to settle for my wife’s iPhone 7 Plus. This was actually a small blessing, because I was afraid the app would be way too small to use on a standard iPhone. To my surprise it was actually fine.

LumaFusion is an iOS-based nonlinear editor, much like Adobe Premiere or FCPX, but it only costs $19.99 in the App store. I added LumaFusion to this review because of its tight integration with Gnarbox (by accessing the files directly on the Gnarbox for editing and output), but also because it has presets for Filmic Pro aspect ratios: 1.66:1, 17:9, 2.2:1, 2.39:1, 2.59:1. LumaFusion will also integrate with external drives like the Western Digital wireless SSD, as well as cloud services like Google Drive.

In the actual editing interface LumaFusion allows for advanced editing with titles, music, effects and color correction. It gives you three video and audio tracks to edit with, allowing for J and L cuts or transitions between clips. For an editor like me who is so used to Avid Media Composer that I want to slip and trim in every app, LumaFusion allows for slips, trims, insert edits, overwrite edits, audio track mixing, audio ducking to automatically set your music levels — depending on when dialogue occurs — audio panning, chroma key effects, slow and fast motion effects, titles with different fonts and much more.

There is a lot of versatility inside of LumaFusion, including the ability to export different frame rates between 18, 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97, 30, 48, 50, 59.94, 60, 120 and 240 fps. If you are dealing with 360-degree video, you can even enable the 360-degree metadata flag on export.

LumaFusion has a great reference manual that will fill you in on all the aspects of the app, and it’s a good primer on other subjects like exporting. In addition, they have a YouTube playlist. Simply, you can export for all sorts of social media platforms or even to share over Air Drop between Mac OS and iOS devices. You can choose your export resolution such as 1080p or UHD 4K (3840×2160), as well as your bit rate, and then you can select your codec, whether it be H.264 or H.265. You can also choose whether the container is a MP4 or MOV.

Obviously, some of these output settings will be dictated by the destination, such as YouTube, Instagram or maybe your NLE on your computer system. Bit rate is very important for color fidelity and overall picture quality. LumaFusion has a few settings on export, including: 12Mbps, 24Mbps, 32Mbps and 50Mbps if in 1080p, otherwise 100 Mbps if you are exporting UHD 4k (3840×2160).

LumaFusion is a great solution for someone who needs the fine tuning of a pro NLE on their iPad or iPhone. You can be on an exotic vacation without your laptop and still create intricately edited highlight reels.

Summing Up
In the end, technology is amazing! From the ultra-high-end camera app Filmic Pro to the amazing wireless media hub Gnarbox and even the iOS-based nonlinear editor LumaFusion, you can film, transfer and edit a professional-quality UHD 100Mbps clip without the need for a stand-alone computer.

If you really want to see some amazing footage being created using Filmic Pro you should follow Richard Lackey on all social media platforms. You can find more info on his website. He has some amazing imagery as well as tips on how to shoot more “cinematic” video using your iPhone with Filmic Pro.

The Gnarbox — one of my favorite tools reviewed over the years — serves a purpose and excels. I can’t wait to see how the Gnarbox 2.0 performs when it is released. If you own a GoPro or any type of camera and want a quick and slick way to centralize your media while you are on the road, then you need the Gnarbox.

LumaFusion will finish off your mobile filmmaking vision with titles, trimming and advanced edit options that will leave people wondering how you pulled off such a professional video from your phone or tablet.


Brady Betzel is an Emmy-nominated online editor at Margarita Mix in Hollywood, working on Life Below Zero and Cutthroat Kitchen. You can email Brady at bradybetzel@gmail.com. Follow him on Twitter @allbetzroff.

Atomos Ninja V records 4K 10-bit from new Nikon mirrorless cameras  

The new Nikon Z6 and Z7 mirrorless cameras output a full-frame 10-bit 4K N-Log signal, which the new Atomos Ninja V 4K HDR monitor/recorder can record and display in HDR.

The Nikon Z6 and Z7 have sensors that output 4K images over HDMI, ready for conversion to HDR by Atomos. The Atomos Ninja V records the output to production-ready 10-bit Apple ProRes or Avid DNx formats.

Atomos supports Nikon Log, Apple ProRes recording and HDR monitoring from the Z series cameras. The tiny Ninja V 5-inch device makes a nice go-to for these full-frame mirrorless cameras, making the setup ideal for corporate, news, documentary, nature films or b-roll for Hollywood productions.

The Z6 and Z7 offer the Nikon N-Log gamma, a brand-new Log gamma designed by Nikon to get the most out of the cameras’ sensors and wide dynamic range. Atomos helped resolve N-Log to HDR on their devices and their engineers have developed specific presets for it. Setup is automatic — plug the Ninja V into the cameras. The Ninja V can show 10+ stops of dynamic range on-screen to allow users to make accurate exposure and color decisions. The recorder can receive timecode and be triggered directly from the cameras.

The Ninja V costs $695, excluding SSD and batteries.

“It’s fantastic to push technology barriers with our friends at Nikon,” says Atomos CEO Jeromy Young. “Combining the new Nikon and our Ninja V HDR monitor/recorder gives filmmakers exactly what they have been asking for — a compact full-frame 4K 10-bit recording system at [this] price point.”

Review: OConnor camera assistant bag

By Brady Betzel

After years and years of gear acquisition, I often forget to secure proper bags and protection for my equipment. From Pelican cases to the cheapest camera bags, a truly high-quality bag will extend the life of your equipment.

In this review I am going to go over a super-heavy-duty assistant camera bag by OConnor, which is a part of the Vitec Group. While the Vitec Group provides many different products — from LED lighting to robotic camera systems — OConnor is typically known for their professional fluid heads and tripods. This camera bag is made to not only fit their products, but also other gear, such as pan bars and ARRI plates. The OConnor AC bag is a no-nonsense camera and accessory bag with velcro enforced-repositionable inserts that will accommodate most cameras and accessories you have.

As soon as I opened the box and touched the AC bag I could tell it was high quality. The bag exterior is waterproof and easily wipeable. But, more importantly, there is an internal water- and dust-proof liner that allows the lid to be hinged while the equipment is close at hand while the liner is fully zipped. This internal waterproofing is resistant up to a 1.2M/4ft. column of water. Once I got past the quality of materials, my second inspection focused on the zippers. If I have a camera bag with bad zippers or snaps, it usually is given away or tossed, but the AC bag has strong and easy gliding zippers.

On the lid and inside of the front pockets are extremely tough and see-through mesh pockets for everything from batteries to memory cards. On the front is a business card/label holder. Around the outside are multiple pockets with fixing points for Carabiner hooks. In addition, there are d-rings for the included leather strap if you want to carry this bag over your shoulder instead of using the handles. The bag comes with five dividers to be velcroed on the inside, including two right angle dividers.The dividers are made to securely tie down all OConnor heads and accessories. Finally, the AC bag comes with a separate pouch to use on set for quick use.

Summing Up
In the end, the OConnor AC bag is a well made and roomy bag that will protect your camera gear and accessories from dust as well as water for $375. The inside measures in at 18x12x10.5 inches while the outside measures in at 22×14.5×10.5 inches and has been designed to fit inside of a Pelicase 1620. You can check out the OConnor AC bag on their website and find a dealer in your area.


Brady Betzel is an Emmy-nominated online editor at Margarita Mix in Hollywood, working on Life Below Zero and Cutthroat Kitchen. You can email Brady at bradybetzel@gmail.com. Follow him on Twitter @allbetzroff.

Quick Chat: Freefolk colorist Paul Harrison

By Randi Altman

Freefolk, which opened in New York City in October 2017, was founded in London in 2003 by Flame artist Jason Watts and VFX artist Justine White. Originally called Finish, they rebranded to Freefolk with the opening of their NYC operation. Freefolk is an independent post house that offers high-end visual effects, color grading and CG for commercials, film and TV.

We reached out to global head of color grading Paul Harrison to find out his path to color and the way he likes to work.

What are your favorite types of jobs to work on and why?
I like to work on a mix of projects and not be pigeonholed as a particular type of colorist. Commercials are my main work, but I also work on music videos and the odd feature or longform piece. Each form has its own creative challenges, and I enjoy all disciplines.

What is your tool of choice, and why?
I use the FilmLight Baselight color system because it’s extremely versatile and will cope with any file format one cares to mention. On so many levels it allows a colorist to get on with the job at hand and not be bogged down by the kit’s limitations. The toolset is extensive and it doesn’t put boundaries in the way of creativity, like other systems I’ve used.

Are you often asked to do more than just color?
These days, because of the power of the systems we use, the lines are blurring between color and VFX. On most jobs I do things that used to be the realm of the VFX room. Things like softening skin tones, putting in skies or restoring elements of the image that need to be treated differently from the rest of the image.

Traditionally, this was done in the VFX room, now we do it as part of the grade. When there’s more difficult or time-consuming fixes required, the VFX artists will do that work.

How did you become a colorist? What led you down this path?
I started as a runner at the Mill in London. I had always had a keen interest in photography/art and film so this was the natural place for me to go. I was captivated by the mystery of the telecine suite; they looked hideously complex to operate. It was a mix of mechanical machinery, computers, film and various mixers and oscilloscopes, and it spoke to my technical, “How does this work” side of my brain, and the creative, photography/art side too.

Making all the various bits of equipment that comprised a suite then work together and talk to each other was a feat in itself.

Do you have a background in photography or fine art?
I’ve been a keen photographer for years, both on land and underwater. I’ve not done it professionally; it’s just grown through the influence of my work and interests.

In addition to your photography, where do you find inspiration? Museums? Films? A long walk?
I find inspiration from lots of different places — from hiking up mountains to diving in the oceans observing and photographing the creatures that live there. Or going for a walk in all weathers, and at all times of the year.

Art and photography are passions of mine, and seeing the world through the eyes of a talented photographer or artist, absorbing those influences, makes me constantly reassess my own work and what I’m doing in the color room. Colorists sometimes talk about learning to “see.” I think we take notice of things that others pass by. We notice what the “light” is doing and how it changes our environment.

If you had three things to share with a client before a project begins, what would that be?
Before a project begins? That’s a tough question. All I could share would be my vision of the look of the film, any reference that I had to show to illustrate my ideas. Maybe talking about any new or interesting cameras or lenses I’ve seen lately.

How do you prefer getting direction? Photos? Examples from films/TV?
Photos are always good at getting the message across. They describe a scene in a way words can’t. I’m a visual person, so that’s the preferred way for me. Also, a conversation imparts a feeling for the film, obviously that is more open to interpretation.

Do you often work directly with the DP?
DPs seem to be a rarer sight these days. It’s great when one has a good relationship with a DP and there’s that mutual trust in each other.

Is there a part of your job that people might not realize you do? Something extra and special that is sort of below the line?
Yes. Fixing things that no one knows are broken, whether it’s sorting out dodgy exposures/camera faults or fixing technical problems with the material. Colorists and their assistants make the job run smoothly and quietly in the background, outside of the color room.

What project are you most proud of?
Certain jobs stand out to me for different reasons. I still love the look of 35mm, and those jobs will always be favorites. But I guess it’s the jobs that I’ve had the complete creative freedom on like the Stella, Levi’s and Guinness commercials, or some of the music videos like Miike Snow. To be honest I don’t really have a top project.

Can you name some projects that you’ve worked on recently?
Since moving over to NYC recently, I’ve worked on some projects that I knew of before, and some I had no idea existed. Like a Swiffer — I had no idea what that was before working in NYC. But I’ve also graded projects for Cadillac, Bud Light, New York Yankees, Lays, State Farm and Macy’s, to name a few.

Tom Cruise in MISSION: IMPOSSIBLE - FALLOUT. Director Chris McQuarrie.

Mission: Impossible — Fallout writer/director Christopher McQuarrie

By Iain Blair

It’s hard to believe, but it’s been 22 years since Tom Cruise first launched the Mission: Impossible franchise. Since then, it’s become a global cultural phenomenon that’s grossed more than $2.8 billion, making it one of the most successful series in movie history.

With Mission: Impossible — Fallout, Cruise reprises his role of Impossible Missions Force (IMF) team leader Ethan Hunt for the sixth time. And writer/director/producer Christopher McQuarrie, who directed the series’ previous film Mission: Impossible — Rogue Nation, also returns. That makes him the first filmmaker ever to return to direct a second film in a franchise where one of its signature elements is that there’s been a different director for every movie.

Mission: Impossible - Fallout Director Christopher McQuarrie

Christopher McQuarrie

In the latest twisty adventure, Hunt and his IMF team (Alec Baldwin, Simon Pegg, Ving Rhames), along with some familiar allies (Rebecca Ferguson, Michelle Monaghan), find themselves in a race against time to stop a nuclear bomb disaster after a mission gone wrong. The film, which also stars Henry Cavill, Angela Bassett, Sean Harris and Vanessa Kirby, features a stellar team behind the camera as well, including director of photography Rob Hardy, production designer Peter Wenham, editor Eddie Hamilton, visual effects supervisor Jody Johnson and composer Lorne Balfe.

In 1995, McQuarrie got his start writing the script for The Usual Suspects, which won him the Best Original Screenplay Oscar. In 2000, he made his directorial debut with The Way of the Gun. Then in 2008 he reteamed with Usual Suspects director Bryan Singer, co-writing the WWII film Valkyrie, starring Tom Cruise. He followed that up with his 2010 script for The Tourist, then two years later, he worked with Cruise again on Jack Reacher, which he wrote and directed.

I recently talked with the director about making the film, dealing with all the visual effects and the workflow.

How did you feel when Tom asked for you to come back and do another MI film?
I thought, “Oh no!” In fact, when he asked me to do Rogue Nation, I was very hesitant because I’d been on the set of Ghost Protocol, and I saw just how complicated and challenging these films are. I was terrified. So after I’d finished Rogue, I said to myself, “I feel really sorry for the poor son-of-a-bitch who does the next one.” After five movies, I didn’t think there was anything left to do, but the joke turned out to be on me!

Tom Cruise, Mission: Impossible - FalloutWhat’s the secret of its continuing appeal?
First off, Tom himself. He’s always pushing himself and entertaining the audience with stuff they’ve never seen before. Then it’s all about character and story. The emphasis is always on that and the humanity of these characters. On every film, and with the last two we’ve done together, he’s learned how much deeper you can go with that and refined the process. You’re always learning from the audience as well. What they want.

How do you top yourself and make this different from the last one?
To make it different, I replaced my core crew — new DP, new composer and so on — and went for a different visual language. My intention on both films was not to even try to top the previous one. So when we started this I told Tom, “I just want to place somewhere in the Top 6 of Mission: Impossible films. I’m not trying to make the greatest action film ever.”

You say that, but it’s stuffed full of nail-biting car chases and really ambitious action sequences.
(Laughs) Well, at the same time you’re always trying to do something different from the other films in the franchise, so in Rogue I had this idea for a female counterpart for Tom — Ilsa (Rebecca Ferguson) was a more dynamic love interest. I looked at the other five films and realized that the biggest action scene of any of those films had not come in the third act. So it was a chance to create the biggest and most climactic third act — a huge team sequence that involved everyone. That was the big goal. But we didn’t set out to make this giant movie, and it wasn’t till we began editing that we realized just how much action there is.

Women seem to have far larger roles this time out.
That was very intentional from the start. In my earliest talks with Tom, we discussed the need to resolve the Julia (Michelle Monaghan) character and find closure to that story. So we had her and Rebecca, and then Angela Bassett came on board to replace Alec Baldwin’s character at the CIA after he moves to IMF, and it grew from there. I had an idea for the White Widow (Vanessa Kirby) character, and we just stayed open to all possibilities and the idea that these strong women, who own all the scenes they’re in, throw Ethan off balance all the time.

How early did you integrate post into the shoot?
Right at the start, since we had so many visual effects. We also had a major post challenge as Tom broke his ankle doing a rooftop chase stunt in London. So we had to shut down totally for six weeks and re-arrange the whole schedule to accommodate his recovery, and even when he got back on the movie his ankle wasn’t really healed enough.

We then had to shoot a lot of stuff piecemeal, and I knew, in order to make the release date, we had to start cutting right away when we had to stop for six weeks. But that also gave me a chance to re-evaluate it all, since you don’t really know the film you’ve shot until you get in the edit room, and that let me do course corrections I couldn’t have done otherwise. So, I essentially ended up doing re-shoots while still shooting the film. I was able to rewrite the second act, and it also meant that we had a finished cut done just six days after we wrapped. And we were able to test that movie four times and keep fine-tuning it.

Where did you do the post?Mission: Impossible: Fallout Tom Cruise
All in London, around Soho, and we did the sound at De Lane Lea.

Like Rogue, this was edited by Eddie Hamilton. Was he on the set?
Yes, and he’s invaluable because he’s got a very good eye, is a great storyteller and has a great sense of the continuity. He can also course-correct very quickly and let me know when we need to grab another shot. On Rogue Nation, he also did a lot of 2nd unit stuff, and he has great skills with the crew. We didn’t really have a 2nd unit on this one, which I think is better because it can get really chaotic with one. Basically, I love the edit, and I love being in the editing room and working hand in hand with my editor, shot for shot, and communicating all the time during production. It was a great collaboration.

There’s obviously a huge number of visual effects shots in the film. How many are there?
I’d say well over 3,000, and our VFX supervisor Jody Johnson at Double Negative did an amazing job. DNeg, Lola, One of Us, Bluebolt and Cheap Shot all worked on them. There was a lot of rig removal and cleanup along with the big set pieces.

Mission: Impossible Fallout

What was the most difficult VFX sequence/shot to do and why?
The big “High Altitude Low Opening,” or HALO sequence, where Tom jumps out of a Boeing Globemaster at 25,000 feet was far and away the most difficult one. We shot part of it at an RAF base in England, but then with Tom’s broken ankle and the changed schedule, we ended up shooting some of it in Abu Dhabi. Then we had to add in the Paris backdrop and the lightning for the storm, and to maintain the reality we had to keep the horizon in the shot. As the actors were falling at 160 MPH toward the Paris skyline, all of those shots had to be tracked by hand. No computer could do it, and that alone took hundreds of people working on it for three months to complete. It was exhausting.

Can you talk about the importance of music and sound to you as a filmmaker?
It’s so vital, and for me it’s always a three-pronged approach — music, sound and silence, and then the combination of all three elements. It’s very important to maintain the franchise aesthetic, but I wanted to have a fresh approach, so I brought in composer Lorne Balfe, and he did a great job.

The DI must have been vital. How did that process help?
We did it at Molinare in London with colorist Asa Shoul, who is just so good. I’m fairly hands on, especially as the DP was off on another project by the time we did the DI, although he worked on it with Asa as well. We had a big job dealing with all the stuff we shot in New Zealand, bringing it up to the other footage. I actually try to get the film as close as possible to what I want on the day, and then use the DI as a way of enhancing and shaping that, but I don’t actually like to manipulate things too much, although we gave all the Paris stuff this sort of hazy, sweaty look and feel which I love.

What’s next?
A very long nap.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.

The Handmaiden‘s colorist walks us through scenes

The Handmaiden, directed by Chan-Wook Park and inspired by Sarah Waters’s 2002’s novel Fingersmith, is set in 1930s colonial Korea and Japan. In the film, Park presents a tale of a young Japanese lady living on a secluded estate, and a Korean woman who is hired to serve as her new handmaiden, but who is secretly involved in a con-man’s plot to defraud her of her large inheritance.

Park Jin-Ho

The film, which is the first Korean film ever to win a BAFTA award for best foreign language film, was graded by Park Jin-Ho, senior colorist at Cinemate in Korea. He completed the color grade in two weeks.

One of the key challenges for Park was to express the wet and humid weather after the rain. “It was difficult to recreate the sense of a wet and muggy scene on the screen,” he explained. “I found it really useful to mix several grades in one stack. It meant I could catch a thought and grade immediately before the idea disappeared, then blend it into the overall grade.”

Park has worked on several movie projects with director Chan-Wook Park since his time as a junior colorist and he also has plenty of experience working alongside Chan-Wook Park’s partner, DP Chung Chung-hoon. This close relationship meant that when The Handmaiden project started, he was able to join in discussions at the pre-production stage, which gave him time to test and adjust the camera and lens characteristics that had been chosen by the DP in advance.

Chung Chung-hoon used the Arri Alexa camera and vintage lenses to try to create the feeling of Joseon during the Japanese occupation of the 1930s.

Park Jin-Ho takes us through some of his work on various scenes in the movie, accompanied by a selection of before and after images. He worked on FilmLight Baselight.

Rain at BoYoungDang
The first scene is a very cloudy day. CG storm clouds were added to the sky. Then, in the DI, I removed the warm tone of the original footage to better express the cloudy day. To make the tone of the characters colder, I removed the yellow color and added blue that is close to white.

Before

After

Wide View of Kouzuki’s Countryside Palace
At the start of part one, we see a wide view of Kouzuki’s countryside palace. CG was used to add a little bit of cloud, and I added a little sunset mode to create the two different tones in the sky.

Before

After

Annex Road
The main lens used is the Hawk Vintage 74 anamorphic. The combination of camera and lens clearly differentiated The Handmaiden from other movies in terms of texture. I thought it might be just one specific look, but it was a good combination and the best reflection of the texture of film in the digital age as I have ever seen.

It was also impressive to create images while zooming in and out deeply with the anamorphic camera showing the depth of field and image texture.

One disadvantage of this lens, however, is that in a wide zoom shot the focus is distorted on the edges and in the corners. In the mask area shown below, blurring is strongly applied everywhere except for the center of the frame, and the focus is soft. I tried to give the images sharpness by using the fast tracking and keyframe together around the eyes of an actor. However, in such a wide view shot, it just wasn’t possible to focus on the upper part of the heroine, even when raising the sharpness value of the whole image.

Despite these disadvantages though, the filmic texture is fascinating.

Before

Improved Sharpness

Annex
This scene was in an annex of Kouzuki’s library. The characteristic of this library is that it is located in the shade and rarely experiences sunlight. So for this shot, I decreased saturation as well as the brightness of the light part of the scene.

Before

After

Leading Actors Skin Tone
The skin tones of the actors were rather pale. Typically, I graded the face of Lady Hideko to be expressed in pure whiteness throughout the movie, because she was trapped in the palace. On the contrary, I raised the skin tone of the maid Sook-hee a little, because she lived more freely than Hideko. The Count’s skin tone was desaturated because the actor’s original skin tone is strong already.

Before

After

Weather Change
In this scene, Hideko and Sook-hee are talking about their mothers. In the middle of their stories, the sun was covered by dark cloud. Before and after the dark clouds cover the sun, I showed the weather change on the two heroines through brightness and color tone.

Before

After

Palace’s Back Garden
This is where the Count is angry with Sook-hee. I reduced the brightness of the tree-lined garden to concentrate on the two characters.

Before

After

Hideko and Sook-hee Run Away
Here Hideko and Sook-hee run away from the palace for freedom. These cuts, arranged in Part 1 and Part 2, have a temporal change from the moment they run away over the wall to the moment they run across a wide field. Hideko and Sook-hee keep running toward freedom from the dark night to the coming of the dawn. The grade involved adding the feeling of the sunshine by separating the key of the characters and the field.

Before

After

Soul Asylum (psychiatric hospital)
The soul asylum scene needed a lot of hard work from the CG team because the director wanted to change the red brick wall into an achromatic wall. When I graded it on the big screen, I worked with mattes from CG as it was difficult to make a key to separate the wall and the actors.

Before

After

Library Basement
My work on the scene of the library basement involved showing when the Count did and did not smoke while in conversation with Kouzuki. The CG team added the smoke source, and I then added the green color to it and gradually revealed the cigarette-smoky basement.

Before

After

For those of you who would like to watch The Handmaiden, it’s available on Amazon Prime in the UK, and Blu-ray and DVD in US.

Roundtable: Director Autumn McAlpin and her Miss Arizona post team

By Randi Altman

The independent feature film Miss Arizona is a sort of fish out of water tale that focuses on Rose Raynes, former beauty queen and current bored wife and mother who accepts an invitation to teach a life skills class at a women’s shelter. As you might imagine, the four women who she meets there don’t feel they have much in common. While Rose is “teaching,” the women are told that one of their abusers is on his way to the shelter. The women escape and set out on an all-night adventure through LA and, ultimately, to a club where the women enter Rose into a drag queen beauty pageant — and, of course, along the way they form a bond that changes them all.

L-R: Camera operator Eitan Almagor, DP Jordan McKittrick and Autumn McAlpin.

Autumn McAlpin wrote and directed the film, which has been making its way through the film festival circuit. She hired a crew made up of 70 percent women to help tell this tale of female empowerment. We reached out to her, her colorist Mars Williamson and her visual effects/finishing artist John Davidson to find out more.

Why did you choose the Alexa Mini? And why did you shoot mostly handheld?
Autumn McAlpin: The Alexa Mini was the first choice of our DP Jordan McKittrick, with whom I frequently collaborate. We were lucky enough to be able to score two Alexa Mini cameras on this shoot, which really helped us achieve the coverage needed for an ensemble piece in which five-plus key actors were in almost every shot. We love the image quality and dynamic range of the Alexas, and the compact and lightweight nature of the Mini helped us achieve an aggressive shooting schedule in just 14 days.

We felt handheld would achieve the intimate yet at times erratic look we were going for following an ensemble of five women from very different backgrounds who were learning to get along while trying to survive. We wanted the audience to feel as if they were going on the journey along with the women, and thus felt handheld would be a wise approach to accomplish this goal.

How early did post — edit, color — get involved?
McAlpin: We met with our editor Carmen Morrow before the shoot, and she and her assistant editor Dustin Fleischmann were integral in delivering a completed rough cut just five weeks after we wrapped. We needed to make key festival deadlines. Each day Dustin would drive footage from set over to Carmen’s bay, where she could assemble while we were shooting so we could make sure we weren’t missing anything crucial. This was amazing, as we’d often be able to see a rough assembly of a scene we had shot in the morning by the end of day. They cut on Avid Media Composer.

My DP Jordan and I agreed on the overall look of the film and how we wanted the color to feel rich and saturated. We were really excited about what we saw in our colorist’s reel. We didn’t meet our colorist Mars Williamson until after we had wrapped production. Mars had moved from LA to Melbourne, so we knew we wouldn’t be able to work in close quarters, but we were confident we’d be able to accomplish the desired workflow in the time needed. Mars was extremely flexible to work with.

Can you talk more about the look of the film.
McAlpin: Due to the nature of our film, we sought to create a rich, saturated look color wise. Our film follows a former pageant queen on an all-night adventure through LA with four unlikely friends she meets at a women’s shelter. In a way, we tried to channel an Oz-like world as our ensemble embarks into the unknown. We deliberately used color to represent the various realities the women inhabit. In the film’s open, our production design (by Gabriel Gonzales) and wardrobe (by Cat Velosa) helped achieve a stark, cold world — filled with blues and whites — to represent our protagonist Rose’s loneliness.

As Rose moves into the shelter, we went with warmer tones and a more eclectic production design. A good portion of Act II takes place in a drag club, which we asked Gabe to design to be rich and vibrant, using reds and purples. Toward the end of the film as Rose finds resolution, we went with more naturalistic lighting, primarily outdoor shots and golden hues. Before production, Jordan and I pulled stills from films such as Nick & Norah’s Infinite Playlist, Black Swan and Short Term 12, which provided strong templates for the looks we were trying to achieve.

Is there a particular scene or look that stands out for you?
McAlpin: There is a scene when our lead Rose (Johanna Braddy) performs a ventriloquist act onstage with a puppet and they sing Shania Twain’s “Man, I Feel Like a Woman.”  Both Rose and the puppet wore matching cowgirl wardrobe and braids, and this scene was lit to be particularly vibrant with hot pinks and purples. I remember watching the monitors on set and feeling like we had really nailed the rich, saturated look we were going for in this offbeat pageant world we had created.

L-R: Dana Wheeler-Nicholson, Shoniqua Shandai, producer De Cooper, Johanna Brady, Autumn McAlpin, Otmara Marrero and Robyn Lively.

Can you talk about the workflow from set to post?
McAlpin: As a low-budget indie, many of our team work from home offices, which made collaboration friendly and flexible. For the four months following production, I floated between the workspaces of our talented and efficient editor Carmen Morrow, brilliant composer Nami Melumad, dedicated sound designer Yu-Ting Su, VFX and online extraordinaire John Davidson, and we used Frame.io to work with our amazing colorist Mars Williamson. Everyone worked so hard to help achieve our vision in our timeframe. Using Frame.io and Box helped immensely with file delivery, and I remember many careful drives around LA, toting our two RAID drives between departments. Postmates food delivery service helped us power through! Everyone worked hard together to deliver the final product, and for that I’m so grateful.

Can you talk about the type of film you were trying to make, and did it turn out as you hoped?
McAlpin: I volunteered in a women’s shelter for several years teaching a life skills class, and this was an experience that introduced me to strong, vibrant women whose stories I longed to tell. I wrote this script very quickly, in just three weeks, though really, the story seemed to write itself. It was the fall of 2016, at a time where I was agitated by the way women were being portrayed in the media. This was shortly before the #metoo movement, and during the election and women’s march. The time felt right to tell a story about women and other marginalized groups coming together to help each other find their voices and a safe community in a rapidly divisive world.

I’m not going to lie, with our budget, all facets of production and post were quite challenging, but I was so overwhelmed by the fastidious efforts of everyone on our team to create something powerful. I feel we were all aligned in vision, which kept everyone fueled to create a finished product I am very proud of. The crowning moment of the experience was after our world premiere at Geena Davis’ Bentonville Film Fest, when a few women from the audience approached and confided that they, too, had lived in shelters and felt our film spoke to the truths they had experienced. This certainly made the whole process worthwhile.

Autumn, you wrote as well as directed. Did the story change or evolve once you started shooting or did you stick to the original script?
McAlpin: As a director who is very open to improv and creative play on set, I was quite surprised by how little we deviated from the script. Conceptually, we stuck to the story as written. We did have a few actors who definitely punched up scenes by making certain lines more their own (and much more humorous, i.e. the drag queens). And there were moments when location challenges forced last-minute rewrites, but hey, I guess that’s one advantage to having the writer in the director’s chair! This story seemed to flow from the moment it first arrived in my head, telling me what it wanted to be, so we kind of just trusted that, and I think we achieved our narrative goals.

You used a 70 percent female crew. Can you talk about why that was important to you?
McAlpin: For this film, our producer DeAnna Cooper and I wanted to flip the traditional gender ratios found on sets, as ours was indeed a story rooted in female empowerment. We wanted our set to feel like a compatible, safe environment for characters seeking safety and trusted female friendships. So many of the cast and crew who joined our team expressed delight in joining a largely female team, and I think/hope we created a safe space for all to create!

Also, as women, we tend to get each other — and there were times when those on our production team (all mothers) were able to support each other’s familial needs when emergencies at home arose. We also want to give a shout-out to the numerous woman-supporting men we had on our team, who were equally wonderful to work with!

What was everyone’s favorite scene and why?
McAlpin: There’s a moment when Rose has a candid conversation with a drag queen performer named Luscious (played by Johnathan Wallace) in a green room during which each opens up about who they are and how they got there. Ours is a fish out of water story as Rose tries to achieve her goal in a world quite new to her, but in this scene, two very different people bond in a sincere and heartfelt way. The performances in this scene were just dynamite, thanks to the talents of Johanna and Johnathan. We are frequently told this scene really affects viewers and changes perspectives.

I also have a personal favorite moment toward the end of the film in which a circle of women from very different backgrounds come together to help out a character named Leslie, played by the dynamic Robyn Lively, who is searching for her kids. One of the women helping Leslie says, “I’m a mama, too,” and I love the strength felt in this group hug moment as the village comes together to defend each other.

If you all had to do it again, what would you do differently?
McAlpin: This was one fast-moving train, and I know, as is the case in every film, there are little shots or scenes we’d all love to tweak just a little if given the chance to start over from scratch. But at this point, we are focusing on the positives and what lies in store for Miss Arizona. Since our Bentonville premiere and LA premiere at Dances With Films, we have been thrilled to receive numerous distribution offers, and it’s looking like a fall worldwide release may be in store. We look forward to connecting with audiences everywhere as we share the message of this film.

Mars Williamson

Mars, can you talk about your process and how you worked with the team? 
Williamson: Autumn put us in touch, and John and I touched based a little bit before I was going to start color. We all had a pretty good idea of where we were taking it from the offline and discussed little tweaks here and there, so it was fairly straightforward. There were a couple of things like changing a wall color and the last scene needing more sunset than was shot. Autumn and John are super easy and great to work with. We found out pretty early that we’d be able to collaborate pretty easily since John has DaVinci Resolve on his end in the states as well.  I moved to Melbourne permanently right before I really got into the grade.

Unbeknownst to me, Melbourne was/is in the process of upgrading their Internet, which is currently painfully slow. We did a couple of reviews via Frame.io and eventually moved to me just emailing John my project. He could relink to the media on his end and all of my color grading would come across for sessions in LA with Autumn. It was the best solution to contend with the snail pace uploads of large files. From there it was just going through it reel by reel and getting notes from the stateside team. I couldn’t have worked on this with a better group of people.

What types of projects do you work on most often?
Williamson: My bread and butter has always been TV commercials, but I’ve worked hard to make sure I work on all sort of formats across different genres. I like to make sure I’ve got a wide range of stuff under my belt. The pool is smaller here in Australia than it is in LA (where I moved from) so TV commercials are still the bill payers, but I’m also still dipping into the indie scene here and trying to diversify what I work on. Still working on a lot of indie projects and music videos from the states as well so thank you stateside clients! Thankfully the difference in time hasn’t hindered most of them (smiles). It has led to an all-nighter here and there for me, but I’m happy to lose sleep for the right projects.

How did you work with the DP and director on the look of the film? What look did you want and how did you work to achieve that look or looks?
John Davidson: Magic Feather is a production company and creative agency that I started back in 2004. We provide theatrical marketing and creative services for a wide variety of productions. From the 3D atomic transitions in Big Bang Theory to the recent Jurassic World Fallen Kingdom week-long event on Discovery, we have a pretty great body of work. I came onboard Miss Arizona very much by accident. Last year, after working with Weta in New Zealand, we moved to Laguna Niguel and connected with Autumn and her husband Michael via some mutual friends. I was intrigued that they had just finished shooting this movie on their own and offered to replace a few license plates and a billboard. Somehow I turned that into coordinating the post-Avid workflow across the planet and creating 100-plus visual effects shots. It was a fantastic opportunity to use every tool in our arsenal to help a film with a nice message and a family we have come to adore.

John Davidson

Working with Jordan and Autumn for VFX and final mastering was educational for all of us, but definitely so with me. As I mentioned to Jordan after the showing in Hollywood, if I did my job right you would never know. There were quite a few late nights, but I think that they are both very happy with the results.

John, I understand there were some challenges in the edit? Relinking the camera source footage? Can you talk about that and how you worked around it?
Davidson: The original Avid cut was edited off of the dailies at 1080p with embedded audio. The masters were 3.2k Arri Alexa Mini Log with no sync sound. There were timecode issues the first few days on set and because Mars was using DaVinci Resolve to color, we knew we had to get the footage from Avid to Resolve somehow. Once we got the footage into DaVinci via AAF, I realized it was going to be a challenge relinking sources from the dailies. Resolve was quite the utility knife, and after a bit of tweaking we were able to get the silent master video clips linked up. Because 12TB drives are expensive, we thought it best to trim media to 48-frame handles and ship a smaller drive to Australia for Mars to work with. With Mars’s direction we were able to get that handled and shipped.

While Mars was coloring in Australia, I went back into the sources and began the process of relinking the original separate audio to the video sources because I needed to be able to adjust/re-edit a few scenes that had technical issues we couldn’t fix with VFX. Resolve was fantastic here again. Any clip that couldn’t be automatically linked via timecode was connected with clap marks using the waveform. For safety, I batch-exported all of the footage out with embedded audio and then relinked the film to that. This was important for archival purposes as well as any potential fixes we might have to do before the film delivered.

At this point Mars was sharing her cuts on Frame.io with Jordan and Autumn. I felt like a little green shift was being introduced over H.264 so we would occasionally meet here to review a relinked XML that Mars would send for a full quality inspection. For VFX we used Adobe After Effects and worked in flat color. We then would upload shots to box.com for Mars to incorporate into her edit. There were also two re-cut scenes that were done this way as well which was a challenge because any changes had to be shared with the audio teams who were actively scoring and mixing.

Once Mars was done we put the final movie together here, and I spent about two weeks working on it. At this point I took the film from Resolve to FCP X. Because we were mastering at 1080p, we had the full 3.2K frame for flexibility. Using a 1080p timeline in FCP X, the first order of business was making final on-site color adjustments with Autumn.

Can you talk about the visual effects provided?
Davidson: For VFX, we focused on things like the license plates and billboards, but also took a bit of initiative and reviewed the whole movie for areas we could help. Like everyone else, I loved the look of the stage and club scenes, but wanted to add just a little flare to the backlights so the LED grids would be less visible. This was done in Final Cut Pro X using the MotionVFX plugin mFlare2. It made very quick work of using its internal Mocha engine to track the light sources and obscure them as needed when a light went behind a person’s head, for example. It would have been agony tracking so many lights in all those shots using anything else. We had struggled for a while getting replacement license plates to track using After Effects and Mocha. However, the six shots that gave us the most headaches were done as a test in FCP X in less than a day using CoreMelt’s TrackX. We also used Final Cut Pro X’s stabilization to smooth out any jagged camera shakes as well as added some shake using FCP X’s handheld effect on a few shots that needed it for consistency.

Another area we had to get creative with was with night driving shots that were just too bright even after color. By layering a few different Rampant Design overlays set to multiply, we were able to simulate lights in motion around the car at night with areas randomly increasing and decreasing in brightness. That had a big impact on smoothing out those scenes, and I think everyone was pretty happy with the result. For fun, Autumn also let me add in a few mostly digital shots, like the private jet. This was done in After Effects using Trapcode Particular for the contrails, and a combination of Maxon Cinema 4D and Element 3D for the jet.

Resolve’s face refinement and eye brightening were used in many scenes to give a little extra eye light. We also used Resolve for sky replacement on the final shot of the film. Resolve’s tracker is also pretty incredible, and was used to hide little things that needed to be masked or de-emphasized.

What about finishing?
Davidson: We finalized everything in FCP X and exported a full, clean ProRes cut of the film. We then re-imported that and added grain, unsharp masks and a light vignette for a touch of cinematic texture. The credits were an evolving process, so we created an Apple Numbers document that was shared with my internal Magic Feather team, as well as Autumn and the producers. As the final document was adjusted and tweaked we would edit an Affinity Photo file that my editor AJ Paschall and I shared. We would then export a huge PNG file of the credits into FCP X and set position keyframes to animate the scroll. Any time a change was made we would just relink to the new PNG export and FCP X would automatically update the credits. Luckily, that was easy because we did that probably 50 times.

Lastly, our final delivery to the DCP company was a HEVC 10-bit 2K encode. I am a huge fan of HEVC. It’s a fantastic codec, but it does have a few caveats in that it takes forever to encode. Using Apple Compressor and a 10-core iMac Pro, it took approximately 13 hours. That said, it was worth it because the colors were accurately represented and gave us a file that 5.52GB versus 18GB or 20GB. That’s a hefty savings on size while also being an improvement in quality over H.264.

Photo Credit: Rich Marchewka

 

Behind the Title: DigitalFilm Tree colorist Rick Dalby

NAME: Rick Dalby

COMPANY: DigitalFilm Tree

CAN YOU DESCRIBE YOUR COMPANY?
I would describe DigitalFilm Tree (DFT) as a smaller, bleeding-edge, independently-owned post house that is capable of remote dailies, color and edit. I work with fellow colorists Dan Judy and Patrick Woodard.

AS A COLORIST, WHAT WOULD SURPRISE PEOPLE THE MOST ABOUT WHAT FALLS UNDER THAT TITLE?
What should fall under that title is that a Resolve colorist has become the creative gatekeeper for the producer’s, director’s and DP’s vision. You don’t just hand off a show and add some color. We have color tools that work akin to the way you work in Photoshop, using layer-mixers and alpha-mattes.

On-set, the DP and/or DIT that uses Resolve can send projects or custom LUTs or nodes that we can carry directly into the final color session. I would describe the colorist-driven post workflow as more holistic than ever before.

ARE YOU SOMETIMES ASKED TO DO MORE THAN JUST COLOR ON PROJECTS? 
Yes, we are asked to stabilize shots and add OFX plug-in looks and effects, which will evolve further with Resolve 15’s addition of Fusion. It’s really show-dependent. On a larger scale, with 4K and HDR, our colorists are redesigning workflows on a continual basis. Our online conform artists are doing most of the editing, though with Resolve, any of us might make the deliverables.

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE PART OF THE JOB?
Collaborating with everyone at DFT and working with the clients that depend on us is rewarding for me. I like the art of color correction. When I can just sit down and get to work on scene looks and matching, the day passes quickly, and I can feel the creativity flow. It’s fun. When the client comes in to view and I’m in sync with their vision, there’s a great sense of accomplishment.

WHAT’S YOUR LEAST FAVORITE?
Post facilities have few windows. Sometimes, I just like to open the door and see something alive and green. Seriously though, the business end and paperwork are the things that don’t interest me.

IF YOU DIDN’T HAVE THIS JOB, WHAT WOULD YOU BE DOING INSTEAD?
Park ranger, running an animal rescue, Buddhist monk or one of my previous jobs, like being a broadcast news technical director. That sounds like a silly answer, but it’s not meant to be.

HOW EARLY ON DID YOU KNOW THIS WOULD BE YOUR PATH?
That’s a long and difficult question to answer. When I was small, I used to get up very early with my dad and wait for the engineer to turn on the transmitter, so I could see the test pattern and watch some cartoons. I was a computer science major in college, but I didn’t like it. My brother worked at Compact Video and urged me to change career paths. I trained in journalism and broadcast news and worked in Sacramento television in graphics, studio and ENG camera, editing, technical directing and, finally, directing.

Next, was film transfer of 35mm prints for syndication, then on to master control and transmitter operations requiring an FCC license. That was all by the time I was 24, when I moved to Los Angeles to work with my brother in post. Within a year I was running a Rank and transferring features for most of the majors.

CAN YOU NAME SOME RECENT PROJECTS YOU HAVE WORKED ON?
The re-boot of Roseanne. Also Wrecked for TBS. I’ve been doing collaborative color with Dan and Patrick on NCIS: Los Angeles, Angie Tribeca, Great News and The 100.

The 100

WHAT IS THE PROJECT THAT YOU ARE MOST PROUD OF?
I’m very satisfied to have worked on iconic long-running shows like Friends and Everybody Loves Raymond and developing looks for shows like Friday Night Lights with David Boyd and Todd McMullen. Recently, having a chance to work with the creative team on the Roseanne reboot was a great experience. DP Johnny Simmons and Sara Gilbert were a great pleasure to work with.

WHERE DO YOU FIND INSPIRATION? ART? PHOTOGRAPHY?
Inspiration comes from the people I meet and the challenges I face. I also love the changing exhibits at the Broad Museum and LACMA. I’m always looking at films and television to dissect what other people think and do. I don’t like the work when it seems copy-cat.

NAME THREE PIECES OF TECHNOLOGY YOU CAN’T LIVE WITHOUT.
DaVinci, which has been part of most of my career — with the exception of a few years on Lustre. The best quality hero monitor that can display the great color and resolution we need to do this job. Anything Apple. My iPad is in much need of replacement.

WHAT SOCIAL MEDIA CHANNELS DO YOU FOLLOW?
I like Theo Miesner’s YouTube posts and the rapid-fire way he delivers. Recently, there’s a slew of YouTube posts that are helping me with Fusion. I use Facebook to follow my fellow meditators.

WHAT DO YOU DO TO DE-STRESS FROM IT ALL?
I don’t take it too seriously after this many decades. The stress is there sometimes. I acknowledge it, meditate and even go on long silent meditation retreats once or twice a year.

I walk to work, hike and sometimes just walk outside and breathe deeply. Ultimately, the stress is up to me, and how I choose to respond. Equanimity has become a guiding concept with the worldly winds.

DP Patrick Stewart’s path and workflow on Netflix’s Arrested Development

With its handheld doc-style camerawork, voiceover narration and quirky humor, Arrested Development helped revolutionize the look of TV sitcoms. Created by Mitchell Hurwitz, with Ron Howard serving as one of its executive producers, the half-hour comedy series follows the once-rich Bluth family, that continues to live beyond their means in Southern California. At the center of the family is the mostly sane Michael Bluth (Jason Bateman), who does his best to keep his dysfunctional family intact.

Patrick Stewart

The series first aired for three seasons on the Fox TV network (2003-2006) but was canceled due to low ratings. Because the series was so beloved, in 2013, Netflix brought it back to life with its original cast in place. In May 2018, the fifth season began streaming, shot by cinematographer Patrick Stewart (Curb Your Enthusiasm, The League, Flight of the Conchords). He called on VariCam LT cinema cameras.

Stewart’s path to becoming a cinematographer wasn’t traditional. Growing up in Los Angeles and graduating with a degree in finance from the University of Santa Clara, he got his start in the industry when a friend called him up and asked if he’d work on a commercial as a dolly grip. “I did it well enough where they called me for more and more jobs,” explains Stewart. “I started as a dolly grip but then I did sound, worked as a tape op and then started in the camera department. I also worked with the best gaffers in San Francisco, who showed me how to look at the light, understand it and either augment it or recreate it. It was the best practical film school I could have ever attended.”

Not wanting to stay “in a small pond with big fish” Stewart decided to move back to LA and started working for MTV, which brought him into the low-budget handheld world. It also introduced him to “interview lighting” where he lit celebrities like Barbara Streisand, Mick Jagger and Paul McCartney. “At that point I got to light every single amazing musician, actor, famous person you could imagine,” he says. “This practice afforded me the opportunity to understand how to light people who were getting older, and how to make them look their best on camera.”

In 1999, Stewart received an offer to shoot Mike Figgis’ film Time Code (2000), which was one of the landmark films of the DV/film revolution. “It was groundbreaking not only in the digital realm but the fact that Time Code was shot with four cameras from beginning to end, 93 minutes, without stopping, shown in a quad split with no edits — all handheld,” explains Stewart. “It was an amazingly difficult project, because having no edits meant you couldn’t make mistakes. I was very fortunate to work with a brilliant renegade director like Mike Figgis.”

Triple Coverage
When hired for Arrested Development, the first request Stewart approached Hurwitz with was to add a third camera. Shooting with three cameras with multiple characters can be a logistical challenge, but Stewart felt he could get through scenes more quickly and effectively, in order to get the actors out on time. “I call the C camera the center camera and the A and the B are screen left and screen right,” Stewart explains. “C covers the center POV, while A and B cover the scene from their left and right side POV, which usually starts with overs. As we continue to shoot the scene, each camera will get tighter and tighter. If there are three or more actors in the scene, C will get tighter on whoever is in the center. After that, C camera might cover the scene following the dialogue with ‘swinging’ singles. If no swinging singles are appropriate, then the center camera can move over and help out coverage on the right or left side.

“I’m on a walkie — either adjusting the shots during a scene for either of their framing or exposure, or I’m planning ahead,” he continues. “You give me three cameras and I’ll shoot a show really well for you and get it done efficiently, and with cinematic style.”

Because it is primarily a handheld show, Stewart needed lenses that would not weigh down his operators during long takes. He employed Fujinon Cabrio zooms (15-35mm, 19-90mm, and 85-300mm), which are all f/2.8 lenses.

For camera settings, Stewart captures 10-bit 422 UHD (3840×2160) AVC Intra files at 23.98-fps. He also captures in V-Log but uses the V-709 LUT. “To me, you can create all the LUTs you want,” he says, “but more than likely you get to color correction and end up changing things. I think the basic 709 LUT is really nice and gentle on all the colors.”

Light from Above
Much of Arrested Development is shot on a stage, so lighting can get complicated, especially when there are multiple characters in a scene. To makes things less complicated, Stewart provided a gentle soft light from softboxes covering the top of each stage set, using 4-by-8 wooden frames with Tungsten-balanced Quasar tubes dimmed down to 50%. His motivated lighting explanation is that the unseen source could basically be a skylight. If characters are close to windows, he uses HMIs creating “natural sunlight” punching through to light the scene. “The nice thing about the VariCam is that you don’t need as many photons, and I did pretty extensive tests during pre-production on how to do it.”

On stage, Stewart sets his ISO to 5000 base and dials down to 2500 and generally shoots at an f/2.8 and ½. He even uses one level of ND on top of that. “You can imagine 27-foot candles at one level of ND at a 2.8 and 1/2 — that’s a pretty sensitive camera, and I noticed very little noise. My biggest concern was mid-tones, so I did a lot of testing — shooting at 5000, shooting at 2500, 800, 800 pushed up to 1600 and 2500.

“Sometimes with certain cameras, you can develop this mid-tone noise that you don’t really notice until you’re in post. I felt like shooting at 5000 knocked down to 2500 was giving me the benefit of lighting the stage at these beautifully low-lit levels where we would never be hot. I could also easily put 5Ks outside the windows to have enough sunlight to make it look like it’s overexposed a bit. I felt that the 5000 base knocked down to 2500, the noise level was negligible. At native 5000 ISO, there was a little bit more mid-tone noise, even though it was still acceptable. For daytime exteriors, we usually shot at ISO 800, dialing down to 500 or below.”

Stewart and Arrested Development director Troy Miller have known each other for many years since working together on the HBO’s Flight of the Conchords. “There was a shorthand between director and DP that really came in handy,” says Stewart. “Troy knows that I know what I’m doing, and I know on his end that he’s trying to figure out this really complicated script and have us shoot it. Hand in hand, we were really able to support Mitch.”

Director Sasha Levinson talks about her Las Vegas tourism spots

After seeing some of her previous work, Humble director Sasha Levinson was approached by agency R&R Partners and the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority with a vision of creating four short films of personal transformation, each set across one weekend in Las Vegas, where the city was the catalyst in each narrative. The spots play more like a film trailer than a commercial.

Initial scripts were already written, when Levinson won project. “Right out of the gate I started to develop ideas about how I would bring these stories to life in a way that created a human mystique around Las Vegas while showcasing how the city could have an authentically positive impact on each character’s life,” she says.

We reached out to Levinson to find out more about her process and the project.

Who did you work with the most from the agency?
R&R Partners’ Arnie DiGeorge (ECD), Scott Murray (CD) and Gerri Angelo (Producer) were the primary people I interacted with. Once I was officially on board, the collaboration stretched into a place I hadn’t seen in my commercial work thus far. The team stressed their desire to have a filmmaker that could truly bring the films to life, and I think I did just that. They trusted my process whole-heartedly.

Now and Then

Can you walk us through the production process?
While working on readying the scripts for production, I flew out to Las Vegas and spent several days location scouting in and around the city. It was very inspiring to start to feel the environment and begin to envision exactly how our scenes might play out.

We scouted many incredible spaces, both interior and exterior. My process was to put myself into the mindset of each of the characters and decide where they would want to spend their weekend.

The next step was casting, which was done in Las Vegas and Los Angeles. We all took a collective breath when we found our actors because they became the characters that had only been living on the page for quite a while.

It took a dedicated team and the full support of Humble, our production company, to pull this off. Line producer Trevor Allen, AD Scott Murray, AD Todd Martin, costume designer Karmen Dann and location scout/manager Kim Houser-Amaral were a huge help during this two-week shoot.

Two weeks?
Yes, we shot for eight days over the course of two weeks, filming mostly at night in restaurants, nightclubs and suites both on and off The Strip. For interiors alone we shot at over nine different hotel properties, and then filmed various exteriors, driving shots and desert scenes.

Can you talk about each of the four spots?
For the Now and Then spot we used a handheld and Steadicam to stay intimate with the characters. The film lives in a dreamy, indie space, making the audience feel like they are inside the story, and as if the flashbacks are their own memories.

Party of One

The Anniversary was the flirtiest, most luxurious of the films. We were initially planning to film in a different bar, but I changed the schedule when I saw the personality of the final location. It was perfect.

To me, Party of One was a quirky romantic comedy, but the real romance is with herself. This film had a cleaner look with colors that really popped, a playful wardrobe and fun music. The Meetup has the most obvious references to the iconic Oceans and Bond films, and I wanted to do this genre justice.

Victor, the actor in The Meetup has a comedy background, so he was able to give us something different and great each take. We used cleaner lenses and slower-paced, more precise movements using a dolly.

What did you shoot on, and why did you (and assuming the DP) feel this was the best camera?
We shot on the Alexa Mini for its stunning Alexa image and the smaller body. The choice was due to all of the handheld and Steadicam we knew we would be working with. I really love the Alexa and of course we played with a lot of filtration and elements in front of the lens.

Where did you find the inspiration for this campaign?
I was really inspired by the film Paris, je t’aime, which became a reference we really stayed true to with this campaign. We kept saying, “If these four films feel like a love letter to Las Vegas, then we’ve done our job.”

After we finished casting in LA, I spent a weekend in Vegas visiting Valley of Fire State Park, seeing Elton John in concert, riding on the High Roller, eating at some amazing restaurants and overall experiencing the city in a new and inspiring way. I’ve always loved the desert, so there is a built-in romance for me about Vegas being a desert oasis that you just feel, looking out the windows wherever you are. I wanted to capture that essence in this campaign.

Sasha on set

What was the biggest obstacle in directing these four spots?
Las Vegas is all about tourism, so we had to keep the visitor experience in mind when planning our schedules and shooting. It was a constantly changing puzzle of a schedule, but each location had a filming liaison that worked with us. They helped us film across iconic Las Vegas locations like the High Roller at the LinQ Hotel & Casino and the Bellagio Fountains, where we even had an engineer help us control the fountains, starting them at just the right moment in the shot.

Where was this project edited, and how did you work with the editors?
I worked extremely closely with the editors Erin Nordstrom and Nick Pezillo at Spot Welders in Venice, California. They cut on Adobe Premiere, and during the edit process we cut in side-by-side rooms. As we were cutting the first cuts I would hop between rooms as the edits were evolving.

Music was a huge point of discussion. Josh Baron was our music supervisor, and Human created some original pieces. Early in the edit process there was a lot of conversation about tone and feel of the soundtracks. Getting the music to encourage the cinematic feeling was very important to all of us.

Can you talk about what you wanted from the color grade?
Las Vegas has so much light and spectacle, and most of the films took place at night, so I wanted to capture that essence and make sure we didn’t go too far. The idea was that the character of Las Vegas should be cohesive across all four films, but each of the storylines should feel visually dedicated to their respective characters.

Dave Hussey at Company 3 too the reigns on color and hit the perfect balance between fantasy and reality.

We’ve heard a lot about making the ad and production industries more inclusive. How do you see the industry changing? Do you think organizations like Free the Bid are doing their jobs to help female directors get the work they deserve?
I think that filmmaking and content creation is about telling stories that accurately reflect reality, but this isn’t possible without diverse creators showcasing their own unique realities. I’ve spent a lot of time on scouts and shoots where I am the only woman, but this is changing, and there are more and more times where the van is all women, and it’s amazing!

However, just when I think diversity is becoming the norm, I’ll be on set with a crew member or client who says they’ve never worked with a female director. Free the Bid has been an incredible initiative and because it’s so action oriented, you can feel the rumblings of change in realtime. That’s exciting.

Do you have any tips for aspiring female directors?
Being a filmmaker in film or advertising is an incredible career path. My best advice is to develop your authentic voice and find projects that resonate with it. Don’t get lost in what you think you should be doing, and don’t just follow the trends. Be authentic in your work and speak from the heart. And when it comes to starting a reel, donate your time. Find brands or projects that cover the costs and give them your creative skills in exchange for footage to build a reel.

There has been a trend around branded content and spots, that look and like films, like this campaign. Do you think this trend will continue?
I think this trend will continue and extend deeper into newer mediums like immersive storytelling and interactivity. Brands are constantly searching for ways to connect with consumers, and I believe the art of storytelling is an age-old unifier and connector. So it makes sense. Personally, I love the three-act structure and any opportunity to work with this, whether it be 90 seconds or 90 minutes, inspires me.

Are you working on any upcoming projects that we should be on the lookout for?
I’m currently taking my recent film Welcome to Grandville through the festival circuit. It made its premiere at the Cleveland International Film Festival, Perspectives Exhibition, and more recently in New York City at the Soho International Film Festival.

I’ve also just completed a commercial project for Whirlpool, Google and Amazon’s Alexa. Currently, I’m writing a film called the The Discomfort of Skin, about the human discomfort with nudity and sexuality.

Review: The Litra Torch for pro adventure lighting

By Brady Betzel

If you are on Instagram you’ve definitely seen your fair share of “adventure” photography and video. Typically, it’s those GoPro-themed action-adventure shots of someone cliff diving off a million-mile-high waterfall. I definitely get jealous. Nonetheless, one thing I love about GoPro cameras is their size. They are small enough to fit in your pocket, and they will reliably produce a great image. Where those actioncams suffer is with light performance. While it is getting better every day, you just can’t pull a reliably clean and noise-free image from a camera sensor so small. This is where actioncam lights come into play as a perfect companion, including the Litra Torch.

The Litra Torch is an 800 Lumen, 1.5 by 1.5-inch magnetic light. I first started seeing the tiny light trend on Instagram where people were shooting slow shutter photos at night but also painting certain objects with a tiny bit of light. Check out Litra on Instagram: @litragear to see some of the incredible images people are producing with this tiny light. I saw an action sports person showing off some incredible nighttime pictures using the GoPro Hero. He mentioned in the post that he was using the Litra Torch, so I immediately contacted Litra, and here I am reviewing the light. Litra sent me the Litra Paparazzi Bundle, which retails for $129.99. The bundle includes the Litra Torch,  along with a filter kit and cold shoe mount.

So the Litra Torch has four modes, all accessible by clicking the button on top of the light: 800 Lumen brightness, 450 Lumens, 100 Lumens and flashing. The Torch has a consistent color temperature of 5700 kelvin, essentially the light is a crisp white — right in between blue and yellow. The rechargeable lithium-ion battery can be charged via the micro USB cable and will last up to 30 minutes or more depending on the brightness selected. With a backup battery attached you could be going for hours.

Over a month with intermittent use I only charged it once. One night I had to check out something under the hood of my car and used the Litra Torch to see what I was doing. It is very bright and when I placed the light onto the car I realized it was magnetic! Holy cow. Why doesn’t GoPro put magnets into their cameras for mounting! The Torch also has two ¼-20 camera screw mounts so you can mount them just about anywhere. The construction of the Torch is amazing — it is drop-proof, waterproof and made of a highly resilient aluminum. You can feel the high quality of the components the first time you touch the Torch.

In addition to the Torch itself, the cold shoe mount and diffuser, the Paparazzi Bundle comes with the photo filter kit. The photo filter kit comes with five frames to mount the color filters onto the Torch; three sets of Rosco Tungsten 4600k filters; three sets of Rosco Tungsten 3200k filters; 1 White Diffuser filter; and one each of a red, yellow and green color filter. Essentially, they give you a cheap way to change white balance temperatures and also some awesome color filters to play around with. I can really see the benefit of having at least two if not three of the Litra Torches in your bag with the filter sets; you can easily set up a properly lit product shoot or even a headshot session with nothing more than three tiny Torch lights.

Putting It To The Test
To test out the light in action I asked my son to set-up a Lego scene for me. One hour later I had some Lego models to help me out. I always love seeing people’s Lego scenes on Instagram so I figured this would also be a good way to show off the light and the extra color filters sent in the Paparazzi Bundle. One thing I discovered is that I would love to have a slide-in filter holder that is built onto the light; it would definitely help me avoid wasting time having to pop filters into frames.

All in all, this light is awesome. The only problem is I wish I had three so I could do a full three-point lighting setup. However, with some natural light and one Litra Torch I had enough to pull off some cool lighting. I really liked the Torch as a colored spotlight; you can get that blue or red shade on different objects in a scene quickly.

Summing Up
In the end, the Litra Torch is an amazing product. In the future I would really love to see multiple white balance temperatures built into the Torch without having to use photo filters. Also, a really exciting but probably expensive prospect of building a Bluetooth connection and multiple colors. Better yet, make this light a full-color-spectrum app-enabled light… oh wait, just recently they announced the Litra Pro on Kickstarter. You should definitely check that out as well with it’s advanced options and color profile.

I am spoiled by all of those at home lights, like the LIFX brand, that change to any color you want, so I’m greedy and want those in a sub-$100 light. But those are just wishes — the Litra Torch is a must-have for your toolkit in my opinion. From mounting it on top of my Canon DSLR using the cold shoe mount, to using the magnetic ability and mounting in unique places, as well as using the screw mount to attach to a tripod — the Litra Torch is a mind-melting game changer for anyone having to lug around a 100-pound light kit, which makes this new Kickstarter of the Litra Pro so enticing.

Check out their website for more info on the Torch and new Litra Pro, as well as a bunch of accessories. This is a must-have for any shooter looking to carry a tiny but powerful light anywhere, especially for summer and the outdoors!


Brady Betzel is an Emmy-nominated online editor at Margarita Mix in Hollywood, working on Life Below Zero and Cutthroat Kitchen. You can email Brady at bradybetzel@gmail.com. Follow him on Twitter @allbetzroff.

Zoe Iltsopoulos Borys joins Panavision Atlanta as VP/GM

Panavision has hired Zoe Iltsopoulos Borys to lead the company’s Atlanta office as vice president and general manager. Borys will oversee day-to-day operations in the region.

Borys’ 25 years of experience in the motion picture industry includes business development for Production Resources Group (PRG), and GM for Fletcher Camera and Lenses (now VER). This is her second turn at Panavision, having served in a marketing role at the company from 1998-2006. She is also an associate member of the American Society of Cinematographers.

Panavision’s Atlanta facilities, located in West Midtown and at Pinewood Studios, supplies camera rental equipment in the southern US, with a full staff of prep technicians and camera service experts. The Atlanta team has provided equipment and services to productions including Avengers: Infinity War, Black Panther, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, Baby Driver and Pitch Perfect 3.

Quick Chat: Bill Ferwerda on coloring Hulu’s The Handmaid’s Tale

The premiere season of the dystopian series The Handmaid’s Tale earned eight Primetime Emmys, two Golden Globes, a Peabody Award and a BAFTA Award. Season 2, which is now streaming on Hulu, expands on Margaret Atwood’s novel of the same name.

For the latest season Deluxe Toronto senior colorist Bill Ferwerda reteamed with series DP Colin Watkinson, who won a Primetime Emmy for Outstanding Cinematography on The Handmaid’s Tale pilot, and also worked with DP Zoe White.

Ferwerda once again delivered HDR and SDR grades for Season 2, following the same palette established for Season One and helping develop looks for new environments, including the polluted Colonies.

“The look of The Handmaid’s Tale is so established and familiar to audiences, there wasn’t a need to reinvent the look for season two, but rather we pick up where season one left off and keep that tension building. I often pulled up season one footage to make sure I was staying true to that original aesthetic and feel,” explains Ferwerda.

Similar to how Ferwerda keyed in the signature “handmaid red” for Season 1 — a creative decision established by Watkinson and director of Season 1, episodes 1-3 Reed Morano — he accentuated a few primary colors in one key element within a scene, maintaining a simple palette and adding contrast to help the wardrobe and set design pop. He used the SDR grade as the guide for the HDR Dolby Vision grade, careful to carry through the intentionally subdued look.

Season 2 introduces The Colonies, a horrific compound where disobedient handmaids are sent to work in incredibly harsh conditions. To underscore the unpleasant environment, Ferwerda played up smoke and atmosphere with harsh contrast, following an aesthetic he helped develop with Watkinson and DIT Ben Whaley. He also accommodated for changing daylight in exterior scenes and footage shot with both Arri Alexa and drone cameras.

Bill Ferwerda

“The Colonies environment is toxic, so I was more aggressive in pushing the contrast; blacks are harder and I balanced a lot of opposite colors, such as adding a pink sky to counter green and different color tones,” explains Ferwerda. “As a fan myself, this was a very exciting project to be part of, and I can attest that season two lives up to its very high expectations.”

Let’s find out more from Ferwerda:

How does your process differ when delivering HDR and SDR?
HDR delivers more detail and clarity in the highlights as opposed to SDR, where the detail can be almost nonexistent. When working on a deliverable that is both HDR and SDR, you have to be aware of the image on both formats at the same time. The reason we do this is that both versions are delivered on one file. That is to say, the SDR is derived from the HDR source.

Using the HDR source, we do a “trim pass” to match the two images minus the highlight detail. Interestingly, in the case of The Handmaids Tale, the creative decision was made that the HDR version would look exactly the same as the SDR version because everyone liked the lack of detail in the highlights. When coloring an episode, we still do the HDR pass first and then trim past to SDR, but we keep it in the SDR parameters.

I know most of the palette from Season 1 remains, but other than The Colonies, what how did you approach environments new to Season 2?
We approach new environments by reviewing the looks that have been applied on set. After this review session, we go through a series of presentations, discussions and tweaks to get exactly what the DP wants.

When the shooting was going on in Toronto, the DPs would come in and sit down with me. Now that the shooting is finished, Deluxe sends the DPs to one of our sister companies in LA or New York (where we know the monitors will match) and does sessions with them there while we have the content and Resolve panels in Toronto.

What about this season stands out to you?
Season 2 was awesome, and I loved all the episodes, but what stands out to me the most is working with the new DP, Zoë White. Colin Watkinson and Zoe would flip-flop between episodes. It was such a pleasure working with her and watching her sink her teeth into the Handmaids’ world!

Our Virtual Color Roundtable

By Randi Altman

The number of things you can do with color in today’s world is growing daily. It’s not just about creating a look anymore, it’s using color to tell or enhance a story. And because filmmakers recognize this power, they are getting colorists involved in the process earlier than ever before. And while the industry is excited about HDR and all it offers, this process also creates its own set of challenges and costs.

To find out what those in the trenches are thinking, we reached out to makers of color gear as well as hands-on colorists with the same questions, all in an effort to figure out today’s trends and challenges.

Company 3 Senior Colorist Stephen Nakamura
Company 3 is a global group of creative studios specializing in color and post services for features, TV and commercials. 

How has the finishing of color evolved most recently?
By far, the most significant change in the work that I do is the requirement to master for all the different exhibition mediums. There’s traditional theatrical projection at 14 footlamberts (fL) and HDR theatrical projection at 30fL. There’s IMAX. For home video, there’s UHD and different flavors of HDR. Our task with all of these is to master the movie so it feels and looks the way it’s supposed to feel and look on all the different formats.

There’s no one-size-fits-all approach. The colorist’s job is to work with the filmmakers and make those interpretations. At Company 3 we’re always creating custom LUTs. There are other techniques that help us get where we need to be to get the most out of all these different display types, but there’s no substitute for taking the time and interpreting every shot for the specific display format.

How has laser projection and HDR impacted the work? And do you feel that DPs are working differently now that laser projection and the home HDR experiences are becoming more relevant?
Not too long ago, a cinematographer could expose an image specifically for one display format — a film print projected at 14fL. They knew exactly where they could place their highlights and shadows to get a precise look onscreen. Today, they’re thinking in terms of the HDR version, where if they don’t preserve detail in the blacks and whites it can really hurt the quality of the image in some of the newer display methods.

I work frequently with Dariuisz Wolski (Sicario: Day of the Soldado, All the Money in the World). We’ve spoken about this a lot, and he’s said that when he started shooting features, he often liked to expose things right at the edge of underexposure because he knew exactly what the resulting print would be like. But now, he has to preserve the detail and fine-tune it with me in post because it has to work in so many different display formats.

There are also questions about how the filmmakers want to use the different ways of seeing the images. Sometimes they really like the qualities of the traditional theatrical standard and really don’t want HDR to look very different and to make the most of the dynamic range. If we have more dynamic range, more light, to work with, it means that in essence we have a larger “canvas” to work on. But you need to take the time to individually treat every shot if you want to get the most out of that “canvas.”

Where do you see the industry moving in the near future?
The biggest change I expect to see is the development of even brighter, higher-contrast exhibition mediums. At NAB, Sony unveiled this wall of LED panels that are stitched together without seams and can display up to 1000 nits. It can be the size of a screen in a movie theater. If that took off, it could be a game changer. If theatrical exhibition gets better with brighter, higher-contrast screens, I think the public will enjoy it, provided that the images are mastered appropriately.

Sicario: Day of the Soldado

What is the biggest challenge you see for the color grading process now and beyond?
As there are more formats, there will be more versions of the master. From P3 to Rec.709 to HDR video in PQ — they all translate color information differently. It’s not just the brightness and contrast but the individual colors. If there’s a specific color blue the filmmakers want for Superman’s suit, or red for Spiderman, or whatever it is, there are multiple layers of challenges involved in maintaining those across different displays. Those are things you have to take a lot of care with when you get to the finishing stage.

What’s the best piece of work you’ve seen that you didn’t work on?
I know it was 12 years ago now, but I’d still say 300, which was colored by Company 3 CEO Stefan Sonnenfeld. I think that was enormously significant. Everyone who has seen that movie is aware of the graphic-novel-looking imagery that Stefan achieved in color correction working with Zack Snyder and Larry Fong.

We could do a lot in a telecine bay for television, but a lot of people still thought of digital color correction for feature films as an extension of the timing process from the photochemical world. But the look in 300 would be impossible to achieve photo-chemically, and I think that opened a lot of people’s minds about the power of digital color correction.

Alt Systems Senior Product Specialist Steve MacMillian
Alt Systems is a systems provider, integrating compositing, DI, networking and storage solutions for the media and entertainment industry.

How has the finishing of color evolved most recently?
Traditionally, there has been such a huge difference between the color finishing process for television production verses for cinematic release. It used to be that a target format was just one thing, and finishing for TV was completely different than finishing for the cinema.

Colorists working on theatrical films will spend most of their efforts on grading for projection, and only after there is a detailed trim pass to make a significantly different version for the small screen. Television colorists, who are usually under much tighter schedules, will often only be concerned with making Rec.709 look good on a standard broadcast monitor. Unless there is a great deal of care to preserve the color and dynamic range of the digital negative throughout the process, the Rec.709 grade will not be suitable for translation to other expanded formats like HDR.

Now, there is an ever-growing number of distribution formats with different color and brightness requirements. And with the expectation of delivering to all of these on ever-tighter production budgets, it has become important to use color management techniques so that the work is not duplicated. If done properly, this allows for one grade to service all of these requirements with the least amount of trimming needed.

How has laser projection and HDR impacted the work?
HDR display technology, in my opinion, has changed everything. The biggest impact on color finishing is the need for monitoring in both HDR and SDR in different color spaces. Also, there is a much larger set of complex delivery requirements, along with the need for greater technical expertise and capabilities. Much of this complexity can be reduced by having the tools that make the various HDR image transforms and complex delivery formats as automatic as possible.

Color management is more important than ever. Efficient and consistent workflows are needed for dealing with multiple sources with unique color sciences, integrating visual effects and color grading while preserving the latitude and wide color gamut of the image.

The color toolset should support remapping to multiple deliverables in a variety of color spaces and luminance levels, and include support for dynamic HDR metadata systems like Dolby and HDR10+. As HDR color finishing has evolved, so has the way it is delivered to studios. Most commonly it is delivered in an HDR IMF package. It is common that Rec.2020 HDR deliverables be color constrained to the P3 color volume and also that Light Level histograms and HDR QC reports be delivered.

Do you feel DPs are working differently now that laser projection and the home HDR experiences are becoming more relevant?
Not as much as you would think. Two things are working against this. First, film and high-end digital cameras themselves have for some time been capturing latitude suitable for HDR production. Proper camera exposure is all that is needed to ensure that an image with a wide enough dynamic range is recorded. So from a capture standpoint, nothing needs to change.

The other is cost. There are currently only a small number of suitable HDR broadcast monitors, and most of these are extremely expensive and not designed well for the set. I’m sure HDR monitoring is being used on-set, but not as much as expected for productions destined for HDR release.

Also, it is difficult to truly judge HDR displays in a bright environment, and cinematographers may feel that monitoring in HDR is not needed full time. Traditionally with film production, cinematographers became accustomed to not being able to monitor accurately on-set, and they rely on their experience and other means of judging light and exposure. I think the main concern for cinematographers is the effect of lighting choices and apparent resolution, saturation and contrast when viewed in HDR.

Highlights in the background can potentially become distracting when displayed at 1000 nits verses being clamped at 100. Framing and lighting choices are informed by proper HDR monitoring. I believe we will see more HDR monitoring on-set as more suitable displays become available.

Colorfront’s Transkoder

Where do you see the industry moving in the near future?
Clearly HDR display technology is still evolving, and we will see major advances in HDR emissive displays for the cinema in the very near future. This will bring new challenges and require updated infrastructure for post as well as the cinema. It’s also likely that color finishing for the cinema will become more and more similar to the production of HDR for the home, with only relatively small differences in overall luminance and the ambient light of the environment.

Looking forward, standard dynamic range will eventually go away in the same way that standard definition video did. As we standardize on consumer HDR displays, and high-performance panels become cheaper to make, we may not need the complexity of HDR dynamic remapping systems. I expect that headset displays will continue to evolve and will become more important as time goes on.

What is the biggest challenge you see for the color grading process now and beyond?
We are experiencing a period of change that can be compared to the scope of change from SD to HD production, except it is happening much faster. Even if HDR in the home is slow to catch on, it is happening. And nobody wants their production to be dated as SDR-only. Eventually, it will be impossible to buy a TV that is not HDR-capable.

Aside from the changes in infrastructure, colorists used to working in SDR have some new skills to learn. I think it is a mistake to do separate grading versions for every major delivery format. Even though we have standards for HDR formats, they will continue to evolve, so post production must evolve too. The biggest challenge is meeting all of these different delivery requirements on budgets that are not growing as fast as the formats.

Northern Lights Flame Artist and Colorist Chris Hengeveld
NY- and SF-based Northern Lights, along with sister companies Mr. Wonderful for design, SuperExploder for composing and audio post, and Bodega for production, offers one-stop-shop services.

How has the finishing of color evolved most recently?
It’s interesting that you use the term “finishing of color.” In my clients’ world, finishing and color now go hand in hand. My commercial clients expect not only a great grade but seamless VFX work in finalizing their spots. Both of these are now often taking place with the same artist. Work has been pushed from just straight finishing with greenscreen, product replacement and the like to doing a grade up to par with some of the higher-end coloring studios. Price is pushing vastly separate disciplines into one final push.

Clients now expect to have a rough look ready not only of the final VFX, but also of the color pass before they attend the session. I usually only do minor VFX tweaks when clients arrive. Sending QuickTimes back and forth between studio and client usually gets us to a place where our client, and their client, are satisfied with at least the direction if not the final composites.

Color, as a completely subjective experience, is best enjoyed with the colorist in the room. We do grade some jobs remotely, but my experience has clearly been that from both time and creativity standpoints, it’s best to be in the grading suite. Unfortunately, recently due to time constraints and budget issues, even higher-end projects are being evaluated on a computer/phone/tablet back at the office. This leads to more iterations and less “the whole is greater than the sum of the parts” mentality. Client interaction, especially at the grading level, is best enjoyed in the same room as the colorist. Often the final product is markedly better than what either could envision separately.

Where do you see the industry moving in the near future?
I see the industry continuing to coalesce around multi-divisional companies that are best suited to fulfill many clients’ needs at once. Most projects that come to us have diverse needs that center around one creative idea. We’re all just storytellers. We do our best to tell the client’s story with the best talent we offer, in a reasonable timeframe and at a reasonable cost.

The future will continue to evolve, putting more pressure on the editorial staff to deliver near perfect rough cuts that could become finals in the not-too-distant future.

Invisalign

The tools continue to level the playing field. More generalists will be trained in disciplines including video editing, audio mixing, graphic design, compositing and color grading. This is not to say that the future of singularly focused creatives is over. It’s just that those focused creatives are assuming more and more responsibilities. This is a continuation of the consolidation of roles that has been going on for several years now.

What is the biggest challenge you see for the color grading process now and beyond?
The biggest challenge going forward is both technical and budgetary. Many new formats have emerged, including the new ProRes RAW. New working color spaces have also emerged. Many of us work without on-staff color scientists and must find our way through the morass of HDR, ACES, Scene Linear and Rec.709. Working with materials that round trip in-house is vastly easier than dealing with multiple shops all with their own way of working. As we collaborate with outside shops, it behooves us to stay at the forefront of technology.

But truth be told, perhaps the biggest challenge is keeping the creative flow and putting the client’s needs first. Making sure the technical challenges don’t get in the way. Clients need to see a seamless view without technical hurdles.

What’s the best piece of work you’ve seen that you didn’t work on?
I am constantly amazed at the quality of work coming out of Netflix. Some of the series are impeccably graded. Early episodes of Bloodline, which was shot with the Sony F65, come to mind. The visuals were completely absorbing, both daytime and nighttime scenes.

Codex VP Business Development Brian Gaffney
Codex designs tools for color, dailies creation, archiving, review and networked attached storage. Their offerings include the new Codex ColorSynth with Keys and the MediaVault desktop NAS.

How has the finishing of color evolved most recently?
While it used to be a specialized suite in a post facility, color finishing has evolved tremendously over the last 10 years with low-cost access to powerful systems like Resolve for use on-set in commercial finishing to final DI color grading. These systems have evolved from being more than just color. Now they are editorial, sound mixing and complete finishing platforms.

How has laser projection and HDR impacted the work?
Offering brighter images in the theatre and the home with laser projection, OLED walls and HDR displays will certainly change the viewers’ experience, and it has helped create more work in post, offering up another pass for grading.

However, brighter images also show off image artifacts and can bring attention to highlights that may already be clipping. Shadow detail that was graded in SDR may now look milky in HDR. These new display mediums require that you spend more time optimizing the color correction for both display types. There is no magic one grade fits all.

Do you feel that DPs are working differently now that laser projection and the home HDR experiences are becoming more relevant?
I think cinematographers are still figuring this out. Much like color correction between SDR and HDR, lighting for the two is different. A window that was purposely blown out in SDR, to hide a lighting rig outside, may show up in HDR, exposing the rig itself. Color correction might be able to correct for this, but unless a cinematographer can monitor in HDR on-set, these issues will come up in post. To do it right, lighting optimization between the two spaces is required, plus SDR and HDR monitoring on-set and near-set and in editorial.

Where do you see the industry moving in the near future?
It’s all about content. With the traditional studio infrastructure and broadcast television market changing to Internet Service Providers (ISPs), the demand for content, both original and HDR remastered libraries, is helping prop up post production and is driving storage- and cloud-based services.

Codex’s ColorSynth and Media Vault

In the long term, if the competition in this space continues and the demand for new content keeps expanding, traditional post facilities will become “secure data centers” and managed service providers. With cloud-based services, the talent no longer needs to be in the facility with the client. Shared projects with realtime interactivity from desktop and mobile devices will allow more collaboration among global-based productions.

What is the biggest challenge you see for the color grading process now and beyond?
Project management — sharing color set-ups among different workstations. Monitoring of the color with proper calibrated displays in both SDR and HDR and in support of multiple deliverables is always a challenge. New display technologies, like laser projection and new Samsung and Sony videowalls, may not be cost effective for the creative community to access for final grading. Only certain facilities may wind up specializing in this type of grading experience, limiting global access for directors and cinematographers to fully visualize how their product will look like on these new display mediums. It’s a cost that may not get the needed ROI, so in the near future many facilities may not be able to support the full demand of deliverables properly.

Blackmagic Director of Sales/Operations Bob Caniglia
Blackmagic creates DaVinci Resolve, a solution that combines professional offline and online editing, color correction, audio post production and visual effects in one software tool.

How has the finishing of color evolved most recently?
The ability to work in 8K, and whatever flavor of HDR you see, is happening. But if you are talking evolution, it is about the ability to collaborate with everyone in the post house, and the ability to do high-quality color correction anywhere. Editors, colorists, sound engineers and VFX artists should not be kept apart or kept from being able to collaborate on the same project at the same time.

New collaborative workflows will speed up post production because you will no longer need to import, export or translate projects between different software applications.

How has laser projection and HDR impacted the work?
The most obvious impact has been on the need for colorists to be using software that can finish a project in whatever HDR format the client asks for. That is the same with laser projection. If you do not use software that is constantly updating to whatever new format is introduced, being able to bid on HDR projects will be hard.

HDR is all about more immersive colors. Any colorist should be ecstatic to be able to work with images that are brighter, sharper and with more data. This should allow them to be even more creative with telling a story with color.

Do you feel that DPs are working differently now that laser projection and the home HDR experiences are becoming more relevant?
As for cinematographers, HDR gives viewers a whole new level of image details. But that hyper reality could draw the viewer from the wanted target in a shot. The beautiful details shining back on a coffee pot in a tracking shot may not be worth worrying about in SDR, but in HDR every shot will create more work for the colorist to make sure the viewer doesn’t get distracted by the little things. For DPs, it means they are going to have to be much more aware of lighting, framing and planning the impact of every possible item and shadow in an image.

Where do you see the industry moving in the near future?
Peace in our time amongst all of the different post silos, because those silos will finally be open. And there will be collaboration between all parts of the post workflow. Everyone — audio, VFX, editing and color correction — can work together on the same project seamlessly.

For example, in our Resolve tool, post pros can move between them all. This is what we see happening with colorists and post houses right now, as each member of the post team can be much more creatively flexible because anyone can explore new toolsets. And with new collaboration tools, multiple assistants, editors, colorists, sound designers and VFX artists can all work on the same project at the same time.

Resolve 15

For a long-term view, you will always have true artists in each of the post areas. People who have mastered the craft and can separate themselves as being color correction artists. What is really going to change is that everyone up and down the post workflow at larger post houses will be able to be much more creative and efficient, while small boutique shops and freelancers can offer their clients a full set of post production services.

What is the biggest challenge you see for the color grading process now and beyond?
Speed and flexibility. Because with everyone now collaborating and the colorist being part of every part of the post process, you will be asked to do things immediately… and in any format. So if you are not able to work in real time or with whatever footage format thrown at you, they will find someone who can.

This also comes with the challenge of changing the old notion that the colorist is one of the last people to touch a project. You will be asked to jump in early and often. Because every client would love to show early edits that are graded to get approvals faster.

FilmLight CEO Wolfgang Lempp
FilmLight designs, creates and manufactures color grading systems, image processing applications and workflow tools for the film and television industry

How has the finishing of color evolved recently?
When we started FilmLight 18 years ago, color management was comparatively simple: Video looked like video, and digital film was meant to look like film. And that was also the starting point for the DCI — the digital cinema standard tried to make digital projection look exactly like conventional cinema. This understanding lasted for a good 10 years, and even ACES today is very much built around film as the primary reference. But now we have an explosion of new technologies, new display devices and new delivery formats.

There are new options in resolution, brightness, dynamic range, color gamut, frame rate and viewing environments. The idea of a single deliverable has gone: There are just too many ways of getting the content to the viewer. That is certainly affecting the finishing process — the content has to look good everywhere. But there is another trend visible, too, which here in the UK you can see best on TV. The color and finishing tools are getting more powerful and the process is getting more productive. More programs than ever before are getting a professional color treatment before they go out, and they look all the better for it.

Either way, there is more work for the colorist and finishing house, which is of course something we welcome.

How has laser projection and HDR impacted the work?
Laser projection and HDR for cinema and TV are examples of what I described above. We have the color science and the tools to move comfortably between these different technologies and environments, in that the color looks “right,” but that is not the whole story.

The director and DP will choose to use a format that will best suit their story, and will shoot for their target environment. In SDR, you might have a bright window in an interior scene, for example, which will shape the frame but not get in the way of the story. But in HDR, that same window will be too bright, obliterate the interior scene and distract from the story. So you would perhaps frame it differently, or light up the interior to restore some balance. In other words, you have to make a choice.

HDR shouldn’t be an afterthought, it shouldn’t be a decision made after the shoot is finished. The DP wants to keep us on the edge of our seats — but you can’t be on the edge in HDR and SDR at the same time. There is a lot that can be done in post, but we are still a long way from recreating the multispectral, three-dimensional real world from the output of a camera.

HDR, of course, looks fantastic, but the industry is still learning how to shoot for best effect, as well as how to serve all the distribution formats. It might well become the primary mastering format soon, but SDR will never go away.

Where do you see the industry moving in the future?
For me, it is clear that as we have pushed resolution, frame rate, brightness and color gamut, it has affected the way we tell stories. Less is left to the imagination. Traditional “film style” gave a certain pace to the story, because there was the expectation that the audience was having to interpret, to think through to fill in the black screen in between.

Now technology has made things more explicit and more immersive. We now see true HDR cinema technology emerging with a brightness of 600 nits and more. Technology will continue to surge forward, because that is how manufacturers sell more televisions or projectors — or even phones. And until there is a realistic simulation of a full virtual reality environment, I don’t see that process coming to a halt. We have to be able to master for all these new technologies, but still ensure compatibility with existing standards.

What is the biggest challenge for color grading now and in the future?
Color grading technology is very much unfinished business. There is so much that can be done to make it more productive, to make the content look better and to keep us entertained.

Blackboard

As much as we might welcome all the extra work for our customers, generating an endless stream of versions for each program is not what color grading should be about. So it will be interesting to see how this problem will be solved. Because one way or another, it will have to be. But while this is a big challenge, it hopefully isn’t what we put all our effort into over the coming years.

BlackboardThe real challenge is to understand what makes us appreciate certain images over others. How composition and texture, how context, noise and temporal dynamics — not just color itself — affect our perception.

It is interesting that film as a capture medium is gaining popularity again, especially large-format capture. It is also interesting that the “film look” is still precious when it comes to color grading. It puts all the new technology into perspective. Filmmaking is storytelling. Not just a window to the world outside, replaced by a bigger and clearer window with new technology, but a window to a different world. And the colorist can shape that world to a degree that is limited only by her imagination.

Olympusat Entertainment Senior DI Colorist Jim Wicks
A colorist since 2007, Jim has been a senior DI colorist at Olympusat Entertainment since 2011. He has color restored hundreds of classic films and is very active in the color community.

How has the finishing of color evolved most recently?
The phrase I’m keying in on in your question is “most recently.” I believe the role of a colorist has been changing exponentially for the last several years, maybe longer. I would say that we are becoming, if we haven’t already, more like finishing artists. Color is now just one part of what we do. Because technologies are changing more rapidly than at any time I’ve witnessed, we now have a lot to understand and comprehend in addition to just color. There is ACES, HDR, changing color spaces, integrating VFX workflows into our timelines, laser projection and so on. The list isn’t endless, and it’s growing.

How has laser projection and HDR impacted the work?
For the time being, they do not impact my work. I am currently required to deliver in Rec.709. However, within that confine I am grading a wider range of media than ever before, such as 2K and 4K uncompressed DPX; Phantom Digital Video Files; Red Helium 8K in the IPP2 workspace; and much more. Laser projection and HDR is something that I continue to study by attending symposiums, or wherever I can find that information. I believe laser projection and HDR are important to know now. When the opportunity to work with laser projection and HDR is available to me, I plan to be ready.

Do you feel that DPs are working differently now that laser projection and the home HDR experiences are becoming more relevant?
Of course! At the very heart of every production, the cinematographer is the creator and author of the image. It is her creative vision. The colorist is the protector of that image. The cinematographer entrusts us with her vision. In this respect, the colorist needs to be in sync with the cinematographer as never before. As cinematographers move because of technology, so we move. It’s all about the deliverable and how it will be displayed. I see no benefit for the colorist and the cinematographer to not be on the same page because of changing technology.

Where do you see the industry moving in the near future and the long-range future?
In the near future: HDR, laser projection, 4K and larger and larger formats.

In the long-range future: I believe we only need to look to the past to see the changes that are inevitably ahead of us.

Technological changes forced film labs, telecine and color timers to change and evolve. In the nearly two decades since O Brother Where Art Thou? we no longer color grade movies the way we did back when the Coen classic was released in 2000. I believe it is inevitable: Change begets change. Nothing stays the same.

In keeping with the types of changes that came before, it is only a matter of time before today’s colorist is forced to change and evolve just as those before us were forced to do so. In this respect I believe AI technology is a game-changer. After all, we are moving towards driverless cars. So, if AI advances the way we have been told, will we need a human colorist in the future?

What is the biggest challenge you see for the color grading process now and beyond?
Not to sound like a “get off my lawn rant,” but education is the biggest challenge, and it’s a two-fold problem. Firstly, at many fine film schools in the US color grading is not taught as a degree-granting course, or at all.

Secondly, the glut of for-profit websites that teach color grading courses have no standardized curriculum, which wouldn’t be a problem, but at present there is no way to measure how much anyone actually knows. I have personally encountered individuals who claim to be colorists and yet do not know how to color grade. As a manager I have interviewed them — their resumes look strong, but their skills are not there. They can’t do the work.

What’s the best piece of work you’ve seen that you didn’t work on?
Just about anything shot by Roger Deakins. I am a huge fan of his work. Mitch Paulson and his team at Efilm did great work on protecting Roger’s vision for Blade Runner 2049.

Colorist David Rivero
This Madrid-born colorist is now based in China. He color grades and supervises the finishing of feature films and commercials, normally all versions, and often the trailers associated with them.

How has the finishing of color evolved most recently?
The line between strictly color grading and finishing is getting blurrier by the year. Although it is true there is still a clearer separation in the commercial world, on the film side the colorist has become the “de facto” finishing or supervising finishing artist. I think it is another sign of the bigger role the color grading is starting to play in post.

In the last two to three years I’ve noticed that fewer clients are looking at it as an afterthought, or as simply “color matching.” I’ve seen how the very same people went from a six- to seven-day DI schedule five years ago to a 20-day schedule now. The idea that spending a relatively small amount of extra time and budget on the final step can get you a far superior result is finally sinking in.

The tools and technology are finally moving into a “modern age” of grading:
– HDR is a game changer on the image-side of things, providing a noticeable difference for the audience and a different approach on our side on how to deal with all that information.

– The eventual acceptance by all color systems of what was traditionally compositing or VFX tools is also a turning point, although controversial. There are many that think that colorists should focus on grading. However, I think that rather than colorists becoming compositors, it is the color grading concept and mission that is (still) evolving.

How has laser projection and HDR impacted the work? And do you feel that DPs are working differently now that laser projection and the home HDR experiences are becoming more relevant?
Well, on my side of the world (China), the laser and HDR technologies are just starting to get to the public. Cinematographers are not really changing how they work yet, as it is a very small fraction of the whole exhibition system.

As for post, it requires a more careful way of handling the image, as it needs higher quality plates, compositions, CG, VFX, a more careful grade, and you can’t get away with as many tricks as you did when it was just SDR. The bright side is the marvelous images, and how different they can be from each other. I believe HDR is totally compatible with every style you could do in SDR, while opening the doors to new ones. There are also different approaches on shooting and lighting for cinematographers and CG artists.

Goldbuster

The biggest challenge it has created has been on the exhibition side in China. Although Dolby cinemas (Vision+Atmos) are controlled and require a specific pass and DCP, there are other laser projection theaters that show the same DCP being delivered to common (xenon lamp) theaters. This creates a frustrating environment. For example, during the 3D grading, you not only need to consider the very dark theaters with 3FL-3.5FL, but also the new laser rooms that are racking up their lamps to show off why they charge higher ticket prices with to 7FL-8FL.

Where do you see the industry moving in the near future and the long-range future?
I hope to see the HDR technologies settling and becoming the new standard within the next five to six years, and using this as the reference master from which all other deliveries are created. I also expect all these relative new practices and workflows (involving ACES, EXRs with the VFX/CG passes, non-LUT deliveries) to become more standardized and controlled.

In the long term, I could imagine two main changes happening, closely related to each other:
– The concept of grading and colorist, especially in films or long formats, evolving in importance and relationship within the production. I believe the separation or independence between photography and grading will get wider (and necessary) as tools evolve and the process is more standardized. We might get into something akin to how sound editors and sound mixers relate and work together on the sound.

– The addition of (serious) compositing in essentially all the main color systems is the first step towards the possibilities of future grading. A feature like the recent FaceRefinement in Resolve is one of the things I dreamed about five or six years ago.

What is the biggest challenge you see for the color grading process now and beyond?
Nowadays one of the biggest challenges is possibly the multi-mastering environment, with several versions on different color spaces, displays and aspect ratios. It is becoming easier, but it is still more painful than it should be.

Shrinking margins is something that also hurts the whole industry. We all work thanks to the benefits, but cutting on budgets and expecting the same results is not something that is going to happen.

What’s the best piece of work you’ve seen that you didn’t work on?
The Revanant, Mad Max, Fury and 300.

Carbon Colorist Aubrey Woodiwiss
Full-service creative studio Carbon has offices in New York, Chicago and Los Angeles.

How has the finishing of color evolved most recently?
It is always evolving, and the tools are becoming ever more powerful, and camera formats are becoming larger with more range and information in them. Probably the most significant evolution I see is a greater understanding of color science and color space workflows.

How has laser projection and HDR impacted the work? And do you feel that DPs are working differently now that laser projection and the home HDR experiences are becoming more relevant?
These elements impact how footage is viewed and dealt with in post. As far as I can see, it isn’t affecting how things are shot.

Where do you see the industry moving in the near future? What about in the long-range future?
I see formats becoming larger, viewing spaces and color gamuts becoming wider, and more streaming- and laptop-based technologies and workflows.

What is the biggest challenge you see for the color grading process now and beyond?
The constant challenge is integrating the space you traditionally color grade in to how things are viewed outside of this space.

What’s the best piece of work you’ve seen that you didn’t work on?
Knight of Cups, directed by Terrence Malick with cinematography by Emanuel Lubezki.

Ntropic Colorist Nick Sanders
Ntropic creates and produces work for commercials, music videos, and feature films as well as experiential and interactive VR and AR media. They have locations in San Francisco, Los Angeles and New York City.

How has the finishing of color evolved most recently?
SDR grading in Rec.709 and 2.4 Gamma is still here, still looks great, and will be prominent for a long time. However, I think we’re becoming more aware of how exciting grading in HDR is, and how many creative doors it opens. I’ve noticed a feeling of disappointment when switching from an HDR to an SDR version of a project, and wondered for a second if I’m accidentally viewing the ungraded raw footage, or if my final SDR grade is actually as flat as it appears to my eyes. There is a dramatic difference between the two formats.

HDR is incredible because you can make the highlights blisteringly hot, saturate a color to nuclear levels or keep things mundane and save those heavier-handed tools in your pocket for choice moments in the edit where you might want some extra visceral impact.

How has laser projection and HDR impacted the work? And do you feel that DPs are working differently now that laser projection and the home HDR experiences are becoming more relevant?
In one sense, cinematographers don’t need to do anything differently. Colorists are able to create high-quality SDR and HDR interpretations of the exact same source footage, so long as it was captured in a high-bit-depth raw format and exposed well. We’re even seeing modern HDR reimaginings of classic films. Movies as varied in subject matter as Saving Private Ryan and the original Blade Runner are coming back to life because the latitude of classic film stocks allows it. However, HDR has the power to greatly exaggerate details that may have otherwise been subtle or invisible in SDR formats, so some extra care should be taken in projects destined for HDR.

Extra contrast and shadow detail mean that noise is far more apparent in HDR projects, so ISO and exposure should be adjusted on-set accordingly. Also, the increased highlight range has some interesting consequences in HDR. For example, large blown-out highlights, such as overexposed skies, can look particularly bad. HDR can also retain more detail and color in the upper ranges in a way that may not be desirable. An unremarkable, desaturated background in SDR can become a bright, busy and colorful background in HDR. It might prove distracting to the point that the DP may want to increase his or her key lighting on the foreground subjects to refocus our attention on them.

Panasonic “PvP”

Where do you see the industry moving in the near future? What about the long-range future?
I foresee more widespread adoption of HDR — in a way that I don’t with 3D and VR — because there’s no headset device required to feel and enjoy it. Having some HDR nature footage running on a loop is a great way to sell a TV in Best Buy. Where the benefits of another recent innovation, 4K, are really only detectable on larger screens and begin to deteriorate with the slightest bit of compression in the image pipeline, HDR’s magic is apparent from the first glance.

I think we’ll first start to see HDR and SDR orders on everything, then a gradual phasing out of the SDR deliverables as the technology becomes more ubiquitous, just like we saw with the standard definition transition to HD.

For the long-range, I wouldn’t be surprised to see a phasing out of projectors as LED walls become more common for theater exhibitions due to their deeper black levels. This would effectively blur the line between technologies available for theater and home for good.

What is the biggest challenge you see for the color grading process now and beyond?
The lack of a clear standard makes workflow decisions a little tricky at the moment. One glaring issue is that consumer HDR displays don’t replicate the maximum brightness of professional monitors, so there is a question of mastering one’s work for the present, or for the near future when that higher capability will be more widely available. And where does this evolution stop? 4,000 nits? 10,000 nits?

Maybe a more pertinent creative challenge in the crossover period is which version to grade first, SDR or HDR, and how to produce the other version. There are a couple of ways to go about it, from using LUTs to initiate and largely automate the conversion to starting over from scratch and regrading the source footage in the new format.

What’s the best piece of work you’ve seen that you didn’t work on?
Chef’s Table on Netflix was one of the first things I saw in HDR; I still think it looks great!

Main Image: Courtesy of Jim Wicks.

Color for Feature Films

By Karen Maierhofer

Just as with episodic series, making the right color choices can greatly impact a film and its storytelling. While the look and mood of a project is set by the director and DP, colorists face creative decisions while delivering those desired results, even when nature or other factors prevent it from being captured on set.

As a result of their work, colorists help set the atmosphere, tone, emotion and depth of a project. They help guide storylines and audiences’ reactions to what is playing out on screen. They can make us happy, sad, scared or thrilled. And, they can make us fall in love, or out of love, with a character.

Here we look at three tent-pole films and their color process.

Deadpool 2
Like the original film, Deadpool 2 is colorful, especially when it comes to the overall tone of the character and action. However, that was the focus of the writers. Deluxe’s Efilm colorist, Skip Kimball, was concerned with the visual look of the movie, one that delivered a filmic style for the over-the-top destruction and gore playing out on the screen.

Amid the movie’s chaos, Kimball used understated saturation and limited contrast, with minimal stylization to preserve the on-set lighting choices of DP Jonathan Sela.

Skip Kimball

The working relationship between Kimball and Sela dates back nearly 15 years and spans several projects, including The Omen, Die Hard 5 and Max Payne, resulting in an informal shorthand of sorts between the two that enables them to dial in looks quickly. “Jonathan’s work is consistently great, and that makes my job easier. I simply help his on-set choices shine further,” says Kimball.

Despite the popularity of the original Deadpool, which Kimball did not work on, there was no directive to use that film as a guide for the sequel. Kimball attacked Deadpool 2 using Blackmagic Resolve, working with the raw camera footage whenever possible, as long as it was not a visual effects shot. “I get what the DP had exposed onto my screen, and then the DP and director come in and we discuss the look and feel of their project. Then I just kind of make things happen on the screen,” Kimball says, noting he prefers to work alongside the DP and director in the same room, as he can pick up on certain body language, “so I am making a change before they ask for it.”

At times, the DP and director will provide stills of examples they have in mind for certain shots, although mostly Kimball gets his direction from discussions they have. And that is exactly how they proceeded with Deadpool 2 — through discussions with the DP mostly. “It was kind of desaturated and low contrast in spots, while other shots had a lot more chroma in them, depending on the scene,” says Kimball.

One sequence Kimball particularly likes in the film is the prison scene with Deadpool and the young mutant Firefist. “It’s just a different look, with lots of cyans and greens. It’s not a typical look,” he says. “We were trying to make it feel uncomfortable, not a pleasant place to be.”

According to Kimball, the biggest challenge he faced on Deadpool 2 was managing all the VFX drop-ins. This required him to start with plates in his timeline, then update it accordingly as VFX shots were delivered from multiple vendors. In some instances, Kimball blended multiple versions of the effects to achieve director David Leitch’s vision. “There were a lot of VFX houses working on various shots, and part of my job is to help get them all to flow and look [unified],” he adds.

One of those VFX vendors was Efilm’s sister company, Method Studios, which provided approximately 300 VFX shots. As Kimball points out, it is more convenient when the VFX are done in-house with the coloring. “You can walk down the hall and bring [the VFX team] in to show them what you’re doing with their shots,” he says. “When it’s done out of house and you want to grade something a certain way and have to push it so far to where it breaks the visual effect, then you have to get them on the phone and ask them come in or send them examples of where the scene is going.”

In addition to Deadpool 2’s overall cinematic style, the film contains unique flashback and afterlife sequences that are differentiated from the main action through varied light and color. A lot of the afterlife glow was accomplished on set through in-camera filters and angled light rays, though Kimball augmented that further through additional glow, warm sepia tones and light VFX within Resolve.

“They wanted it to stand out and the audience to recognize immediately that it is a flashback,” he explains. “It was fun to create because that was all done in Resolve, with color correction and power windows, along with the OpenFX plug-ins.” Kimball explains he blurred unimportant scene elements and used a tilt lens effect. “For color, they went with a desaturated cyan feel and warmth in the highlights to create a dreamy quality that’s also a bit spooky,” he adds.

This film required many output formats — UHD, HD, HDR10 and IMAX. In addition, Kimball color graded all the promotional trailers, home entertainment release, and the related music video for Celine Dion’s Ashes.

When asked what sets this project apart from many of the others he has done, Kimball pondered the answer before responding, “It’s hard to say because it is all instinctual to me.”

Fans have many favorite scenes in the film, but for Kimball, it’s not so much about the individual sequences that make the movie memorable, but rather it’s about bringing it all together and making everything flow. He adds, “Executing the vision of the director, you know.”

Black Panther
One of the hottest movies of the year so far is Marvel’s Black Panther, a film about a prince who, after the death of his father, returns home to the African nation of Wakanda to take his rightful place as king. His path isn’t easy, though, and he must fight for the right to lead his people. Technicolor colorist Maxine Gervais was charged with creating a distinctive look as the movie jumped from conventional cities to the isolated, yet technologically advanced, nation of Wakanda. To handle the huge workload, her team called on a network of six or more FilmLight Baselight color grading workstations, operating simultaneously.

Maxine Gervais

“We knew that this was a fantasy movie with big themes and a strong story,” says Gervais, adding that since the film wasn’t an established franchise but a completely new departure, it gave the team more creative freedom. On most Marvel movies you have a sequel to match. Characters’ wardrobes, skin colors, sets, but on Black Panther everything was new so we didn’t have to match a particular aesthetic. We were creating a new world. The only scene where we needed to somewhat match in tones was to Captain America: Civil War, a flashback of Black Panther’s father’s death. Everything else was literally a ‘blank’ canvas in some ways — rich warm tones, colorful, darker filmic scenes.”

Gervais worked very closely with Oscar-nominated cinematographer Rachel Morrison, ASC, (Mudbound) to create colors that would follow the film’s story. “We wanted the film and photography to feel real, unlike most superhero movies,” explains Morrison. “Our aim was to highlight the beauty of Africa. And like all of our work, we were hoping for a subjectivity and clear point of view.”

Black Panther has very distinct settings and looks,” added Gervais. “Wakanda is this magical, futuristic African nation, with a lush colorful world the audience has never experienced. Then you have the darker reality of cityscapes in Oakland, plus the lab scenes, which have a more sterile look with cooler colors and tones.”

According to Gervais, for her, the most demanding part of the grade was the jungle scenes. “It was shot at night, so to keep all the detail we needed to see, and to make it feel organic, I ended up grading in multiple levels.” Cinematographer Morrison agrees: “The jungle scene was the biggest challenge. It was shot interior on a sound stage and had a bit of a ‘set’ feel to it. We knocked everything down and then really worked to amplify the contrast in the background.”

“We were both looking for a high sensitivity for contrast, deep blacks and shadows and a strong, rich image. I think we achieved that very well,” says Gervais. “The way we did this was almost in reverse engineering. We isolated a different part of the image to bring it up or down add contrast or remove it. You don’t want the cars to be shiny; you want minimum light reflection on cars, but you do want a bit of moonlight hitting foliage, etc. You want to see faces but everything should still be very dark as it is deep in a forest. We took down strong highlights but we also added highlights where they were mostly absent. I followed Rachel’s directions on this and worked it until she was happy with it.”

Looking back on how it started, Gervais says, “We first looked at an Avid output of the movie with Ryan (Coogler), Rachel and executives. Some of the VFX had a CDL applied from Ryan’s notes. As the movie played we could all call out comments, ideas. I wrote down everything to have a general feel for what was being said, and for my first pass Rachel gave me some notes about specific scenes where she was after a rich contrast look. This was very much a team effort. Before any supervised session with director, DP and executives, I would sit with 3D supervisor Evan Jacobs and VFX supervisor Geoffrey Baumann and review my first pass with notes that were taken from session to session. This way, we could make sure we were all going down the right path. Ryan and Rachel are wonderful to work with. They are both passionate and have a strong vision of what they want. I really enjoyed working with them — we were all new to the Marvel world.”

When it came to deliverables, multiple variations were required: 2D and 3D, laser projector as well as standard digital cinema. It is also available in IMAX, and of course there are multiple home video versions as well. “To complete all the work within the tight deadline, we extended the team for the first time in my career,” explains Gervais. “My assistant colorist Jeff Pantaleo and I went on to rotoscoping a lot of the shots and tried to avoid using too many mattes so it would simplify other deliveries like 3D. Then we had a team dedicated to offset all the shapes for 3D. Thankfully, Baselight 5.0 includes tools to speed up the way shapes are translated, so this helped a great deal. We ended up with a huge number of layers and shapes.

Creating the futuristic scenes and superhero action inevitably meant that the movie was highly reliant on VFX, featuring 2,500 shots within 134 minutes. Ensuring that the large team could keep track of VFX required extensions to Baselight’s Categories function, which made it immediately obvious which shots were temporary and which were final on the client monitor. This proved essential to keeping the project on track.

Overall, Gervais loved her first Marvel movie, and all the challenges it brought. “It was an amazing experience to work with all these talented people,” she says. “On Black Panther, I used way more composite grading than I have ever done before, blending many layers. I had to push the technology and push myself to find ways to make it work. And I think it turned out pretty good.”

Gervais has also employed Baselight on some upcoming titles, including Albert Hughes’ Alpha and director Robert Zemeckis’ Welcome to Marwen.

Solo: A Star Wars Story
One of the most revered movie series in history is Star Wars. Fans are not simply fans, they are superfans who hold dearly all tenets associated with the franchise — from the details of the ships to the glow of the lasers to the nuances of the characters and more. So, when color grading a film in the Star Wars universe, the colorist has to appease not only the DP and director, but also has to be cognizant of the galaxy of fans with their ultra-critical eye.

Joe Gawler

Such was the pressure facing Joe Gawler when color grading the recent Solo: A Star Wars Story, one of the two stand-alone Star Wars features. Directed by Ron Howard, with cinematography by Bradford Young, Solo follows the antics of young Han Solo and his gang of smugglers as they plan to steal coaxium from the planet Kessel.

While on the project, Gawler was immersed in the lore of Star Wars from many fronts, including working out of the famed Skywalker Ranch. “The whole creative team was at the Ranch for four weeks to get the color done,” he says, attributing the film’s large amount of visual effects for the extended timeframe. “As the new shots were rolling in from ILM, we would add them into the timeline and continue color grading.”

Harbor Picture Company’s Gawler, who usually works out of the studio’s New York office, stepped into this production during its early stages, visiting the London set where he, along with Young, helped finalize the aesthetic and look for the show’s look-up table, through which the movie would be lit on set and dailies would be created. Meanwhile, on set, any changes the dailies colorist Darren Rae made were passed through to VFX and to final color as a CDL (color decision list) file.

In fact, Solo introduced a number of unique factors to Gawler’s typical workflow. Among them was working on a film with so many visual effects — a hallmark of any Star Wars feature, but far more than any production he has color corrected in the past. Also, while he and Young participated in tweaking the LUT, it was created by ILM senior image and process engineer J. Schulte. Indeed, the film’s color pipeline was both developed and managed through ILM, where those fabled visual effects were crafted.

“That was something new to me,” Gawler says about the pipeline establishment. “There were some specific lasers, lights and things that are all part of the Star Wars world that were critical to ILM, and we had to make sure we got just the right hue and level of saturation. Those kinds of colors can get a little crazy if they’re not managed properly through the color science,” he explains. “But the way they managed the color and the way the shots came in from ILM was so smooth and the work so good that it moved like principal photography through the process, which isn’t always the case with visual effects, in my experience.”

So, by the time Gawler was at Skywalker Ranch, he had an informed timeline and CDL values, such as the actual dailies and decisions made for the production, already sitting inside his color correction, ready for him to decide what to use. He then spent a few days balancing out the shots before Young joined him and they dug in. “We’ve been working together for such a long time, and there’s a level of trust between us,” Gawler says of his relationship with the DP.

The pair started working together on an indie project called Pariah — which won the Excellence in Cinematography: Dramatic at Sundance in 2011 — and continued to do so as their resumes grew. Last year, they worked together on Arrival (2016), which led to a Best Cinematography Academy Award nomination for Young. “And now, holy cow, he is shooting a Star Wars film,” says Gawler. “It’s been one of those special relationships everyone dreams of having, where you find a director of photography you connect with, and you go places together.”

Gawler used Resolve for his color grading. He and Young would work alongside each other for a few days, then would meet with Howard. “It is such a big movie, and I was really pleasantly surprised at what a creatively collaborative experience it was,” he notes. “Ron respects Bradford, his editors, his sound mixers and me as a colorist, so he would take in whatever we were presenting to him and then comment. Everyone had such a wonderful energy on the show. It felt like every single person on the VFX team, editorial team, director, producers, Bradford and I were all rowing the boat in the same direction.”

The work Gawler does with Young is kept as natural as possible, with the light that is available. “His work is so good that we generally refrain from doing too much power windowing and secondaries. We only do that when absolutely necessary,” he says. “We try to keep more of a photo-chemical feel to the images, like you would have if you printed on film.”

Young, Gawler contends, is known for a dark, underlit aesthetic. But on this particular film, they didn’t want to go too dark — though it does have Young’s classic underlit, subtle hue. “We were making an effort to print up the image, so it almost felt like it had been flashed in processing,” he explains. “We had to find that balance of having it bright enough to see things we needed to see clearly, without compromising how Bradford shot the movie to begin with. The image is very committed; it’s not the most flexible thing to make his photography look like 20 different things.”

As a result, plenty of time was spent with the on-set lighting. “So, a lot of the work was just staying true to what was done on the day of the shoot,” he adds.

Solo is like most Star Wars films, with diverse locations and setups, though there are a few scenes that stand out in Gawler’s mind, including the one at the beginning of the film with the underground lair of Lady Proxima, which shows tunnels spanning the city. The sequence was shot with a blacklight, with lots of blues and purples. “We had a very narrow bandwidth of color to work with, but we wanted to back away from it feeling too electric to something that felt more organic,” he explains. “We spent a lot of time homing in on what kind of saturation and formality it would have.”

The scene Gawler spent the most time on, though, was the heist aboard a special train that weaves through snow-capped mountains. “That’s the biggest, longest, most cutty action sequence in the entire movie,” he says. “We had all these exterior plates shot in the Dolomites [in Spain]. We spent a tremendous amount of time just trying to get everything to match just right on the cut.”

All told, Gawler estimates the sequence alone contains 600 to 700 cuts. And he had to create a progression, wherein the characters drop down on top of the train before dawn’s first light, when it’s dark and cool, and the heist occurs during sunrise as the train rounds a bend. “We made sure they were happy with how every shot cut from one to the next and how it progressed [time-wise]. It was probably our biggest challenge and our biggest success,” he says. “It really gets the audience going.”

Most of Solo’s scenes were shot on stage, in highly controlled environments. However, scenes that occur on the planet Savareen were filmed in the Canary Islands, where wind and weather became factors, with shifting clouds and light. “I felt that it was one of the few spots in the movie where it was up to the colorist to try and pull all these different types of shots together,” notes Gawler, “and it was beautiful. It felt a little like a Western, with this standoff. It comes right after a chase with the TIE fighters and Millennium Falcon in space, and then Boom! You’re on this desert-like planet with a blaring sun and sand and dust everywhere.”

Another standout for Gawler was the large number of deliverables. Once the master was locked and approved (the grade was done in 4K) with support from Efilm in Hollywood, they had to sit with an IMAX colorist to make sure the work translated properly to that format. Then they moved to Dolby Vision, whose laser projector has a much greater range of contrast and brightness than a halogen digital cinema projector. “I give credit to J Schulte at ILM. He had these output display lookup tables for each flavor of delivery. So, it wasn’t a heavy lift for me to go from what we did at the Ranch to sitting in the Dolby cinema theater, where we spent maybe another three days tweaking everything,” he adds.

And then there was a 3D version and a Dolby 3D version of Solo, along with those for home video, 3D for home video, RealD 3D, and Dolby Vision’s home theater. “Being a colorist from New York, I don’t generally get a lot of tent-pole films with so many different flavors of deliverables,” Gawler says.

But this is not just any tent-pole. It’s Star Wars.

Throughout the project, that fact was always in the back of Gawler ’s mind. “This is a real part of culture — pop culture, film culture. There’s all this lore. You work on other projects and hope the film is going to find an audience. But with Star Wars, there’s no doubt millions of people are going to see it,” he adds.


Karen Maierhofer is a longtime technical writer with more than two decades of experience in segments of the CG and post industries.

Color for Television Series

By Karen Maierhofer

Several years ago I was lucky enough to see Van Gogh’s original The Starry Night oil on canvas at a museum and was awestruck by how rich and vibrant it really was. I had fallen in love with the painting years before after seeing reproductions/reprints, which paled in comparison to the original’s striking colors and beauty. No matter how well done, the reproductions could never duplicate the colors and richness of the original masterpiece.

Just as in the art world, stories told via television are transformed through the use of color. Color grading and color correction help establish a signature look for a series, though that can, and often does, change from one episode to another — or from one scene to another — based on the mood the DP and director want to portray.

Here we delve into this part of the post process and follow a trio of colorists as they set the tone for three very different television series.

Black-ish
Black-ish is an ABC series about a successful African-American couple raising their five children in an affluent, predominantly white neighborhood. Dre, an advertising executive, is proud of his heritage but fears that culture is lost when it comes to his kids.

There is no struggle, however, when it comes to color grading the show, a job that has fallen to colorist Phil Azenzer from The Foundation in Burbank starting with this past season (Season 4).

The show is shot using an Arri Alexa camera. The dailies are then produced by the show’s in-house editor. The files, including the assembly master, are sent to Azenzer, who uses the raw camera files for his color grading, which is done using Blackmagic’s Resolve.

Azenzer starts a scene by rolling into the establishing shot and sets the look there because “you can see all light sources and their color temperatures,” he says. “I get a feel for the composition of the shot and the gradation of shadow to light. I see what light each of the actors is standing in or walking through, and then know how to balance the surrounding coverage.”

In his opinion, networks, for the most part, like their half-hour comedies to be well lit, more chromatic, with less shadow and contrast than an average one-hour drama, in order to create a more inviting, light feel (less somber). “And Black-ish is no different, although because of the subject matter, I think of Black-ish as more of a ‘dramedy,’ and there are scenes where we go for a more dramatic feel,” Azenzer explains.

Black-ish’s main characters are African-American, and the actors’ skin tones vary. “Black-ish creator Kenya Barris is very particular about the black skin tones of the actors, which can be challenging because some tones are more absorbent and others more reflective,” says Azenzer. “You have to have a great balance so everyone’s skin tone feels natural and falls where it’s supposed to.”

Phil Azenzer

Azenzer notes that the makeup department does an excellent job, so he doesn’t have to struggle as much with pulling out the bounce coming off the actors’ skin as a result of their chromatic clothes. He also credits DP Rob Sweeney (with whom he has worked on Six Feet Under and Entourage) with “a beautiful job of lighting that makes my life easier in that regard.”

While color grading the series, Azenzer avoids any yellow in skin tones, per Barris’s direction. “He likes the skin tones to look more natural, more like what they actually are,” he says. “So, basically, the directive was to veer away from yellow and keep it neutral to cool.”

While the colorist follows that direction in most scenes, he also considers the time of day the scene takes place when coloring. “So, if the call is for the shot to be warm, I let it go warm, but more so for the environment than the skin tones,” explains Azenzer.

Most of the show is shot on set, with few outdoor sequences. However, the scenes move around the house (kitchen, living room, bedrooms) as well as at the ad agency where Dre works. “I have some preferred settings that I can usually use as a starting point because of the [general] consistency of the show’s lighting. So, I might ripple through a scene and then just tighten it up from there,” says Azenzer. But my preference as a colorist is not to take shortcuts. I don’t like to plug something in from another episode because I don’t know if, in fact, the lighting is exactly the same. Therefore, I always start from scratch to get a feel for what was shot.”

For instance, shots that take place in Dre’s office play out at various points in the day, so that lighting changes more often.

The office setting contains overhead lighting directly above the conference table, like one would find in a typical conference room. It’s a diffused lighting that is more intense directly over the table and diminishes in intensity as it feathers out over the actors, so the actors are often moving in and out of varying intensities of light on that set. “It’s a matter of finding the right balance so they don’t get washed out and they don’t get [too much shadow] when they are sitting back from the table,” explains Azenzer. “That’s probably the most challenging location for me.”

Alas, things changed somewhat during the last few episodes of the season. Dre and his wife, Rainbow, hit a rough patch in their marriage and separate. Dre moves into a sleek, ultra-modern house in the canyon, with two-story ceilings and 20-foot-tall floor-to-ceiling windows — resulting in a new location for Azenzer. “It was filled with natural light, so the image was a little flat in those scenes and awash with light and a cool aura,” he describes. Azenzer adjusted for this by “putting in extra contrast, double saturation nodes, and keying certain colors to create more color separation, which helps create overall separation and