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Millennium Digital XL camera: development to delivery

By Lance Holte and Daniel Restuccio

Panavision’s Millennium DXL 8K may be one of today’s best digital cinema cameras, but it might also be one of the most misunderstood. Conceived and crafted to the exacting tradition of the company whose cameras captured such films as Lawrence of Arabia and Inception, the Millennium DXL challenges expectations. We recently sat down with Panavision to examine the history, workflow, some new features and how that all fits into a 2017 moviemaking ecosystem.

Announced at Cine Gear 2016, and released for rent through Panavision in January 2017, the Millennium DXL stepped into the digital large format field as, at first impression, a competitor to the Arri Alexa 65. The DXL was the collaborative result of a partnership of three companies: Panavision developed the optics, accessories and some of the electronics; Red Digital Cinema designed the 8K VV (VistaVision) sensor; and Light Iron provided the features, color science and general workflow for the camera system.

The collaboration for the camera first began when Light Iron was acquired by Panavision in 2015. According to Michael Cioni, Light Iron president/Millennium DXL product manager, the increase in 4K and HDR television and theatrical formats like Dolby Vision and Barco Escape created the perfect environment for the three-company partnership. “When Panavision bought Light Iron, our idea was to create a way for Panavision to integrate a production ecosystem into the post world. The DXL rests atop Red’s best tenets, Panavision’s best tenets and Light Iron’s best tenets. We’re partners in this — information can flow freely between post, workflow, color, electronics and data management into cameras, color science, ergonomics, accessories and lenses.”

HDR OLED viewfinder

Now, one year after the first announcement, with projects like the Lionsgate feature adventure Robin Hood, the Fox Searchlight drama Can You Ever Forgive Me?, the CBS crime drama S.W.A.T. and a Samsung campaign shot by Oscar-winner Linus Sandgren under the DXL’s belt, the camera sports an array of new upgrades, features and advanced tools. They include an HDR OLED viewfinder (which they say is the first), wireless control software for iOS, and a new series of lenses. According to Panavision, the new DXL offers “unprecedented development in full production-to-post workflow.”

Preproduction Considerations
With so many high-resolution cameras on the market, why pick the DXL? According to Cioni, cinematographers and their camera crew are no longer the only people that directly interact with cameras. Panavision examined the impact a camera had on each production department — camera assistants, operators, data managers, DITs, editors, and visual effects supervisors. In response to this feedback, they designed DXL to offer custom toolsets for every department. In addition, Panavision wanted to leverage the benefits of their heritage lenses and enable the same glass that photographed ‘Lawrence of Arabia’ to be available for a wider range of today’s filmmakers on DXL.

When Arri first debuted the Alexa 65 in 2014, there were questions about whether such a high-resolution, data-heavy image was necessary or beneficial. But cinematographers jumped on it and have leaned on large format sensors and glass-to-lens pictures — ranging from Doctor Strange to Rogue One — to deliver greater immersiveness, detail and range. It seems that the large format trend is only accelerating, particularly among filmmakers who are interested in the optical magnification, depth of field and field-of-view characteristics that only large format photography offers.

Kramer Morgenthau

“I think large format is the future of cinematography for the big screen,” says cinematographer Kramer Morgenthau, who shot with the DXL in 2016. “[Large format cinematography] gives more of a feeling of the way human vision is. And so, it’s more cinematic. Same thing with anamorphic glass — anamorphic does a similar thing, and that’s one of the reasons why people love it. The most important thing is the glass, and then the support, and then the user-friendliness of the camera to move quickly. But these are all important.”

The DXL comes to market offering a myriad of creative choice for filmmakers. Among the large format cameras, the Millennium DXL aims to be the crème de la crème — it’s built around an 46mm 8192×4320 Red VV sensor, custom Panavision large format spherical and anamorphic lenses, wrapped in camera department-friendly electronics, using proprietary color science — all of which complements a mixed camera environment.

“The beauty of digital, and this camera in particular, is that DXL actually stands for ‘digital extra light.’ With a core body weight of only 10 pounds, and with its small form factor, I’ve seen DXL used in the back seat of a car as well as to capture the most incredible helicopter scenes,” Cioni notes.

With the help of Light Iron, Panavision developed a tool to match DXL footage to Panavised Red Weapon cameras. Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 used Red Weapon 8K VV Cameras with Panavision Primo 70 lenses. “There are shows like Netflix’s 13 Reasons Why [Season Two] that combined this special matching of the DXL and the Red Helium sensor based on the workflow of the show,” Cioni notes. “They’re shooting [the second season] with two DXLs as their primary camera, and they have two 8K Red cameras with Helium sensors, and they match each other.”

If you are thinking the Millennium DXL will bust your budget, think again. Like many Panavision cameras, the DXL is exclusively leasable through Panavision, but Cioni says they’re happy to help filmmakers to build the right package and workflow. “A lot of budgetary expense can be avoided with a more efficient workflow. Once customers learn how DXL streamlines the entire imaging chain, a DXL package might not be out of reach. We always work with customers to build the right package at a competitive price,” he says.

Using the DXL in Production
The DXL could be perceived as a classic dolly Panavision camera, especially with the large format moniker. “Not true,” says Morgenthau, who shot test footage with the camera slung over his shoulder in the back seat of a car.

He continues, “I sat in the back of a car and handheld it — in the back of a convertible. It’s very ergonomic and user-friendly. I think what’s exciting about the Millennium: its size and integration with technology, and the choice of lenses that you get with the Panavision lens family.”

Panavision’s fleet of large format lenses, many of which date back to the 1950s, made the company uniquely equipped to begin development on the new series of large format optics. To be available by the end of 2017, the Primo Artiste lenses are a full series of T/1.8 Primes — the fastest optics available for large format cinematography — with a completely internalized motor and included metadata capture. Additionally, the Primo Artiste lenses can be outfitted with an anamorphic glass attachment that retains the spherical nature of the base lens, yet induces anamorphic artifacts like directional flares and distorted bokeh.

Another new addition to the DXL is the earlier mentioned Panavision’s HDR OLED Primo viewfinder. Offering 600-nit brightness, image smoothing and optics to limit eye fatigue, the viewfinder also boasts a theoretical contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1. Like other elements on the camera, the Primo viewfinder was the result of extensive polling and camera operator feedback. “Spearheaded by Panavision’s Haluki Sadahiro and Dominick Aiello, we went to operators and asked them everything we could about what makes a good viewfinder,” notes Cioni. “Guiding an industry game-changing product meant we went through multiple iterations. We showed the first Primo HDR prototype version in November 2016, and after six months of field testing, the final version is both better and simpler, and it’s all thanks to user feedback.”

Michael Cioni

In response to the growing popularity of HDR delivery, Light Iron also provides a powerful on-set HDR viewing solution. The HDR Village cart is built with a 4K HDR Sony monitor with numerous video inputs. The system can simultaneously display A and B camera feeds in high dynamic range and standard dynamic range on four different split quadrants. This enables cinematographers to evaluate their images and better prepare for multi-format color grading in post, given that most HDR projects are also required to deliver in SDR.

Post Production
The camera captures R3D files, the same as any other Red camera, but does have metadata that is unique to the DXL, ranging from color science to lens information. It also uses Light Iron’s set of color matrices designed specifically for the DXL: Light Iron Color.

Designed by Light Iron supervising colorist Ian Vertovec, Light Iron Color deviates from traditional digital color matrices by following in the footsteps of film stock philosophy instead of direct replication of how colors look in nature. Cioni likens Light Iron Color to Kodak’s approach to film. “Kodak tried to make different film stocks for different intentions. Since one film stock cannot satisfy every creative intention, DXL is designed to allow look transforms that users can choose, export and integrate into the post process. They come in the form of cube lookup tables and are all non-destructive.”

Light Iron Color can be adjusted and tweaked by the user or by Light Iron, which Cioni says has been done on many shows. The ability to adjust Light Iron Color to fit a particular project is also useful on shows that shoot with multiple camera types. Though Light Iron Color was designed specifically for the Millennium DXL, Light Iron has used it on other cameras — including the Sony A7, and Reds with Helium and Dragon sensors — to ensure that all the footage matches as closely as possible.

While it’s possible to cut with high-resolution media online with a blazing fast workstation and storage solution, it’s a lot trickier to edit online with 8K media in a post production environment that often requires multiple editors, assistants, VFX editors, post PAs and more. The good news is that the DXL records onboard low-bitrate proxy media (ProRes or DNx) for offline editorial while simultaneously recording R3Ds without requiring the use of an external recorder.

Cioni’s optimal camera recording setup for editorial is 5:1 compression for the R3Ds alongside 2K ProRes LT files. He explains, “My rule of thumb is to record super high and super low. And if I have high-res and low-res and I need to make something else, I can generate that somewhere in the middle from the R3Ds. But as long as I have the bottom and the top, I’m good.”

Storage is also a major post consideration. An hour of 8192×4320 R3Ds at 23.976fps runs in the 1TB/hour range — that number may vary, depending on the R3D compression, but when compared to an hour of 6560×3100 Arriraw footage, which lands at 2.6TB an hour, the Millennium DXL’s lighter R3D workflow can be very attractive.

Conform and Delivery
One significant aspect of the Millennium DXL workflow is that even though the camera’s sensor, body, glass and other pipeline tools are all recently developed, R3D conform and delivery workflows remain tried and true. The onboard proxy media exactly matches the R3Ds by name and timecode, and since Light Iron Color is non-destructive, the conform and color-prep process is simple and adjustable, whether the conform is done with Adobe, Blackmagic, Avid or other software.

Additionally, since Red media can be imported into almost all major visual effects applications, it’s possible to work with the raw R3Ds as VFX plates. This retains the lens and camera metadata for better camera tracking and optical effects, as well as providing the flexibility of working with Light Iron Color turned on or off, and the 8K R3Ds are still lighter than working with 4K (as is the VFX trend) DPX or EXR plates. The resolution also affords enormous space for opticals and stabilization in a 4K master.

4K is the increasingly common delivery resolution among studios, networks and over-the-top content distributors, but in a world of constant remastering and an exponential increase in television and display resolutions, the benefit in future-proofing a picture is easily apparent. Baselight, Resolve, Rio and other grading and finishing applications can handle 8K resolutions, and even if the final project is only rendered at 4K now, conforming and grading in 8K ensures the picture will be future-proofed for some time. It’s a simple task to re-export a 6K or 8K master when those resolutions become the standard years down the line.

After having played with DXL footage provided by Light Iron, it was surprising how straightforward the workflow seems. For a very small production, the trickiest part is the requirement of a powerful workstation — or sets of workstations — to conform and play 8K Red media, with a mix of (likely) 4K VFX shots, graphics and overlays. Michael Cioni notes, “[Everyone] already knows a RedCode workflow. They don’t have to learn it, I could show the DXL to anyone who has a Red Raven and in 30 seconds they’ll confidently say, ‘I got this.’”

2017 HPA Engineering Excellence Award winners

The HPA has announced the winners of the 2017 Engineering Excellence Award. Colorfront, Dolby, SGO and Red Digital Cinema will be awarded this year’s honor, which recognizes “outstanding technical and creative ingenuity in media, content production, finishing, distribution and/or archiving.”

The awards will be presented November 16, 2017 at the 12th annual HPA Awards show in Los Angeles.

The winners of the 2017 HPA Engineering Excellence Award are:

Colorfront Engine
An automatically managed, ACES-compliant color pipeline that brings plug-and-play simplicity to complex production requirements, Colorfront Engine ensures image integrity from on-set to the finished product.

Dolby Vision Post Production Tools
Dolby Vision Post Production Tools integrate into existing color grading workflows for both cinema and home deliverable grading, preserving more of what the camera originally captured and limiting creative trade-offs.

SGO’s Mistika VR
Mistika VR is SGO’s latest development and is an affordable VR-focused solution with realtime stitching capabilities using SGO’s optical flow technology.

Red’s Weapon 8K Vista Vision
Weapon with the Dragon 8K VV sensor delivers stunning resolution and image quality, and at 35 megapixels, 8K offers 17x more resolution than HD and over 4x more than 4K.

In addition, honorable mentions will also be awarded to Canon USA for Critical Viewing Reference Displays and Eizo for the ColorEdge CG318-4K.

Joachim Zell, who chairs the committee for this award, said, “Entries for the Engineering Excellence Award were at one of the highest levels ever, on a par with last year’s record breaker, and we saw a variety of serious technologies. The HPA Engineering Excellence Award is meaningful to those who present, those who judge, and the industry. It sounds a bit cliché to say that we had a very tight outcome, and it was a really competitive field this year. Congratulations to the winners and to the nominees for another great year.”

The HPA Awards will also recognize excellence in 12 craft categories, covering color grading, editing, sound and visual effects, and Larry Chernoff will receive the 2017 HPA Lifetime Achievement award.

Red shipping Epic-W and new Weapon cameras

Red Digital Cinema is shipping two new cameras — the Red Epic-W and the newest Weapon. Both feature the compact design of the DSMC2 form factor, as well as the new Helium 8K S35 sensor. Helium, Red’s latest sensor technology, allows for higher resolution in an S35 frame while maintaining the dynamic range found in the Red Dragon sensor.

The Epic-W 8K S35 captures 8K full-frame motion at up to 30fps, produces ultra-detailed 35.4 megapixel stills and offers Super 35 lens coverage. Epic-W is capable of data speeds up to 275 MB/s and is priced at $29,500 (for the camera Brain).

red_weapon_8k_s35The Weapon 8K S35 is the latest option in the Weapon line of cameras, featuring data speeds up to 300MB/s, the ability to capture 8K full frame motion at up to 60fps, and a sensor upgrade path to the Red Dragon 8K VV. It is available for the same price as the Weapon 6K with Red Dragon sensor, at $49,500 for the Brain.

“From the very beginning, we’ve strived to not only develop the best imaging technology on the planet, but also make it available to as many shooters as possible,” Says Jarred Land, President of Red Digital Cinema. “The Weapon remains our premier camera… and now comes with the option to either go with the 8K Helium sensor or 6K Dragon sensor.

Red is offering special pricing on these new cameras for registered Red camera owners — as well as those that have placed a deposit for Red Raven and Scarlet-W — starting at $14,500 for the Epic-W. Click here for more info.

In related news, Red has pre-announced that it will introduce an improved image processing pipeline, including new color science, in the coming weeks. These improvements will be available in-camera on all Brains with a Helium sensor, and will be available to all footage shot on Redcameras in post production. The new image processing pipeline will be made available soon via free firmware and software upgrades.

All of Red’s DSMC2 cameras shoot simultaneous RedCode RAW and Apple ProRes or Avid DNxHD/HR.

New large-format digital camera from Panavision

Panavision will be showing three working prototypes and a demo reel of its new Millennium DXL large-format digital camera at this weekend’s Cine Gear Expo in Los Angeles. Three companies came together to share their technology in the creation of the DXL — Panavision supplied large format optics and modular accessories, Red Digital Cinema brought an 8K sensor, and a new color science and optimized workflow came from Light Iron. They are clear that this isn’t just a “Panavised” Red camera. The sensor is a Red sensor, but the body is all Panavision.

While at Cine Gear, Panavision will be collecting feedback from the community, and that will continue through the development process. For those of you not on the West Coast, keep an eye out for shows on the East Coast and internationally this fall.

According to Kim Snyder, president/CEO of Panavision, DXL is offered in response to heightened demand for large-format cinematography. “Our fleet of large format and anamorphic lenses has been extremely popular in this resurgence of large format capture, and with the Millennium DXL, cinematographers now can capture more than 20 megapixels of true 4K anamorphic pictures.”

At the core of DXL is a proprietary image mapping process called Light Iron Color, which provides a cinematic look directly out of the camera. The camera body was designed with ergonomics and temperature management in mind: its mid-size form factor is extra lightweight, yet allows for an airflow system that dissipates heat quietly. DXL also has built-in, crew-friendly, modular accessories to improve versatility and quick changeovers during production.

“Our streamlined workflow includes simultaneous recording of 4K proxy files — ProRes or DNx —alongside the 8K RAW files,” explains Michael Cioni, DXL product director and president of Light Iron, a Panavision company. “This creates a direct-to-edit workflow with the NLE of your choice. Using efficient SSD media, the cost of capturing 8K files with DXL is more economical than using third-party recorders on lower resolution cameras. Light Iron Color and our Panavised Outpost Systems provide a workflow for DXL that can be easily adopted for shooting large format photography.”

Cioni says that cinematographers will notice how 8K acquisition creates images that are smoother, not sharper. “With a full frame 35-megapixel imager, DXL provides a super-sampled image, much like large format still photography, so that its smoothness is retained whether you finish in 4K, 2K, or HD.”

The Millennium DXL will be rented exclusively through Panavision and will be available in early 2017.

Quick Chat: Wildlife DP Andy Casagrande

Andy Brandy Casagrande IV, (a.k.a., ABC4) is a two-time Emmy Award-winning cinematographer, field producer and television presenter who specializes in wildlife documentaries.

From king cobras and killer whales to great whites sharks and polar bears, Casagrande’s cinematography and unorthodox Continue reading

Red DSMC2 product line to support Avid DNxHR, DNxHD

The Avid DNxHR and Avid DNxHD recording formats will soon be supported by Red Digital Cinema’s DSMC2 line of cameras, including Weapon, Scarlet-W and Red Raven.

Avid’s DNxHR and DNxHD are known for their ability to reduce storage and bandwidth requirements, and Avid DNxHD has been accepted by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers as the foundation format for the VC-3 standard.

Additionally, these formats offer a direct-to-edit experience for professionals looking to preserve image quality and leverage their investments in Avid in-house production systems. With Avid codecs being an in-camera tool within Red cameras, users will be able to shoot RedCode RAW simultaneously alongside Avid’s DNxHR and DNxHD.

The Avid DNxHR and DNxHD formats will be added to the existing recording capability that Red’s DSMC2 cameras currently offer via RedCode RAW and Apple ProRes formats. Avid DNxHR and Avid DNxHD will be made available via a free firmware upgrade in mid-2016.

Red adds 5K Scarlet-W to Dragon line

Red Digital Cinema is now offering the Scarlet-W 5K camera to its Dragon line, which includes the Red Raven and Weapon.

The Scarlet-W features a Red Dragon sensor, interchangeable lens mounts, simultaneous recording in RedCode RAW and Apple ProRes formats, an intelligent OLPF system and in-camera 3D-LUT outputs.

The cost is $9,950 for the camera Brain and $14,500 for the complete Base I/O V-Lock Package.

Scarlet-W captures 5K at 60fps, 4K at 150fps or 2K at 300fps with Redcode RAW. Its wide dynamic range produces cinema-quality images with rich natural color. Scarlet-W also offers an upgrade path to Weapon and uses the DSMC2 line of accessories — compatible with both Red Raven and Weapon cameras — giving shooters the option to move between camera systems without having to purchase all new gear.

Scarlet-W comes on the heels of the recent 4.5K Red Raven, which is Red’s most compact and lightweight camera. It is priced at $5,950 for the Brain only, with full packages starting at $9,750.

If you have placed a Red Raven order, no worries, the company says you can easily change to a pre-order. Scarlet-W is estimated to begin shipping in February 2016, and deposits are now being accepted.

New Red Raven camera: lightweight, features Dragon sensor, RedCode Raw

Red Digital Cinema has a new pro camera, the Red Raven, which is the company’s lightest (3.5 pounds) and most compact camera to date. Because of its form factor, the camera is suited for documentaries, online content creation, indie filmmaking, and use with drones or gimbals.

The Red Raven features the 4K Red Dragon sensor and is capable of recording RedCode RAW (R3D) in 4K at up to 120fps and in 2K at up to 240fps. Red Raven also offers Red’s renowned color science and is capable of recording RedCode Raw and Apple ProRes simultaneously — ensuring shooters get the best image quality possible in any format.

Pricing for the camera Brain only starts at $5,950; complete packages come in under $10,000.

RED RAVEN ANGLE 3

“Red Raven is a new category in our line-up,” says Jarred Land, president of Red Digital Cinema. “It’s a younger, hungrier, more spirited member of the Red family, with a bit of a chip on its shoulder, ready to take on the entire sub-$10K market with images that users will be incredibly proud of.”

Red Raven will begin shipping in February 2016, and deposits are now being accepted. Customers will be given a choice of purchasing the Brain only and building a kit that best fits their needs or choosing a complete package. The Red Raven Base I/O Package offers content creators the tools they need, while the Red Raven JetPack Package is specifically designed for use with handheld gimbals, drones, jibs and cranes.

Pricing for complete packages are as follows:

– Red Raven Jetpack Package: $9,750 ($1,000 deposit) and ships February 2016. It includes a Raven Brain, JetPack, battery belt clip, Red Mini-Mag 120GB, 4.7-inch LCD, AC Power Adaptor, and a DSMC2 outrigger handle.

– Red Raven I/O Package: $9,950 ($1,000 deposit) and ships March 2016. It includes a Red Raven Brain, Base I/O V-Lock expander, Red Mini-Mag 120GB, 4.7-inch LCD, AC power adaptor and a DSMC2 universal handle.

Deposits can be made online at red.com, or through a Red authorized dealer.

Red debuts Weapon

Leveraging the 6K Red Dragon sensor, Red Digital Cinema introduced Weapon at NAB, their smallest and most lightweight camera Brain to date — the Brain refers to the part of the camera where the sensor lives. Combining a refined color science with the dynamic range of the 19-megapixel Red Dragon sensor, Weapon features a variety of performance enhancements over its siblings, including simultaneous on-board RedCode Raw and Apple ProRes recording (4444 XQ, 4444, 422 HQ, 422 and 422 LT) as well as 1D and 3D LUTs for precise color matching.

The brain itself has been completely redesigned for modular performance, with on-board audio recording, improved thermal management, new interchangeable OLPFs with smart detection, an integrated top plate and built-in Wi-Fi functionality. Capable of faster data rates with the Red Mini-Mag SSD cards, Weapon also offers tethered streaming of ProRes content via Ethernet while concurrently archiving R3D masters. Among Weapon’s operating improvements are automatic sensor calibration with a wider operating band for sensor temperature and improved low light performance.

Offered in magnesium or carbon fiber editions, Weapon is available as a new camera option or as an upgrade for existing customers.