Tag Archives: audio post production

Mixing the sounds of history for Marshall

By Jennifer Walden

Director Reginald Hudlin’s courtroom drama Marshall tells the story of Thurgood Marshall (Chadwick Boseman) during his early career as a lawyer. The film centers on a case Marshall took in Connecticut in the early 1940s. He defended a black chauffeur named Joseph Spell (Sterling K. Brown) who was charged with attempted murder and sexual assault of his rich, white employer Eleanor Strubing (Kate Hudson).

At that time, racial discrimination and segregation were widespread even in the North, and Marshall helped to shed light on racial inequality by taking on Spell’s case and making sure he got a fair trial. It’s a landmark court case that is not only of huge historical consequence but is still relevant today.

Mixers Anna Behlmer and Craig Mann

Marshall is so significant right now with what’s happening in the world,” says Oscar-nominated re-recording mixer Anna Behlmer, who handled the effects on the film. “It’s not often that you get to work on a biographical film of someone who lived and breathed and did amazing things as far as freedom for minorities. Marshall began the NAACP and argued Brown vs. Dept. of Education for stopping the segregation of the schools. So, in that respect, I felt the weight and the significance of this film.”

Oscar-winning supervising sound editor/re-recording mixer Craig Mann handled the dialogue and music. Behlmer and Mann mixed Marshall in 5.1 surround on a Euphonix System 5 console on Stage 2 at Technicolor at Paramount in Hollywood.

In the film, crowds gather on the steps outside the courthouse — a mixture of supporters and opponents shouting their opinions on the case. When dealing with shouting crowds in a film, Mann likes to record the loop group for those scenes outside. “We recorded in Technicolor’s backlot, which gives a nice slap off all the buildings,” says Mann, who miked the group from two different perspectives to capture the feeling that they’re actually outside. For the close-mic rig, Mann used an L-C-R setup with two Schoeps CMC641s for left and right and a CMIT 5U for center, feeding into a TASCAM HSP-82 8-channel recorder.

“We used the CMIT 5U mic because that was the production boom mic and we knew we’d be intermingling our recordings with the production sound, because they recorded some sound on the courthouse stairs,” says Mann. “We matched that up so that it would anchor everything in the center.”

For the distant rig, Mann went with a Sanken CSS-5 set to record in stereo, feeding a Sound Devices 722. Since they were running two setups simultaneously, Mann says they beeped everyone with a bullhorn to get slate sync for the two rigs. Then to match the timing of the chanting with production sound, they had a playback rig with eight headphone feeds out to chosen leaders from the 20-person loop group. “The people wearing headphones could sync up to the production chanting and those without headphones followed along with the people who had them on.”

Inside the courtroom, the atmosphere is quiet and tense. Mann recorded the loop group (inside the studio this time) reacting as non-verbally as possible. “We wanted to use the people in the gallery as a tool for tension. We do all of that without being too heavy handed, or too hammy,” he says.

Sound Effects
On the effects side, the Foley — provided by Foley artist John Sievert and his team at JRS Productions in Toronto — was a key element in the courtroom scenes. Each chair creak and paper shuffle plays to help emphasize the drama. Behlmer references a quiet scene in which Thurgood is arguing with his other attorney defending the case, Sam Friedman (Josh Gad). “They weren’t arguing with their voices. Instead, they were shuffling papers and shoving things back and forth. The defendant even asks if everything is ok with them. Those sounds helped to convey what was going on without them speaking,” she says.

You can hear the chair creak as Judge Foster (James Cromwell) leans forward and raises an eyebrow and hear people in the gallery shifting in their seats as they listen to difficult testimony or shocking revelations. “Something as simple as people shifting on the bench to underscore how uncomfortable the moment was, those sounds go a long way when you do a film like this,” says Behlmer.

During the testimony, there are flashback sequences that illustrate each person’s perception of what happened during the events in question. The flashback effect is partially created through the picture (the flashbacks are colored differently) and partially through sound. Mann notes that early on, they made the decision to omit most of the sounds during the flashbacks so that the testimony wouldn’t be overshadowed.

“The spoken word was so important,” adds Behlmer. “It was all about clarity, and it was about silence and tension. There were revelations in the courtroom that made people gasp and then there were uncomfortable pauses. There was a delicacy with which this mix had to be done, especially with regards to Foley. When a film is really quiet and delicate and tense, then every little nuance is important.”

Away from the courthouse, the film has a bit of fun. There’s a jazz club scene in which Thurgood and his friends cut loose for the evening. A band and a singer perform on stage to a packed club. The crowd is lively. Men and women are talking and laughing and there’s the sound of glasses clinking. Behlmer mixed the crowds by following the camera movement to reinforce what’s on-screen.

Music
On the music side, Mann’s challenge was to get the brass — the trumpet and trombone — to sit in a space that didn’t interfere too much with the dialogue. On the other hand, Mann still wanted the music to feel exciting. “We had to get the track all jazz-clubbed up. It was about finding a reverb that was believable for the space. It was about putting the vocals and brass upfront and having the drums and bass be accompaniment.”

Having the stems helped Mann to not only mix the music against the dialogue but to also fit the music to the image on-screen. During the performance, the camera is close-up and sweeping along the band. Mann used the music stems to pan the instruments to match the scene. The shot cuts away from the performance to Thurgood and his friends at a table in the back of the club. Using the stems, Mann could duck out of the singer’s vocals and other louder elements to make way for the dialogue. “The music was very dynamic. We had to be careful that it didn’t interfere too much with the dialogue, but at the same time we wanted it to play.”

On the score, Mann used Exponential Audio’s R4 reverb to set the music back into the mix. “I set it back a bit farther than I normally would have just to give it some space, so that I didn’t have to turn it down for dialogue clarity. It got it to shine but it was a little distant compared to what it was intended to be.”

Behlmer and Mann feel the mix was pretty straightforward. Their biggest obstacle was the schedule. The film had to be mixed in just ten days. “I didn’t even have pre-dubs. It was just hang and go. I was hearing everything for the first time when I sat down to mix it — final mix it,” explains Behlmer.

With Mann working the music and dialogue faders, co-supervising sound editor Bruce Tanis was supplying Behlmer with elements she needed during the final mix. “I would say Bruce was my most valuable asset. He’s the MVP of Marshall for the effects side of the board,” she says.

On the dialogue side, Mann says his gear MVP was iZotope RX 6. With so many quiet moments, the dialogue was exposed. It played prominently, without music or busy backgrounds to help hide any flaws. And the director wanted to preserve the on-camera performances so ADR was not an option.

“We tried to use alts to work our way out of a few problems, and we were successful. But there were a few shots in the courtroom that began as tight shots on boom and then cuts wide, so the boom had to pull back and we had to jump onto the lavs there,” concludes Mann. “Having iZotope to help tie those together, so that the cut was imperceptible, was key.”


Jennifer Walden is a NJ-based audio engineer and writer. Follow her on Twitter @audiojeney.

MPSE to present John Paul Fasal with Career Achievement Award

The Motion Picture Sound Editors (MPSE) will present sound designer and sound recordist John Paul Fasal with its 2018 MPSE Career Achievement Award. A 30-year veteran of the sound industry, Fasal has contributed to more than 150 motion pictures and is best known for his work in field recording.

Among his many credits are Top Gun, Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World, Interstellar, The Dark Knight, American Sniper and this year’s Dunkirk. Fasal will receive his award at the MPSE Golden Reel Awards ceremony, February 18, 2018 in Los Angeles.

“John is a master of his craft, an innovator who has pioneered many new recording techniques, and a restless, creative spirit who will stop at nothing to capture the next great sound,” says MPSE president Tom McCarthy.

The MPSE Career Achievement Award recognizes “sound artists who have distinguished themselves by meritorious works as both an individual and fellow contributor to the art of sound for feature film, television and gaming and for setting an example of excellence for others to follow.”

Fasal joins a distinguished list of sound innovators, including 2017 Career Achievement recipient Harry Cohen, Richard King, John Roesch, Skip Lievsay, Randy Thom, Larry Singer, Walter Murch and George Watters II.

“Sound artists typically work behind the scenes, out of the limelight, and so to be recognized in this way by my peers is humbling,” says Fasal. “It is an honor to join the past recipients of this award, many of whom are both colleagues and friends.”

Fasal began his career as a musician and songwriter, but gravitated toward post production sound in the 1980s. Among his first big successes was Top Gun for which he recorded and designed many of the memorable jet aircraft sound effects. He has been a member of the sound teams on several films that have won Academy Awards in sound categories, including Inception, The Dark Knight, Letters From Iwo Jima, Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World, The Hunt for Red October and Pearl Harbor.

Fasal has worked as a sound designer and recordist throughout his career, but in recent years has increasingly focused on field recording. He enjoys especially high regard for his ability to capture the sounds of planes, ships, automobiles and military weaponry. “The equipment has changed dramatically over the course of my career, but the philosophy behind the craft remains the same,” he says. “It still involves the layering of sounds to create a sonic picture and help tell the story.”

 

Sonic Union adds Bryant Park studio targeting immersive, broadcast work

New York audio house Sonic Union has launched a new studio and creative lab. The uptown location, which overlooks Bryant Park, will focus on emerging spatial and interactive audio work, as well as continued work with broadcast clients. The expansion is led by principal mix engineer/sound designer Joe O’Connell, now partnered with original Sonic Union founders/mix engineers Michael Marinelli and Steve Rosen and their staff, who will work out of both its Union Square and Bryant Park locations. O’Connell helmed sound company Blast as co-founder, and has now teamed up with Sonic Union.

In other staffing news, mix engineer Owen Shearer advances to also serve as technical director, with an emphasis on VR and immersive audio. Former Blast EP Carolyn Mandlavitz has joined as Sonic Union Bryant Park studio director. Executive creative producer Halle Petro, formerly senior producer at Nylon Studios, will support both locations.

The new studio, which features three Dolby Atmos rooms, was created and developed by Ilan Ohayon of IOAD (Architect of Record), with architectural design by Raya Ani of RAW-NYC. Ani also designed Sonic’s Union Square studio.

“We’re installing over 30 of the new ‘active’ JBL System 7 speakers,” reports O’Connell. “Our order includes some of the first of these amazing self-powered speakers. JBL flew a technician from Indianapolis to personally inspect each one on site to ensure it will perform as intended for our launch. Additionally, we created our own proprietary mounting hardware for the installation as JBL is still in development with their own. We’ll also be running the latest release of Pro Tools (12.8) featuring tools for Dolby Atmos and other immersive applications. These types of installations really are not easy as retrofits. We have been able to do something really unique, flexible and highly functional by building from scratch.”

Working as one team across two locations, this emerging creative audio production arm will also include a roster of talent outside of the core staff engineering roles. The team will now be integrated to handle non-traditional immersive VR, AR and experiential audio planning and coding, in addition to casting, production music supervision, extended sound design and production assignments.

Main Image Caption: (L-R) Halle Petro, Steve Rosen, Owen Shearer, Joe O’Connell, Adam Barone, Carolyn Mandlavitz, Brian Goodheart, Michael Marinelli and Eugene Green.

 

The sound of Netflix’s The Defenders

By Jennifer Walden

Netflix’s The Defenders combines the stories of four different Marvel shows already on the streaming service: Daredevil, Iron Fist, Luke Cage and Jessica Jones. In the new show, the previously independent superheroes find themselves all wanting to battle the same foe —a cultish organization called The Hand, which plans to destroy New York City. Putting their differences aside, the superheroes band together to protect their beloved city.

Supervising sound editor Lauren Stephens, who works at Technicolor at Paramount, has earned two Emmy nominations for her sound editing work on Daredevil. And she supervised the sound for each of the aforementioned Marvel series, with the exception of Jessica Jones. So when it came to designing The Defenders she was very conscious of maintaining the specific sonic characteristics they had already established.

“We were dedicated to preserving the palette of each of the previous Marvel characters’ neighborhoods and sound effects,” she explains. “In The Defenders, we wanted viewers of the individual series to recognize the sound of Luke’s Harlem and Daredevil’s Hell’s Kitchen, for example. In addition, we kept continuity for all of the fight material and design work established in the previous four series. I can’t think of another series besides Better Call Saul that borrows directly from its predecessors’ sound work.”

But it wasn’t all borrowed material. Eventually, Luke Cage (Mike Colter), Daredevil (Charlie Cox), Jessica Jones (Krysten Ritter), Iron Fist (Finn Jones) and Elektra Natchios (Elodie Yung) come together to fight The Hand’s leader Alexandra Reid (Sigourney Weaver). “We experience new locations, and new fighting techniques and styles,” says Stephens. “Not to mention that half the city gets destroyed by The Hand. We haven’t had that happen in the previous series.”

Even though these Netflix/Marvel series are based on superheroes, the sound isn’t overly sci-fi. It’s as though the superheroes have more practical superhuman abilities. Stephens says their fight sounds are all real punches and impacts, with some design elements added only when needed, such as when Iron Fist’s iron fist is activated. “At the heart of our punches, for instance, is the sound of a real fist striking a side of beef,” she says. “It sounds like you’d expect, and then we amp it up when we mix. We record a ton of cloth movement and bodies scraping and sliding and tumbling in Foley. Those elements connect us to the humans on-screen.”

Since most of the violence plays out in hand-to-hand combat, it takes a lot of editing to make those fight scenes, and it involves contributions from several sound departments. Stephens has her hard effects team — led by sound designer Jordon Wilby (who has worked on all the Netflix/Marvel series) cut sound effects for every single punch, grab, flip, throw and land. In addition, they cut metal shings and whooshes, impacts and drops for weapons, crashes and bumps into walls and furniture, and all the gunshot material.

Stephens then has the Technicolor Foley team — Foley artists Zane Bruce and Lindsay Pepper and mixer Antony Zeller —cover all the footsteps, cloth “scuffle,” wall bumps, body falls and grabs. Additionally, she has dialogue editor Christian Buenaventura clean up any dialogue that occurs within or around the fight scenes. With group ADR, they replace every grunt and effort for each individual in the fight so that they have ultimate control over every element during the mix.

Stephens finds Gallery’s SpotStudio to be very helpful for cueing all the group ADR. “I shoot a lot of group ADR for the fights and to help create the right populated feel for NYC. SpotStudio is a slick program that interfaces well with Avid’s Pro Tools. It grabs timecode location of ADR cues and can then output that to many word processing programs. Personally, I use FileMaker Pro. I can make great cuesheets that are easy to format and use for engineers and talent.”

All that effort results in fight scenes that feel “relentless and painful,” says Stephens. “I want them to have movement, tons of detail and a wide range of dynamics. I want the fights to sound great wherever our fans are listening.”

The most challenging fight in The Defenders happens in the season finale, when the superheroes fight The Hand in the sublevels of a building. “That underground fight was the toughest simply because it was endless and shot with a 360-degree turn. I focused on what was on-screen and continued those sounds just until the action passed out of frame. This kept our tracks from getting too cluttered but still gives us the right idea that 60 people are going at it,” concludes Stephens

Audio post vet Paul Rodriguez has passed away

It is with a heavy heart that we share the news that post sound vet and all-around nice guy Paul Rodriguez passed away September 26th in Los Angeles of cardiac arrest after a brief hospitalization. He was 65.

Rodriguez was president of South Lake Audio Services and VP of audio services and development at Roundabout Entertainment in Burbank where he oversaw post production sound for projects including HBO’s Westworld. He was also a long-time board member of the Motion Picture Sound Editors (MPSE) and served as its treasurer for eight years. He produced the organizations’ annual MPSE Golden Reel Awards ceremony.

An active member of the professional sound community for more than 30 years, Rodriguez served in executive, sales and creative capacities at Todd-AO/Soundelux, Wilshire Stages, 4MC and EFX Systems. He was also co-owner of the Eagle Eye Film Company, a supplier of picture editing systems. He joined Roundabout Entertainment in 2015. Known for his infectious humor and gregarious personality, Rodriguez was a tireless ambassador for the art of entertainment sound and enjoyed universal respect and affection among his industry colleagues and friends.

“Paul will be remembered for the energy, wisdom and true dedication he gave to the sound industry,” said MPSE president Tom McCarthy. “His passing leaves a great void on our board and in the hearts of our members.”

postPerspective had the opportunity to interview Paul at NAB this past April. He was funny and smart and a pleasure to be around. His positive attitude and humor were contagious.

Rodriguez is survived by his son Hunter, daughter-in-law Abbie and granddaughter Charlie; daughter Rachael and son-in-law Manny Wong; daughter Alexa and her partner James Gill; his former wife, Catheryn Rodriguez; and several sisters.

Donations in Rodriguez’s name may be made to Montrose Church, Best Friends Animal Society or Alzheimer’s Association.

 

 

Eleven’s Ben Freer celebrates 10 years, Jordan Meltzer now mixer

Eleven, a Santa Monica-based audio boutique, has some mixer news. Ben Freer is celebrating his 10th year with the studio, and Jordan Meltzer has been promoted to mixer and sound designer.

A Manchester-native with a California upbringing, Freer was inspired by all things sound from a young age and was first introduced to Eleven as an intern in 2007. Mentored by Eleven founder/mixer Jeff Payne and quickly climbing the ranks to become an official staff member the same year. Freer has mixed for renowned clients in the advertising and multimedia industries, including Toyota, GMC, T-Mobile, Nike, H&R Block, The Weeknd and Lorde.

“When I started at Eleven, I didn’t know much about audio mixing, I just knew that I wanted to immerse myself in it,” says Freer. “Working with the industry’s best and eventually getting my own mix room has been an incredibly humbling experience.”

Los Angeles native Jordan Meltzer got hooked on sound and began gravitating toward the craft after seeing The Who perform at the Hollywood Bowl at age 9. He played in bands while growing up in the San Fernando Valley, eventually completing his BA in audio post production from Emerson College. After joining Eleven as an intern, similar to Freer, he climbed the ranks and took on a newfound role as assistant mixer, building his portfolio on a variety of films and commercials with clients HP, Dodge, Disney, FitBit and Sam Smith. Meltzer’s contributions led him to a recent promotion as mixer and sound designer.

“Climbing the Eleven ladder has been fulfilling, satisfying and challenging,” says Meltzer. “I remember sitting in the studio as an intern with Ben and Jeff, trying to learn and absorb it all. I always saw myself sitting in the chair, and it’s truly an honor to now be recognized as a mixer at such a warm, supportive and creative company.”

Main Image: L-R: Ben Freer and Jordan Meltzer

Emmy Awards: American Horror Story: Roanoke

A chat with supervising sound editor Gary Megregian

By Jennifer Walden

Moving across the country and buying a new house is an exciting and scary process, but when it starts raining teeth at that new residence the scary factor pretty much makes the exciting feelings void. That’s the situation that Matt and Shelby, a couple from Los Angeles, find themselves in for American Horror Story’s sixth season on FX Networks. After moving into an old mansion in Roanoke, North Carolina, they discover that the dwelling and the local neighbors aren’t so accepting of outsiders.

American Horror Story: Roanoke explores a true-crime-style format that uses re-enactments to play out the drama. The role of Matt is played by Andre Holland in “reality” and by Cuba Gooding, Jr. in the re-enactments. Shelby is played by Lily Rabe and Sarah Paulson, respectively. It’s an interesting approach that added a new dynamic to an already creative series.

Emmy-winning Technicolor at Paramount supervising sound editor Gary Megregian is currently working on his seventh season of American Horror Story, coming to FX in early September. He took some time out to talk about Season 6, Episode 1, Chapter 1, for which he and his sound editorial team have been nominated for an Emmy for Outstanding Sound Editing for a Limited Series. They won the Emmy in 2013, and this year marks their sixth nomination.

American Horror Story: Roanoke is structured as a true-crime series with re-enactments. What opportunities did this format offer you sound-wise?
This season was a lot of fun in that we had both the realistic world and the creative world to play in. The first half of the series dealt more with re-enactments than the reality-based segments, especially in Chapter 1. Aside from some interview segments, it was all re-enactments. The re-enactments were where we had more creative freedom for design. It gave us a chance to create a voice for the house and the otherworldly elements.

Gary Megregian

Was series creator Ryan Murphy still your point person for sound direction? For Chapter 1, did he have specific ideas for sound?
Ryan Murphy is definitely the single voice in all of his shows but my point person for sound direction is his executive producer Alexis Martin Woodall, as well as each episode’s picture editor.

Having been working with them for close to eight years now, there’s a lot of trust. I usually have a talk with them early each season about what direction Ryan wants to go and then talk to the picture editor and assistant as they’re building the show.

The first night in the house in Roanoke, Matt and Shelby hear this pig-like scream coming from outside. That sound occurs often throughout the episode. How did that sound come to be? What went into it?
The pig sounds are definitely a theme that goes through Season 6, but they started all the way back in Season 1 with the introduction of Piggy Man. Originally, when Shelby and Matt first hear the pig we had tried designing something that fell more into an otherworldly sound, but Ryan definitely wanted it to be real. Other times, when we see Piggy Man we went back to the design we used in Season 1.

The doors in the house sound really cool, especially that back door. What were the sources for the door sounds? Did you do any processing on the recordings to make them spookier?
Thanks. Some of the doors came from our library at Technicolor and some were from a crowd-sourced project from New Zealand-based sound designer Tim Prebble. I had participated in a project where he asked everyone involved to record a complete set of opens, closes, knocks, squeaks, etc. for 10 doors. When all was said and done, I gained a library of over 100GB of amazing door recordings. That’s my go-to for interesting doors.

As far as processing goes, nothing out of the ordinary was used. It’s all about finding the right sound.

When Shelby and Lee (Adina Porter) are in the basement, they watch this home movie featuring Piggy Man. Can you tell me about the sound work there?
The home movie was a combination of the production dialogue, Foley, the couple instances of hearing pig squeals and Piggy Man design along with VHS and CRT noise. For dialogue, we didn’t clean up the production tracks too much and Foley was used to help ground it. Once we got to the mix stage, re-recording mixers Joe Earle and Doug Andham helped bring it all together in their treatment.

What was your favorite scene to design? Why? What went into the sound?
One of my favorite scenes is the hail/teeth storm when Shelby’s alone in the house. I love the way it starts slow and builds from the inside, hearing the teeth on the skylight and windows. Once we step outside it opens up to surround us. I think our effects editor/designer Tim Cleveland did a great job on this scene. We used a number of hail/rain recordings along with Foley to help with some of the detail work, especially once we step outside.

Were there any audio tools that were helpful when working on Chapter 1? Can you share specific examples of how you used them?
I’m going to sound like many others in this profession, but I’d say iZotope RX. Ryan is not a big fan of ADR, so we have to make the production work. I can count on one hand the number of times we’ve had any actors in for ADR last season. That’s a testament to our production mixer Brendan Beebe and dialogue editor Steve Stuhr. While the production is well covered and recorded well, Steve still has his work cut out for him to present a track that’s clean. The iZotope RX suite helps with that.

Why did you choose Chapter 1 for Emmy consideration for its sound editorial?
One of the things I love about working on American Horror Story is that every season is like starting a new show. It’s fun to establish the sound and the tone of a show, and Chapter 1 is no exception. It’s a great representation of our crew’s talent and I’m really happy for them that they’re being recognized for it. It’s truly an honor.

Emmy Awards: HBO’s The Night Of

Nominee Nicholas Renbeck, supervising sound editor/re-recording mixer

By Jennifer Walden

The HBO drama series The Night Of tells the tale of Nasir “Naz” Khan, a young Pakistani-American male accused of brutally murdering a young woman in her uptown Manhattan home. The series takes the audience on a tour of New York City’s penal system, from the precinct to the morgue, into the court room and out to Riker’s Island. It also explores different neighborhoods, from uptown Manhattan across the East River into Queens. Each location has a rich tapestry of sound, a vibrant background upon which the drama plays out.

Supervising sound editor/re-recording mixer Nicholas Renbeck from c5 Sound in New York, has been nominated for two Emmys for his work on the show: one for Outstanding Sound Editing For A Limited Series for Ep. 2 “Subtle Beast,” and one for Outstanding Sound Mixing For A Limited Series for Ep.1 “The Beach.” He’s already won a 2017 Golden Reel Award for Best Sound Editing on The Night Of.

Here he shares insight on building the expressive backgrounds and mixing the effects to create a rich world around the actors.

Nicholas Renbeck

How did you get involved with the show?
They were looking to do the sound in New York and c5 Sound was one of the places they were considering. I interviewed for the job and ended up getting it.

I flew out to Los Angeles while they were wrapping up locking the picture cut. Just prior to going they had sent me screening links to watch the series, all but the last episode. So I viewed the first seven episodes pretty much straight in a row, and in less than 24 hours I got on the plane and flew out to LA to spot the entire show with Steve Zaillian (series creator/ director/writer), still not knowing what happens in the last episode. While on the plane I had all these possible sound ideas swirling around in my head, mixed with this deep desire to know what happens in the final episode.

Then upon arriving I sat and did a spotting session with Steve and Nick Houy, the picture editor. We watched all eight episodes over a two-day period and talked about the sound concerns and possibilities.

This was your first time working with show runners Richard Price and Steven Zaillian. Did they have specific plans for how they wanted to use sound in the show?
Steve had a definite vision for where he wanted to go with the show. He had very specific ideas on what it would sound like in the prison, or what the city should sound like depending on the neighborhood. When I sat down with them, they already had a lot of sounds in their Avid Media Composer that they were working with. Actually, much more than any show I’ve worked on before.

Warren Shaw (a fellow supervising sound editor/sound designer who was New York-based but went out to Los Angeles a little while ago) had been brought onto the show early on while they were still cutting. Warren did some great initial sound design for them on a few of the later episodes. I got to hear what his ideas were and we brought his work, along with everything they had in the Avid, into our working sound sessions. Then Ruy Garcia, Wyatt Sprague (sound design/effects editors) and I kept going further, adding more elements and refining ideas.

I find there’s always a transitional step when moving from a mono or stereo Avid track into a 5.1 surround environment. Everybody up to this point is used to listening to things in a certain way. Now we’ve added four more speakers, and there’s a re-adjustment processes that happens. So, I spent a good amount of time working to present all the material in a way that would play to the strengths of a 5.1 sound environment.

What came about was a wonderful combination of all our ideas up to that point. I would make a full 5.1 sound effect premix in one of c5 sound design suites for an entire episode, then bring Steve in and get his reaction, and then afterward build from that. What we learned from working with Steve on Episode 102 we would then take and apply to Episode 103, building as we went.

How did they want the prison to sound? What descriptions did they give?
You hear this low rumbling tone, this presence of heaviness. That really spoke to Steve’s idea of what he wanted the prison atmosphere to encompass. We found sounds and tones to mold that mood, working to create what that feeling is like when the prison is busy and full of activity. We also created the flip side of what that oppressive sound is when the lights are out and we are alone with Naz [Riz Ahmed] in this very scary place that’s now quiet. We kept working to give the cell block a heaviness so that it feels like it’s pulling you down as you go through these scenes with Naz and see what his life has become at this point.

Marissa Littlefield, our ADR supervisor, Steve and I had conversations about what we needed in terms of added voices and how we would handle that. We did a lot of interesting casting for loop group, with a focus on being specific to the locations around the city. We definitely put our loop group coordinators Dann Fink and Bruce Winant (of Loopers Unlimited) through the paces of casting. It was nice to be able to combine those added voices from the loop group with the substantial production recording that was done on set, along with a number of sounds we had in our personal sound libraries. I think we were pretty successful at creating those different locations based on both voices and sound atmospheres.

What about the reverb work for the prison and the precinct? You have dry loop group recordings, so what reverbs did you use to help fit those into the environments?
I jump back and forth using Avid’s ReVibe II, Space and Audio Ease’s Altiverb. In doing some of his design work I know Ruy liked to use Soundtoy’s Echoboy delay for some fun stuff, and I believe Michael Berry (re-recording mixer on music/dialog/ADR/Foley) used ReVibe II and Altiverb for most of the show. So there was a variety of different reverbs and effects that we would use.

In some cases, we would apply reverb directly to the sound file, and in other cases we would wait until we got to the mix. In terms of the loop group voices, Michael Berry spent time figuring out where he wanted those to sit — how far back in the environment they would play and how they would play against the effects tracks that we created. We found a nice balance there.

Where did you mix “The Beach” episode? What console did you use?
Michael Berry was in charge of all the dialog, ADR, music and Foley premixing, which he did at PostWorks/Technicolor in New York, on the Avid S5. I did the sound effects premixing at c5 Sound, in a 5.1 design/mix room on an Avid D-Command. The final mix then happened at PostWorks/Technicolor. All of the sound editorial was done at c5.

What were some challenges you had while mixing “The Beach” and how did you handle them?
The trickiest scene for us was the one under the George Washington Bridge. The production tracks were challenging due to the noise of the river and the George Washington Bridge overhead. However, the performances were so good we really wanted to save them at all costs. Sara Stern (dialogue editor) worked for a good while to clean up the initial dialogue, and then Michael [Berry] really worked at those tracks to find a way to save and salvage the on-camera performances. iZotope RX5 (RX6 wasn’t out yet) was our friend in a big way.

Then we had to figure out where the atmospheres wanted to be because the performances are so strong that you don’t want to put the effects or the music over what the actors are doing. You don’t want to overpower that or take away from what is happening on-screen. There’s a lot of subtlety in our decisions. A little went a long way.

Did you have a favorite scene in terms of mixing sound effects on your side of the board?
I really liked the opening section of the Queens neighborhood during the day and going into the night with the drive into Manhattan. The whole driving sequence into the city in the cab has some real nice moments…the juxtaposing of the interiors of the house and cab with city’s night exteriors.

Of all the episodes you could’ve picked from Season 1, why did you choose the mix on “The Beach” for Emmy consideration?
It’s the first episode and it really grabs you. I was just sitting there on the edge of my seat watching it for the first time. The performances were so powerful and our challenge was to add to that. How can you help build on that?

Steve, Michael and I felt this was the right episode to go with. It has interesting atmospheric sounds, the music is strong and the performances are strong. Across the board, the music, the effects and the dialogue were all there nicely represented.

Let’s talk about the sound editing on “Subtle Beast,” which is up for Emmy consideration. What were some opportunities you had for creative sound on this episode?
What was nice about “Subtle Beast” is that we had so many different and interesting locations to address and figure out. There is the morgue, which is the hallway and the waiting area, the parking lot outside and the morgue itself. All of those were fantastic spots where we could design the backgrounds and sound effects to create the mood. This episode showcased most of the locations from the first episode again. And we see Naz being brought from the police precinct in the van across town to the holding cell under the courthouse, which is a great sequence. Then finally Naz goes into the transport to Riker’s Island. You have this array of locations in which to create this rich tapestry of sound.

Nothing is huge. There are no large gun battles or things of that nature. There are just many different locations for which we can create some interesting moods.

You did a fantastic job on the backgrounds. They are so expressive. I particularly like when the transport van is backing up to the precinct to pick up the prisoners. You hear the music playing from inside the van and it’s bouncing around the street outside.
There is some fantastic music editing by Dan Evans Farkas and Grant Conway that is happening there as well. It was nice to figure out, from an editorial sense, how to get in all your editing food groups — your sound effects, your music, your production, your loop group, ADR and Foley. There were a lot of good moments in that episode. In looking at the episodes we could have chosen, I felt that “Subtle Beast” was the strongest for us.

In terms of sound editing on “Subtle Beast,” what was the most challenging scene?
I’m not sure about most challenging, but the most engaging sequence for me was the trip from the police precinct in the van to the night holding cell. Once that van pulls in and Naz is being marched down the hall it’s a ride of sound, music and tension. And, possibly, fear.

There’s so much to work with, from the point at which the van is backing up, we’ve got the odd metal double doors on the van, then the juxtaposition of the van, to Detective Box’s (Bill Camp) car drive, to John Stone (John Turturro) going home to his brownstone. All these actions are intercutting with each other. When the van pulls up at Baxter Street, we lose the music and are left with these echoing footsteps and police radio surrounded by the dripping water of the location. Then finally down into night holding cells and with the yelling distant voices. Naz doesn’t know what’s coming but it doesn’t sound good. So that was one of the more intense and fun spots for me personally.

In building these backgrounds, what were some of your sources? Being in New York, were you able to go out and capture local ambiences? Or was it completely crafted in post?
We did some recordings around town to pick up what we needed. Since c5 is based in New York, we have a really great library of New York sounds to pull from. Also, the production location recordists did a great job of capturing stuff as well so we were able to use a number of those sounds in our sound bed. I would say 85 percent of the ambiences were created in post, and the other 15 percent was what was recorded on set.

Strangely enough I personally have lived in two of the main locations of the series: the Upper West Side of Manhattan — on the exact street of Andrea’s brownstone — and Jackson Heights, Queens, where Naz’s family lives. So I was well aware of what these neighborhoods sounded like at all hours of the day and night and would use my own internal “appropriate location audio filter” when working on those locations. At the end of the day that’s sort of a silly side note, but I like to think it helps us stay true to the sounds of those neighborhoods.

Beyond the background sounds but in keeping with what we crafted in post, once we get to Riker’s I think it’s worth noting that the entire cellblock set had a floor of painted plywood. So it really fell to our Foley department to make sure all our foot falls on concrete were covered and ready to take center stage if called upon. The whole Foley team led by Marko Costanzo (artist), George Lara (recordist) and Steve Visscher (supervising Foley editor) did a wonderful job.

Anything else you’d like to share about The Night Of?
It was a show that involved a lot of really good collaboration in terms of sound and music. I personally feel very fortunate to have had such a good sound crew comprising so many talented people, and very lucky for the opportunity to get to mix next to Michael Berry and see the care and skill he brings to the process. I am also very appreciative of the support we got along the way from everybody at HBO, our wonderful post supervisor Lori Slomka, as well as our picture editor Nick Houy and his crew.

Lastly, I think through our conversations and discussions with Steve Zaillian we were successful in figuring out how best to shape and mold the tracks into something that is very compelling to watch and listen to and I hope people really enjoy it.


Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio engineer and writer.

Behind the Title: 3008 Editorial’s Matt Cimino and Greg Carlson

NAMES: Matt Cimino and Greg Carlson

COMPANY: 3008 Editorial in Dallas

WHAT’S YOUR JOB TITLE?
Cimino: We are sound designers/mixers.

WHAT DOES THAT ENTAIL?
Cimino: Audio is a storytelling tool. Our job is to enhance the story directly or indirectly and create the illusion of depth, space and a sense of motion with creative sound design and then mix that live in the environment of the visuals.

Carlson: And whenever someone asks, I always tend to prioritize sound design before mixing. Although I love every aspect of what we do, when a spot hits my room as a blank slate, it’s really the sound design that can take it down a hundred different paths. And for me, it doesn’t get better than that.

WHAT WOULD SURPRISE PEOPLE THE MOST ABOUT WHAT FALLS UNDER THAT TITLE?
Carlson: I’m not sure a brief job title can encompass what anyone really does. I am a composer as well as a sound designer/mixer, so I bring that aspect into my work. I love musical elements that help stitch a unified sound into a project.

Cimino: That there really isn’t “a button” for that!

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE PART OF THE JOB?
Carlson: The freedom. Having the opportunity to take a project where I think it should go and along the way, pushing it to the edge and back. Experimenting and adapting makes every spot a completely new trip.

Matt Cimino

Cimino: I agree. It’s the challenge of creating an expressive and aesthetically pleasing experience by taking the soundtrack to a whole new level.

WHAT’S YOUR LEAST FAVORITE?
Cimino: Not Much. However, being an imperfect perfectionist, I get pretty bummed when I do not have enough time to perfect the job.

Carlson: People always say, “It’s so peaceful and quiet in the studio, as if the world is tuned out.” The downside of that is producer-induced near heart attacks. See, when you’re rocking out at max volume and facing away from the door, well, people tend to come in and accidentally scare you to death.

WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE TIME OF THE DAY?
Cimino: I’m a morning person!

Carlson: Time is an abstract notion in a dark room with no windows, so no time in particular. However, the funniest time of day is when you notice you’re listening about 15 dB louder than the start of the day. Loud is better.

IF YOU DIDN’T HAVE THIS JOB, WHAT WOULD YOU BE DOING INSTEAD?
Cimino: Carny. Or Evel Knievel.

Carlson: Construction/carpentry. Before audio, I had lots of gritty “hands-on” jobs. My dad taught me about work ethic, to get my hands dirty and to take pride in everything. I take that same approach with every spot I touch. Now I just sit in a nice chair while doing it.

WHY DID YOU CHOOSE THIS PROFESSION? HOW EARLY ON DID YOU KNOW THIS WOULD BE YOUR PATH?
Cimino: I’ve had a love for music since high school. I used to read all the liner notes on my vinyl. One day I remember going through my father’s records and thinking at that moment, I want to be that “sound engineer” listed in the notes. This led me to study audio at Columbia College in Chicago. I quickly gravitated towards post production audio classes and training. When I wasn’t recording and mixing music, I was doing creative sound design.

Carlson: I was always good with numbers and went to Michigan State to be an accountant. But two years in, I was unhappy. All I wanted was to work on music and compose, so I switched to audio engineering and never looked back. I knew the second I walked into my first studio, I had found my calling. People always say there isn’t a dream job; I disagree.

CAN YOU DESCRIBE YOUR COMPANY?
Cimino: A fun, stress-free environment full of artistry and technology.

Carlson: It is a place I look forward to every day. It’s like a family, solely focused on great creative.

CAN YOU NAME SOME RECENT SPOTS YOU HAVE WORKED ON?
Cimino: Snapple, RAM, Jeep, Universal Orlando, Cricket Wireless, Maserati.

Carlson: AT&T, Lay’s, McDonald’s, Bridgestone Golf.

Greg Carlson

WHAT IS THE PROJECT THAT YOU ARE MOST PROUD OF?
Carlson: It’s nearly impossible to pick one, but there is a project I see as pivotal in my time here in Dallas. It was shortly after I arrived six years ago. I think it was a boost to my confidence and in turn, enhanced my style. The client was The Home Depot and the campaign was Lets Do This. A creative I admire greatly here in town gave me the chance to spearhead the sonic approach for the work. There are many moments, milestones and memories, but this was a special project to me.

Cimino: There are so many. One of the most fun campaigns I worked on was for Snapple, where each spot opened with the “pop!” of the Snapple cap. I recorded several pops (close-miced) and selected one that I manipulated to sound larger than life but also retain the sound of the brands signature cap pop being opened. After the cap pops, the spot transforms into an exploding fruit infusion. The sound was created by smashing Snapple bottles for the glass break, crushing, smashing and squishing fruit with my hands, and using a hydrophone to record splashing and underwater sounds to create the slow-motion effect of the fruit morphing. So much fun.

NAME THREE PIECES OF TECHNOLOGY YOU CAN’T LIVE WITHOUT.
Cimino: During a mix, my go-tos are iZotope, Sound Toys and Slate Digital. Outside the studio I can’t live without my Apple!

Carlson: ProTools, all things iZotope, Native Instruments.

THIS IS A HIGH-STRESS JOB WITH DEADLINES AND CLIENT EXPECTATIONS. WHAT DO YOU DO TO DE-STRESS FROM IT ALL?
Cimino: Family and friends. I love watching my kiddos play select soccer. Relaxing pool or beachside with a craft cider. Or on a single path/trail with my mountain bike.

Carlson: I work on my home, build things, like to be outside. When I need to detach for a bit, I prefer dangerous power tools or being on a body of water.

The sounds of Spider-Man: Homecoming

By Jennifer Walden

Columbia Pictures and Marvel Studios’ Spider-Man: Homecoming, directed by Jon Watts, casts Tom Holland as Spider-Man, a role he first played in 2016 for Marvel Studios’ Captain America: Civil War (directed by Joe and Anthony Russo).

Homecoming reprises a few key character roles, like Tony Stark/Iron Man (Robert Downey Jr.) and Aunt May Parker (Marisa Tomei), and it picks up a thread of Civil War’s storyline. In Civil War, Peter Parker/Spider-Man helped Tony Stark’s Avengers in their fight against Captain America’s Avengers. Homecoming picks up after that battle, as Parker settles back into his high school life while still fighting crime on the side to hone his superhero skills. He seeks to prove himself to Stark but ends up becoming entangled with the supervillain Vulture (Michael Keaton).

Steven Ticknor

Spider-Man: Homecoming supervising sound editors/sound designers Steven Ticknor and Eric A. Norris — working at Culver City’s Sony Pictures Post Production Services — both brought Spidey experience to the film. Ticknor was a sound designer on director Sam Raimi’s Spider-Man (2002) and Norris was supervising sound editor/sound designer on director Marc Webb’s The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (2014). With experiences from two different versions of Spider-Man, together Ticknor and Norris provided a well-rounded knowledge of the superhero’s sound history for Homecoming. They knew what’s worked in the past, and what to do to make this Spider-Man sound fresh. “This film took a ground-up approach but we also took into consideration the magnitude of the movie,” says Ticknor. “We had to keep in mind that Spider-Man is one of Marvel’s key characters and he has a huge fan base.”

Web Slinging
Being a sequel, Ticknor and Norris honored the sound of Spider-Man’s web slinging ability that was established in Captain America: Civil War, but they also enhanced it to create a subtle difference between Spider-Man’s two suits in Homecoming. There’s the teched-out Tony Stark-built suit that uses the Civil War web-slinging sound, and then there’s Spider-Man’s homemade suit. “I recorded a couple of 5,000-foot magnetic tape cores unraveling very fast, and to that I added whooshes and other elements that gave a sense of speed. Underneath, I had some of the web sounds from the Tony Stark suit. That way the sound for the homemade suit had the same feel as the Stark suit but with an old-school flair,” explains Ticknor.

One new feature of Spider-Man’s Stark suit is that it has expressive eye movements. His eyes can narrow or grow wide with surprise, and those movements are articulated with sound. Norris says, “We initially went with a thin servo-type sound, but the filmmakers were looking for something less electrical. We had the idea to use the lens of a DSLR camera to manually zoom it in and out, so there’s no motor sound. We recorded it up close-up in the quiet environment of an unused ADR stage. That’s the primary sound for his eye movement.”

Droney
Another new feature is the addition of Droney, a small reconnaissance drone that pops off of Spider-Man’s suit and flies around. The sound of Droney was one of director Watt’s initial focus-points. He wanted it sound fun and have a bit of personality. He wanted Droney “to be able to vocalize in a way, sort of like Wall-E,” explains Norris.

Ticknor had the idea of creating Droney’s sound using a turbo toy — a small toy that has a mouthpiece and a spinning fan. Blowing into the mouthpiece makes the fan spin, which generates a whirring sound. The faster the fan spins, the higher the pitch of the generated sound. By modulating the pitch, they created a voice-like quality for Droney. Norris and sound effects editor Andy Sisul performed and recorded an array of turbo toy sounds to use during editorial. Ticknor also added in the sound of a reel-to-reel machine rewinding, which he sped up and manipulated “so that it sounded like Droney was fluttering as it was flying,” Ticknor says.

The Vulture
Supervillain the Vulture offers a unique opportunity for sound design. His alien-tech enhanced suit incorporates two large fans that give him the ability to fly. Norris, who was involved in the initial sound design of Vulture’s suit, created whooshes using Whoosh by Melted Sounds — a whoosh generator that runs in Native Instruments Reaktor. “You put individual samples in there and it creates a whoosh by doing a Doppler shift and granular synthesis as a way of elongating short sounds. I fed different metal ratcheting sounds into it because Vulture’s suit almost has these metallic feathers. We wanted to articulate the sound of all of these different metallic pieces moving together. I also fed sword shings into it and came up with these whooshes that helped define the movement as the Vulture was flying around,” he says. Sound designer/re-recording mixer Tony Lamberti was also instrumental in creating Vulture’s sound.

Alien technology is prevalent in the film. For instance, it’s a key ingredient to Vulture’s suit. The film’s sound needed to reflect the alien influence but also had to feel realistic to a degree. “We started with synthesized sounds, but we then had to find something that grounded it in reality,” reports Ticknor. “That’s always the balance of creating sound design. You can make it sound really cool, but it doesn’t always connect to the screen. Adding organic elements — like wind gusts and debris — make it suddenly feel real. We used a lot of synthesized sounds to create Vulture, but we also used a lot of real sounds.”

The Washington Monument
One of the big scenes that Ticknor handled was the Washington Monument elevator sequence. Spider-Man stands on the top of the Washington Monument and prepares to jump over a helicopter that looms ever closer. He clears the helicopter’s blades and shoots a web onto the helicopter’s skid, using that to sling himself through a window just in time to shoot another web that grabs onto the compromised elevator car that contains his friends. “When Spider-Man jumps over the helicopter, I couldn’t wait to make that work perfectly,” says Ticknor. “When he is flying over the helicopter blades it sounds different. It sounds more threatening. Sound creates an emotion but people don’t realize how sound is creating the emotion because it is happening so quickly sometimes.”

To achieve a more threatening blade sound, Ticknor added in scissor slicing sounds, which he treated using a variety of tools like zPlane Elastique Pitch 2 and plug-ins from FabFilter plug-ins and Soundtoys, all within the Avid Pro Tools 12 environment. “This made the slicing sound like it was about to cut his head off. I took the helicopter blades and slowed them down and added low-end sweeteners to give a sense of heaviness. I put all of that through the plug-ins and basically experimented. The hardest part of sound design is experimenting and finding things that work. There’s also music playing in that scene as well. You have to make the music play with the sound design.”

When designing sounds, Ticknor likes to generate a ton of potential material. “I make a library of sound effects — it’s like a mad science experiment. You do something and then wonder, ‘How did I just do that? What did I just do?’ When you are in a rhythm, you do it all because you know there is no going back. If you just do what you need, it’s never enough. You always need more than you think. The picture is going to change and the VFX are going to change and timings are going to change. Everything is going to change, and you need to be prepared for that.”

Syncing to Picture
To help keep the complex soundtrack in sync with the evolving picture, Norris used Conformalizer by Cargo Cult. Using the EDL of picture changes, Conformalizer makes the necessary adjustments in Pro Tools to resync the sound to the new picture.

Norris explains some key benefits of Conformalizer. “First, when you’re working in Pro Tools you can only see one picture at a time, so you have to go back and forth between the two different pictures to compare. With Conformalizer, you can see the two different pictures simultaneously. It also does a mathematical computation on the two pictures in a separate window, a difference window, which shows the differences in white. It highlights all the subtle visual effects changes that you may not have noticed.

Eric Norris

For example, in the beginning of the film, Peter leaves school and heads out to do some crime fighting. In an alleyway, he changes from his school clothes into his Spider-Man suit. As he’s changing, he knocks into a trash can and a couple of rats fall out and scurry away. Those rats were CG and they didn’t appear until the end of the process. So the rats in the difference window were bright white while everything else was a dark color.”

Another benefit is that the Conformalizer change list can be used on multiple Pro Tools sessions. Most feature films have the sound effects, including Foley and backgrounds, in one session. For Spider-Man: Homecoming, it was split into multiple sessions, with Foley and backgrounds in one session and the sound effects in another.

“Once you get that change list you can run it on all the Pro Tools sessions,” explains Norris. “It saves time and it helps with accuracy. There are so many sounds and details that match the visuals and we need to make sure that we are conforming accurately. When things get hectic, especially near the end of the schedule, and we’re finalizing the track and still getting new visual effects, it becomes a very detail-oriented process and any tools that can help with that are greatly appreciated.”

Creating the soundtrack for Spider-Man: Homecoming required collaboration on a massive scale. “When you’re doing a film like this, it just has to run well. Unless you’re really organized, you’ll never be able to keep up. That’s the beautiful thing, when you’re organized you can be creative. Everything was so well organized that we got an opportunity to be super creative and for that, we were really lucky. As a crew, we were so lucky to work on this film,” concludes Ticknor.


Jennifer Walden in a New Jersey-based audio engineer and writer. Follow her on Twitter @audiojeney.com