Tag Archives: audio post production

Behind the Title: Stir Post Audio sound designer/mixer Nick Bozzone

NAME: Nick Bozzone

COMPANY: Chicago’s Stir Post Audio (@STIRpost)

DESCRIBE YOUR COMPANY:
Stir Post Audio is comprised of engineers, mixers, sound designers and producers, who transform audio mixes into what we call “sonic power shots.”

WHAT’S YOUR JOB TITLE?
Senior Sound Designer/Mixer

WHAT DOES THAT ENTAIL?
As a post sound professional, there are many different disciplines of audio that I use on a day-to-day basis — voiceover recording/mic techniques (ADR included), creative sound designing, voiceover and music editing, 5.1 and stereo broadcast (LKFS) mixing, as well as providing a positive (and fun) voice in the room.

WHAT WOULD SURPRISE PEOPLE THE MOST ABOUT WHAT FALLS UNDER THAT TITLE?
The term sound designer envelops more than simply spotting stock sound effects to picture, it’s an opportunity to be as creative as my mind allows. It’s a chance at making a sonic signature —a signature that, most of the time, is associated with the product itself. I have been very fortunate through my career so far to have worked on these types of commercial campaigns and short films… projects that have allowed me to stretch my sonic imagination.

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE PART OF THE JOB?
My favorite part of the job is when its time to mix. Mixing can be just as creative, if not more so, as sound design. There are a lot of technical aspects to mixing heavy-hitting commercials. Most of the time there are a bunch of very dynamic elements going on at the same time. The finesse of a great mix is the ability to take all of these things, bring them all together and have them all sitting in their own spot.

WHAT’S YOUR LEAST FAVORITE?
It may be my least favorite part, but it’s a necessary evil… archiving!

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE TIME OF THE DAY?
During work, it’s when the whole room gives my mix a thumbs up. During the weekend, it’s definitely around sunset. For whatever reason, no matter how tired I am, around sunset is when my body kicks into its second wind and I become a night owl (or at least I used to be one before my daughter was born five months ago).

HOW EARLY ON DID YOU KNOW THIS WOULD BE YOUR PATH?
“If you love what you do, you’ll never work a day in your life.” That was told to me when I entered college, and I took that quote to heart. Originally, I thought that I wanted to be a creative writer and then I had an interest in being a hypnotherapist. Both were interesting to me, but neither one was holding my interest for very long. Thankfully, I took an introductory class in Pro Tools. That one class showed me that there could be a future in sound. You never know where you’ll get your inspiration.

Nick creating sounds for Mist Twst.

CAN YOU NAME SOME RECENT PROJECTS YOU HAVE WORKED ON?
Many projects that come through our doors require quite a bit of strategy with regard to the intention or emotion of the project. I worked on the re-branding campaign for Pepsi’s Sierra Mist, which changed its name to Mist Twst.

There were a lot of very specific sound design elements I created in that session. The intention was to not just make an everyday run-of-the-mill soda commercial; we wanted it to feel crisp, clean and natural like the drink. So, we went to the store and bought a bunch of different fruits and vegetables, and recorded ourselves cutting, squeezing, and dropping them into a fizzy glass of Mist Twst. We even recorded ourselves opening soda cans at different speeds and pouring soda into glasses with and without ice.

I also worked on a really fun 5 Gum radio campaign that won a Radio Mercury Award. The concept was a “truth or dare” commercial geared toward people streaming music with headphones on. It allows the listener to choose whether to play along with listening to the left headphone for a truth, or the right headphone to do a dare.

We did campaign for Aleve with beautiful film showing a grandfather on an outing with his granddaughter at an amusement park and suddenly he throws his back out. The entire park grinds to a halt as a result — visually and audio-wise. There was a lot of sound design involved in this process, and was a very fun and creative experience.

Kerrygold

For a recent package of TV spots for Kerrygold, the Irish dairy group, created by Energy BBDO. my main goal for “Made for this Moment” was to let the gentile music track and great lyrics have center stage and breathe, as if they were their own character in the story. My approach to the sound design was to fill out each scene with subtle sound design elements that are almost felt and not heard… nothing poking through further than anything else, and nothing competing with the music, only enhancing the overall mood.”

Focusing on sound bars at CES 2017

By Tim Hoogenakker

My day job is as a re-recording mixer and sound editor working on long-form projects, so when I attended this year’s Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, I honed in on the leading trends in home audio playback. It was important for me to see what the manufacturers are planning regarding multi-channel audio reproduction for the home. From the look of it, sound bars seem to be leading the charge. My focus was primarily with immersive sound bars, single-box audio components capable of playing Dolby Atmos and DTS:X as close as they can in their original format.

Klipsch TheaterBar

Klipsch Theaterbar

Now I must admit, I’ve kicked and screamed about sound bars in the past, audibly rolling my eyes at the concept. We audio mixers are used to working in perfect discrete surround environments, but I wanted to keep an open mind. Whether we as sound professionals like it or not, this is where the consumer product technology is headed. That and I didn’t see quite the same glitz and glam over discrete surround speaker systems at CES.

Here are some basic details with immersive sound bars in general:

1. In addition to the front channels, they often have up-firing drivers on the left and right edges (normally on the top and sides) that are intended to reflect onto the walls and the ceiling of the room. This is to replicate the immersiveness as much as possible. Sure this isn’t exact replication, but I’ll certainly give manufacturers praise for their creativity.
2. Because of the required reflectivity, the walls have to be of a flat enough surface to reflect the signal, yet still balanced so that it doesn’t sound like you’re sitting in the middle of your shower.
3. There is definitely a sweet spot in the seating position when listening to sound bars. If you move off-axis, you may experience somewhat of a wash sitting near the sides, but considering what they’re trying to replicate, it’s an interesting take.
4. They usually have an auto-tuning microphone system for calculating the room for the closest accuracy.
5. I’m convinced that there’s a conspiracy by the manufacturers to make each and every sound bar, in physical appearance, resemble the enigmatic Monolith in 2001: A Space Odyssey…as if literally someone just knocked it over.

Yamaha YSP5600

My first real immersive sound bar experience happened last year with the Yamaha YSP-5600, which comes loaded with 40 (yes 40!) drivers. It’s a very meaty 26-pound sound bar with a height of 8.5 inches and width of 3.6 feet. I heard a few projects that I had mixed in Dolby Atmos played back on this system. Granted, even when correctly tuned it’s not going to sound the same as my dubbing stage or with dedicated home theater speakers, but knowing this I was pleasantly surprised. A few eyebrows were raised for sure. It was fun playing demo titles for friends, watching them turn around and look for surround speakers that weren’t there.

A number of the sound bars displayed at CES bring me to my next point, which honestly is a bit of a complaint. Many were very thin in physical design, often labeled as “ultra-thin,” which to me means very small drivers, which tells me that there’s an elevated frequency crossover line for the subwoofer(s). Sure, I understand that they need to look sleek so they can sell and be acceptable for room aesthetics, but I’m an audio nerd. I WANT those low- to mid-frequencies carried through from the drivers, don’t just jam ALL the low- and mid-frequencies to the sub. It’ll be interesting to see how this plays out as these products reach market during the year.

Sony HTST 5000

Besides immersive audio, most of these sound bars will play from a huge variety of sources, formats and specs, such as Blu-ray, Blu-ray UHD, DVD, DVD-Audio, streaming via network and USB, as well as connections for Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and 4K pass-through.

Some of these sound bars — like many things at CES 2017 — are supported with Amazon Alexa and Google Home. So, instead of fighting over the remote control, you and your family can now confuse Alexa with arguments over controlling your audio between “Game of Thrones” and Paw Patrol.

Finally, I probably won’t be installing a sound bar on my dub stage for reference anytime soon, but I do feel that professionally it’s very important for me to know the pros and the cons — and the quirks — so we can be aware how our audio mixes will translate through these systems. And considering that many major studios and content creators are becoming increasingly ready to make immersive formats their default deliverable standard, especially now with Dolby Vision, I’d say it’s a necessary responsibility.

Looking forward to seeing what NAB has up its sleeve on this as well.

Here are some of the more notable soundbars debuted:

LG SJ9

Sony HT-ST5000: This sound bar is compatible with Google Home. They say it works well with ceilings as high as 17 feet. It’s not DTS:X-capable yet, but Sony said that will happen by the end of the year.LG SJ9: The LG SJ9 sound bar is currently noted by LG as “4K high resolution audio” (which is an impossible statement). It’s possible that they mean it’ll pass through a 4K signal, but the LG folks couldn’t clarify. That snafu aside, it has a very wide dimensionality, which helps for stereo imaging. It will be Dolby Vision/HDR-capable via a future firmware upgrade.

The Klipsch “Theaterbar”: This another eyebrow raiser. It’ll release in Q4 of 2017. There’s no information on the web yet, but they’re showcasing this at CES.

Pioneer Elite FS-EB70: There’s no information on the web yet, but they were showcasing this at CES.

Onkyo SBT-A500 Network: Also no information but it was shown at CES.


Formosa Group re-recording mixer and sound editor Tim Hoogenakker has over 20 years of experience in audio post for music, features and documentaries, television and home entertainment formats. He had stints at Prince’s Paisley Park Studios and POP Sound before joining Formosa.

Stranger Things

Upcoming AES LA meeting features Netflix’s Stranger Things sound team

On January 31, the AES LA Section monthly meeting will showcase the sound editorial and re-recording of the Netflix series Stranger Things. Attendees will hear first-hand how the sound team creates the 5.1-channel soundtrack, including the eerie music that is key to the show’s look and feel. A second season from the Duffer Brothers is scheduled to start later this year, with its haunting ’80s-style, synth-based musical score.

For those of you not familiar with the show, it’s set in Indiana in 1983 and focuses on a 12-year-old boy gone missing and the resulting search for him by the police chief and his friends.

The editorial team for Stranger Things is headed up by supervising sound editor Brad North, who works closely with sound designer Craig Henighan, sound effects editor Jordan Wilby and music editor David Klotz. The re-recording crew, working at the Technicolor Seward stage, is Joe Barnett, who handles dialogue and music, and Adam Jenkins, who handles sound effects.

“We drew our inspiration — subconsciously, at least — from such sci-fi films as Alien, The Thing and Predator,” Henighan recalls. Part sci-fi, part horror and part family drama, Stranger Things is often considered an homage to 80’s movies like Close Encounters of the Third Kind and ET.

The joint AES/SMPTE January meeting, which will be held at the Sportsmen’s Lodge in Studio City on Tuesday, January 31, is open to both AES and SMPTE members and non-members.

Panelists will include Adam Jenkins, Jordan Wilby, Joe Barnett, David Klotz, Brad North and Craig Henighan.

Patriots Day

Augmenting Patriots Day‘s sound with archival audio

By Jennifer Walden

Fresh off the theatrical release of his dramatized disaster film Deepwater Horizon, director Peter Berg brings another current event to the big screen with Patriots Day. The film recounts the Boston Marathon bombing by combining Berg’s cinematic footage with FBI-supplied archival material from the actual bombing and investigation.

Once again, Berg chose to partner with Technicolor’s supervising sound editor/re-recording mixer Dror Mohar, who contributed to the soundtrack of Berg’s Deepwater Horizon (2016) and Lone Survivor (2013).  He earned an MPSE award nomination for sound editing on the latter.

According to Mohar, Berg’s intention for Patriots Day was not to make a film about tragedy and terrorism, but rather to tell the story of a community’s courage in the face of this disaster. “This was personal for Peter [Berg]. His conviction about not exploiting or sensationalizing any of it was in every choice he made,” says Mohar. “He was vigilant about the cinematic attributes never compromising the authenticity and integrity of the story of the events and the people who were there — the law enforcement, victims and civilians. Peter wanted to evolve and explore the sound continuously. My compass throughout was to create a soundtrack that was as immersive as it was genuine.”

From a sound design perspective, Mohar was conscious of keeping the qualities and character of the sounds in check — favoring raw, visceral sounds over treated or polished ones. He avoided oversized “Hollywood” treatments. For example, Mohar notes the Watertown shootout sequence. The lead-up to the firefight was inspired by a source audio recording of the Watertown shootout captured by a neighbor on a handheld camera.

“Two things grabbed my attention — the density of the firefight, which sounded like Chinese New Year, and the sound of wind chimes from a nearby home,” he explains. “Within what sounded like war and chaos, there was a sweet sound that referenced home, family, porch… This shootout is happening in a residential area, in the middle of everyday life. Throughout the film, I wanted to maintain the balance between emotional and visceral sounds. Working closely with picture editors Colby Parker Jr. and Gabriel Fleming, we experimented with sound design that aligned directly with the dramatic effect of the visuals versus designs that counteracted the drama and created an experience that was less comfortable but ultimately more emotional.”

Tension was another important aspect of the design. The bombing disrupted life, and not just the lives of those immediately or physically affected by the bombing. Mohar wanted the sound to express those wider implications. “When the city is hit, it affects everyone. Something in that time period is just not the same. I used a variety of recordings of calls to prayer and crowds of people from all over the world to create soundscapes that you could expect to hear in a city but not in Boston. I incorporated these in different times throughout the film. They aren’t in your face, but used subtly.”

Patriots DayThe Mix
On the mix, he and re-recording mixer Mike Prestwood-Smith chose a realistic approach to their sonic treatments.

Prestwood-Smith notes that for an event as recent and close to the heart as the Boston Marathon bombing, the goal was to have respect for the people who were involved — to make Patriots Day feel real and not sensationalized in any sense. “We wanted it to feel believable, like you are witnessing it, rather than entertaining people. We want to be entertaining, engaging and dramatic, but ultimately we don’t want this to feel gratuitous, as though we are using these events to our advantage. That’s a tight rope to tread, not just for sound but for everything, like the shooting and the performances. All of it.”

Mohar reinforces the idea of enabling the audience to feel the events of the bombing first-hand through sound. “When we experience an event that shocks us, like a car crash, or in this case, an act of terror, the way we experience time is different. You assess what’s right there in front of you and what is truly important. I wanted to leverage this characteristic in the soundtrack to represent what it would be like to be there in real time, objectively, and to create a singular experience.”

Archival Footage
Mohar and Prestwood-Smith had access to enormous amounts of archival material from the FBI, which was strategically used throughout the soundtrack. In the first two reels, up to and including the bombing, Prestwood-Smith explains that picture editors Fleming and Parker Jr. intercut between the dramatized footage and the archived footage “literally within seconds of each other. Whole scenes became a dance between the original footage and the footage that Peter shot. In many cases, you’re not aware of the difference between the two and I think that is a very clever and articulate thing they accomplished. The sound had to adhere to that and it had to make you feel like you were never really shifting from one thing to the other.”

It was not a simple task to transition from the Hollywood-quality sound of the dramatized footage to sound captured on iPhones and low-resolution cameras. Prestwood-Smith notes that he and Mohar were constantly evolving the qualities of the sounds and mix treatments so all elements would integrate seamlessly. “We needed to keep a balance between these very different sound sources and make them feel coherently part of one story rather than shifting too much between them all. That was probably the most complex part of the soundtrack.”

Berg’s approach to perspective — showing the event from a reporter’s point of view as opposed to a spectator’s point of view — helped the sound team interweave the archival material and fictionalized material. For example, Prestwood-Smith reports the crowd sounds were 90 percent archival material, played from the perspective of different communication sources, like TV broadcasts, police radio transmissions and in-ear exchanges from production crews on the scene. “These real source sounds are mixed with the actors’ dialogue to create a thread that always keeps the story together as we alternate through archival and dramatized picture edits.”

While intercutting various source materials for the marathon and bombing sequences, Mohar and Prestwood-Smith worked shot by shot, determining for each whether to highlight an archival sound, carry the sound across from the previous shot or go with another specific sound altogether, regardless of whether it was one they created or one that was from the original captured audio.

“There would be archival footage with screaming on it that would go across to another shot and connect the archive footage to the dramatized, or sometimes not. We literally worked inch-by-inch to make it feel like it all belonged in one place,” explains Prestwood-Smith. “We did it very boldly. We embraced it rather than disguised it. Part of what makes the soundtrack so dynamic is that we allow each shot to speak in its genuine way. In the earlier reels, where there is more of the archival footage, the dynamics of it really shift dramatically.”

Patriots Day is not meant to be a clinical representation of the event. It is not a documentary. By dramatizing the Boston Marathon bombing, Berg delivers a human story on an emotional level. He uses music to help articulate the feeling of a scene and guide the audience through the story emotionally.

“On an emotional level, the music did an enormous amount of heavy lifting because so much of the sound work was really there to give the film a sense of captured reality and truth,” says Prestwood-Smith. “The music is one of the few things that allows the audience to see the film — the event — slightly differently. It adds more emotion where we want it to but without ever tipping the balance too far.”

The Score
Composers Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross had a definitive role for each cue. Their music helps the audience decompress for certain moments before being thrust right back into the action. “Their compositions were so intentional and so full of character and attitude. It’s not generic,” says Mohar. “Each cue feels like a call to action. The tracks have eyes and mouths and teeth. It’s very intentional. The music is not just an emotional element; it’s part of the sound design and sound overall. The sound and music work together to contribute equally to this film.”

The way that we go back and forth between the archival footage and the dramatized footage was the same way we went from designed audio to source audio, from music to musical, from sound effects to sound effective,” he continues. “On each scene, we decided to either blur the line between music and effects, between archival sound and designed sound, or to have a hard line between each.”

To complement the music, Mohar experimented with rhythmic patterns of sounds to reinforce the level of intensity of certain scenes. “I brought in mechanical keyboards of various types, ages and material, and recorded different typing rhythms on them. These sounds were used in many of the Black Falcon terminal scenes. I used softer sounding keyboards with slower tempos when I wanted the level of tension to be lower, and then accelerated them into faster tempos with harsher sounding keyboards as the drama in the terminal increased,” he says. “By using modest, organic sounds I could create a subliminal sense of tension. I treated the recordings with a combination of plug-ins, delays, reverbs and EQs to create sounds that were not assertive.”

Dialogue
In terms of dialogue, the challenge was to get the archive material and the dramatized material to live in the same space emotionally and technically, says Prestwood-Smith. “There were scenes where Mark Wahlberg’s character is asking for ambulances or giving specific orders and playing underneath that dialogue is real, archival footage of people who have just been hurt by these explosions talking on their phones. Getting those two things to feel integrated was a complex thing to do. The objective was to make the sound believable. ‘Is this something I can believe?’ That was the focus.”

Prestwood-Smith used a combination of Avid and FabFilter plug-ins for EQ and dynamics, and created reverbs using Exponential Audio’s PhoenixVerb and Audio Ease’s Altiverb.

Staying in The Box
From sound editorial through to the final mix, Mohar and Prestwood-Smith chose to keep the film in Pro Tools. Staying in the box offered the best workflow solution for Patriots Day. Mohar designed and mixed for the first phase of the film at his studio at Technicolor’s Tribeca West location in Los Angeles, a satellite of Technicolor at Paramount’s main sound facility while Prestwood-Smith worked out of his own mix room in London. The two collaborated remotely, sharing their work back and forth, continuously developing the mix to match the changing picture edit. “We were on a very accelerated schedule, and they were cutting the film all the way through mastering. Having everything in the box meant that we could constantly evolve the soundtrack,” says Prestwood-Smith.

7.1 Surround Mix
Mohar and Prestwood-Smith met up for the final 7.1 surround mix at 424 Post in Hollywood and mixed the immersive versions at Technicolor Hollywood.

While some mix teams prefer to split the soundtrack, with one mixer on music and dialogue and the other handling sound effects and Foley, Mohar and Prestwood-Smith have a much more fluid approach. There is no line drawn across the board; they share the tracks equally.

“Mike has great taste and instincts; he doesn’t operate like a mixer. He operates like a filmmaker and I look to him to make the final decisions and direct the shape of the soundtrack,” explain Mohar. “The best thing about working with Mike is that it’s truly collaborative, no part of the mix belonged to just one person. Anything was up for grabs and the sound as a whole belonged to the story. It makes the mix more unified, and I wouldn’t have it any other way.”


Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio pro and writer. 

Cory Melious

Behind the Title: Heard City senior sound designer/mixer Cory Melious

NAME: Cory Melious

COMPANY: Heard City (@heardcity)

CAN YOU DESCRIBE YOUR COMPANY?
We are an audio post production company.

WHAT’S YOUR JOB TITLE?
Senior Sound Designer/Mixer

WHAT DOES THAT ENTAIL?
I provide final mastering of the audio soundtrack for commercials, TV shows and movies. I combine the production audio recorded on set (typically dialog), narration, music (whether it’s an original composition or artist) and sound effects (often created by me) into one 5.1 surround soundtrack that plays on both TV and Internet.

Heard City

WHAT WOULD SURPRISE PEOPLE ABOUT WHAT FALLS UNDER THAT TITLE?
I think most people without a production background think the sound of a spot just “is.” They don’t really think about how or why it happens. Once I start explaining the sonic layers we combine to make up the final mix they are really surprised.

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE PART OF THE JOB?
The part that really excites me is the fact that each spot offers its own unique challenge. I take raw audio elements and tweak and mold them into a mix. Working with the agency creatives, we’re able to develop a mix that helps tell the story being presented in the spot. In that respect I feel like my job changes day in and day out and feels fresh every day.

WHAT’S YOUR LEAST FAVORITE?
Working late! There are a lot of late hours in creative jobs.

WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE TIME OF THE DAY?
I really like finishing a job. It’s that feeling of accomplishment when, after a few hours, I’m able to take some pretty rough-sounding dialog and manipulate that into a smooth-sounding final mix. It’s also when the clients we work with are happy during the final stages of their project.

WHAT TOOLS DO YOU USE ON A DAY-TO-DAY BASIS?
Avid Pro Tools, Izotope RX, Waves Mercury, Altiverb and Revibe.

IF YOU DIDN’T HAVE THIS JOB, WHAT WOULD YOU BE DOING INSTEAD?
One of my many hobbies is making furniture. My dad is a carpenter and taught me how to build at a very young age. If I never had the opportunity to come to New York and make a career here, I’d probably be building and making furniture near my hometown of Seneca Castle, New York.

WHY DID YOU CHOOSE THIS PROFESSION? HOW EARLY ON DID YOU KNOW THIS WOULD BE YOUR PATH?
I think this profession chose me. When I was a kid I was really into electronics and sound. I was both the drummer and the front of house sound mixer for my high school band. Mixing from behind the speakers definitely presents some challenges! I went on to college to pursue a career in music recording, but when I got an internship in New York at a premier post studio, I truly fell in love with creating sound for picture.

CAN YOU NAME SOME RECENT PROJECTS YOU HAVE WORKED ON?
Recently, I’ve worked on Chobani, Google, Microsoft, and Budweiser. I also did a film called The Discovery for Netflix.

The Discovery for Netflix.

WHAT IS THE PROJECT THAT YOU ARE MOST PROUD OF?
I’d probably have to say Chobani. That was a challenging campaign because the athletes featured in it were very busy. In order to capture the voiceover properly I was sent to Orlando and Los Angeles to supervise the narration recording and make sure it was suitable for broadcast. The spots ran during the Olympics, so they had to be top notch.

NAME THREE PIECES OF TECHNOLOGY YOU CAN’T LIVE WITHOUT.
iPhone, iPad and depth finder. I love boating and can’t imagine navigating these waters without knowing the depth!

WHAT SOCIAL MEDIA CHANNELS DO YOU FOLLOW?
I’m on the basics — Facebook, LinkedIn and Instagram. I dabble with SnapChat occasionally and will even open up Twitter once in a while to see what’s trending. I’m a fan of photography and nature, so I follow a bunch of outdoor Instagramers.

WHAT DO YOU DO TO DE-STRESS FROM IT ALL?
I joke with my friends that all of my hobbies are those of retired folks — sailing, golfing, fly fishing, masterful dog training, skiing, biking, etc. I joke that I’m practicing for retirement. I think hobbies that force me to relax and get out of NYC are really good for me.

The A-List: Jackie and Neruda director Pablo Larraín

By Iain Blair

Chilean director Pablo Larraín has been hailed as one of the most ambitious, iconoclastic, daring — and important — political filmmakers of his generation thanks to such films as No, a drama about the 1988 plebiscite that brought an end to the Pinochet era; Tony Manero, about a man obsessed with John Travolta’s disco dancing character from Saturday Night Fever; and The Club, a drama about disgraced priests.

iain-and-pablo

Writer Iain Blair and director Pablo Larraín.

He’s also one of the hardest-working directors in the business, with two major releases out before Christmas. First up is Fox’s Jackie, about one of the greatest icons of the 20th Century. It stars Natalie Portman as first lady Jackie Kennedy and is set in the immediate aftermath of the Kennedy assassination. That’s followed by Neruda, which focuses on the life of Pablo Neruda, one of the greatest poets of the 20th Century. Neruda is Chile’s Oscar submission, and Jackie, Larrain’s first English-language film, is also getting a lot of Oscar and awards season buzz.

I talked to Larraín about making the films and his workflow.

Why make back-to-back films?
I never planned it this way. I was going to make Neruda, and then we had to push it six months for a lot of reasons. My last film, The Club, won an award at Berlin, and Darren Aronofsky headed up the jury and asked me to direct Jackie, which he produced. So I ended up doing Jackie right after Neruda.

So what does a Chilean director shooting in Paris bring to such an iconic American subject?
The view of an outsider, maybe. We were doing a lot of post on Neruda in Paris, and the film was mainly made and cut there at Film Factory. Natalie was also living there, so it all came together organically. We built all the interiors there — the White House and so on.

Jackie

Neither film is your run-of-the-mill biopic. Can you talk about Jackie, which has a lot of time compression, random memories and flashbacks?
I don’t like normal biopics. They’re very tricky to do, I think. More than anything we wanted to find and discover the specific sensibility that was Jackie and examine all the events that happened after the assassination. It was also about capturing specific emotions and showing her strengths and weaknesses, and all the paradoxes and controversies that surrounded her. So we approached it from fiction. Good biopics aren’t really biographical; they just try to capture a sense of the person more through atmosphere and emotions than a linear plot and structure.

You must have done a lot of research?
Extensive — looking at newsreels, interviews, reading books. Before all that, I had a very superficial idea of her as this person who was mainly concerned about clothes and style and furniture. But as I researched her character, I discovered just what an incredible woman she was. And for me, it’s also the story of a mother.

Jackie

What were the main technical challenges of making this?
The biggest challenge for me was, of course, making my first film in English. It wasn’t easy to do. My other biggest challenge was making a film about a woman. In my films, the main characters have always been men, so that was the biggest one for me to deal with and understand.

Do you like the post process?
I love it — and more and more, the editing. It’s just so beautiful when you sit with the editor, and every scene you’ve shot is now cut in that first cut. Then you go, “Alright, where do we go now, to really shape the film?” You start moving scenes around and playing with the narrative. I think it was Truffaut who said that when you shoot, you have to fight with the script, and then when you edit, you have to fight with the shoot, and it’s so true. I’ve learned over the years to really embrace post and editing.

You worked with editor Sebastián Sepúlveda on Jackie. Tell us about that relationship and how it worked.
He began cutting while we were shooting, and when we wrapped we finished cutting it at Primo Solido, in Santiago, Chile. We did all the pre-mixes there too.

This is obviously not a VFX-driven piece, but as with any period piece the VFX play a big role.
Absolutely, and Garage, a VFX company in Santiago, did about 80 percent of them. They did a great job. We also used Mikros and Digital District in Paris. I like working with visual effects when I have to, but I’m not really a greenscreen guy (laughs). Both films were fun to do in terms of the effects work, and you can’t tell that they’re visual effects — all the backgrounds and so on are very photorealistic, and I love that illusion… that magic. Then there’s a lot of work erasing all the modern things and doing all the cleanup. It’s the kind of post work that’s most successful when no one notices it. (Check out our interview with Jackie editor Sebastián Sepúlveda.)

Neruda

Neruda

Let’s talk about Neruda, which is also not a typical biopic, but more of “policier” thriller.
Yes, it’s less about Neruda himself and more about what we call the “Nerudian world.” It’s about what he created and what happened when he went into hiding when the political situation changed in Chile. We created this fictional detective who’s hunting him as a way of exploring his life.

Along with Jackie, he was a real person. Did you feel an extra responsibility in making two films about such icons?
Yes, of course, but if you think about it too much it can just paralyze you. You’re trying to capture a sense of the person, their world, and we shot Neruda in Chile, Buenos Aires and a little bit in Paris.

What did you shoot the films on?
We shot Jackie on film and on Super 16, and Neruda on Red. I still love shooting on film more than digital, but we had a great experience with the Red cameras and we used some old Soviet anamorphic lenses from the ‘60s that I found in LA about eight years ago. We got a beautiful look with them. Then we did all the editing in Paris with Hervé Schneid but with a little help at the end from Sebastián Sepúlveda to finish it in time for its Cannes debut. We changed quite a few things — especially the music.

Neruda

Can you talk about the importance of music and sound in both of the films?
Well, film is an audio-visual medium, so sound is half the movie. It triggers mood, emotion, atmosphere, so it’s crucial to the image you’re looking at, and I spend a lot of time working on the music and sound with my team — I love that part of post too. When I work with my editors, I always ask them to cut to sound and work with sound as well, even if they don’t like to work that way.

How is the movie industry in Chile?
I think it’s healthy, and people are always challenging themselves, especially the younger generation. It’s full of great documentaries — and people who’ve never worked with film, only digital. It’s exciting.

What’s next?
I don’t quite know, but I’m developing several projects. It’s whatever happens first.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.

The sound of fighting in Jack Reacher: Never Go Back

By Jennifer Walden

Tom Cruise is one tough dude, and not just on the big screen. Cruise, who seems to be aging very gracefully, famously likes to do his own stunts, much to the dismay of many film studio execs.

Cruise’s most recent tough guy turn is in the sequel to 2014’s Jack Reacher. Jack Reacher: Never Go Back, which is in theaters now, is based on the protagonist in author Lee Child’s series of novels. Reacher, as viewers quickly find out, is a hands-on type of guy — he’s quite fond of hand-to-hand combat where he can throw a well-directed elbow or headbutt a bad guy square in the face.

Supervising sound editor Mark P. Stoeckinger, based at Formosa Group’s Santa Monica location, has worked on numerous Cruise films, including both Jack Reachers, Mission: Impossible II and III, The Last Samurai and he helped out on Edge of Tomorrow. Stoeckinger has a ton of respect for Cruise, “He’s my idol. Being about the same age, I’d love to be as active and in shape as he is. He’s a very amazing guy because he is such a hard worker.”

The audio post crew on ‘Jack Reacher: Never Go Back.’ Mark Stoeckinger is on the right.

Because he does his own stunts, and thanks to the physicality of Jack Reacher’s fighting style, sometimes Cruise gets a bruise or two. “I know he goes through a fair amount of pain, because he’s so extreme,” says Stoeckinger, who strives to make the sound of Reacher’s punches feel as painful as they are intended to be. If Reacher punches through a car window to hit a guy in the face, Stoeckinger wants that sound to have power. “Tom wants to communicate the intensity of the impacts to the audience, so they can appreciate it. That’s why it was performed that way in the first place.”

To give the fights that Reacher feel of being visceral and intense, Stoeckinger takes a multi-frequency approach. He layers high-frequency sounds, like swishes and slaps to signify speed, with low-end impacts to add weight. The layers are always an amalgamation of sound effects and Foley.

Stoeckinger prefers pulling hit impacts from sound libraries, or creating impacts specifically with “oomph” in mind. Then he uses Foley to flesh out the fight, filling in the details to connect the separate sound effects elements in a way that makes the fights feel organic.

The Sounds of Fighting
Under Stoeckinger’s supervision, a fight scene’s sound design typically begins with sound effects. This allows his sound team to start immediately, working with what they have at hand. On Jack Reacher: Never Go Back this task was handed over to sound effects editor Luke Gibleon at Formosa Group. Once the sound effects were in place, Stoeckinger booked the One Step Up Foley stage with Foley artist Dan O’Connell. “Having the effects in place gives us a very clear idea of what we want to cover with Foley,” he says. “Between Luke and Dan, the fight soundscapes for the film came to life.”

Jack Reacher: Never Go BackThe culminating fight sequence, where Reacher inevitably prevails over the bad guy, was Stoeckinger’s favorite to design. “The arc of the film built up to this fight scene, so we got to use some bigger sounds. Although, it still needed to seem as real as a Hollywood fight scene can be.”

The sound there features low-frequency embellishments that help the audience to feel the fight and not just hear it. The fight happens during a rowdy street festival in New Orleans in honor of the Day of the Dead. Crowds cavort with noisemakers, bead necklaces rain down, music plays and fireworks explode. “Story wise, the fireworks were meant to mask any gunshots that happened in the scene,” he says. “So it was about melding those two worlds — the fight and the atmosphere of the crowds — to help mask what we were doing. That was fun and challenging.”

The sounds of the street festival scene were all created in post since there was music playing during filming that wasn’t meant to stay on the track. The location sound did provide a sonic map of the actual environment, which Stoeckinger considered when rebuilding the scene. He also relied on field recordings captured by Larry Blake, who lives in New Orleans. “Then we searched for other sounds that were similar because we wanted it to sound fun and festive but not draw the ear too much since it’s really just the background.”

Stoeckinger sweetened the crowd sounds with recordings they captured of various noisemakers, tambourines, bead necklaces and group ADR to add mid-field and near-field detail when desired. “We tried to recreate the scene, but also gave it a Hollywood touch by adding more specifics and details to bring it more to life in various shots, and bring the audience closer to it or further away from it.”

Jack Reacher: Never Go BackStoeckinger also handled design on the film’s other backgrounds. His objective was to keep the locations feeling very real, so he used a combination of practical effects they recorded and field recordings captured by effect editor Luke Gibleon, in addition to library effects. “Luke [Gibleon] has a friend with access to an airport, so Luke did some field recordings of the baggage area and various escalators with people moving around. He also captured recordings of downtown LA at night. All of those field recordings were important in giving the film a natural sound.”

There where numerous locations in this film. One was when Reacher meets up with a teenage girl who he’s protecting from the bad guys. She lives in a sketchy part of town, so to reinforce the sketchiness of the neighborhood, Stoeckinger added nearby train tracks to the ambience and created street walla that had an edgy tone. “It’s nothing that you see outside of course, but sound-wise, in the ambient tracks, we can paint that picture,” he explains.
In another location, Stoeckinger wanted to sell the idea that they were on a dock, so he added in a boat horn. “They liked the boat horn sound so much that they even put a ship in the background,” he says. “So we had little sounds like that to help ground you in the location.”

Tools and the Mix
At Formosa, Stoeckinger has his team work together in one big Avid Pro Tools 12 sessions that included all of their sounds: the Foley, the backgrounds, sound effects, loop group and design elements. “We shared it,” he says. “We had a ‘check out’ system, like, ‘I’m going to check out reel three and work on this sequence.’ I did some pre-mixing, where I went through a scene or reel and decided what’s working or what sections needed a bit more. I made a mark on a timeline and then handed that off to the appropriate person. Then they opened it up and did some work. This master session circulated between two or three of us that way.” Stoeckinger, Gibleon and sound designer Alan Rankin, who handled guns and miscellaneous fight sounds, worked on this section of the film.

All the sound effects, backgrounds, and Foley were mixed on a Pro Tools ICON, and kept virtual from editorial to the final mix. “That was helpful because all the little pieces that make up a sound moment, we were able to adjust them as necessary on the stage,” explains Stoeckinger.

Jack Reacher: Never Go BackPremixing and the final mixes were handled at Twentieth Century Fox Studios on the Howard Hawks Stage by re-recording mixers James Bolt (effects) and Andy Nelson (dialogue/music). Their console arrangement was a hybrid, with the effects being mixed on an Avid ICON, and the dialogue and music mixed on an AMS Neve DFC console.

Stoeckinger feels that Nelson did an excellent job of managing the dialogue, particularly for moments where noisy locations may have intruded upon subtle line deliveries. “In emotional scenes, if you have a bunch of noise that happens to be part of the dialogue track, that detracts from the scene. You have to get all of the noise under control from a technical standpoint.” On the creative side, Stoeckinger appreciated Nelson’s handling of Henry Jackman’s score.

On effects, Stoeckinger feels Bolt did an amazing job in working the backgrounds into the Dolby Atmos surround field, like placing PA announcements in the overheads, pulling birds, cars or airplanes into the surrounds. While Stoeckinger notes this is not an overtly Atmos film, “it helped to make the film more spatial, helped with the ambiences and they did a little bit of work with the music too. But, they didn’t go crazy in Atmos.”

Behind the Title: Sound mixer/sound designer Rob DiFondi

Name: Rob DiFondi

Company: New York City’s Sound Lounge

Can you describe your company?
Sound Lounge is an audio post company that provides creative services for TV and radio commercials, feature films, television series, digital campaigns, gaming and other emerging media. Artist-owned and operated, we’re made up of an incredibly diverse, talented and caring group of people who all love the advertising and film worlds.

We recently celebrated Sound Lounge’s 18th birthday. I’m proud to say I’ve been a part of the SL family for over 13 years now, and I couldn’t ask for a better group of friends to hang out with every day.

What’s your job title?
Senior Mixer/Sound Designer

What does that entail?
I have actors in my booth all day recording VO (voiceover) for different commercials. My clients (usually brands, ad agencies, production companies, or editorials) hang in my room, and together we get the best possible read from the actor while they’re in the booth. I then craft sound design for the spot by either pulling sound effects from my library or recreating the necessary sounds myself (a.k.a. “Foley”). Once that’s set, I’ll take the lines the actor recorded, the sound effects I created, and any music, and then mix them all together so the spot sounds perfect (and is legal for TV broadcast)!

Being a mixer in the advertising post world isn’t easy. I also have to be able to provide a solid lunch recommendation — I always need to make sure I know where my clients can get the best sushi in the Flatiron district!

What would surprise people the most about what falls under that title?
That most of us are musicians who wanted to be rock stars but thought better of it. Maybe that isn’t so surprising though.

Sound Lounge

What’s your favorite part of the job?
The people, and the social part of the advertising industry. This business is filled with so many kind, funny and talented people, and it’s so nice to have them be a part of your life. And how can you beat partying every year at the MOMA for the AICP Gala?

What’s your least favorite?
Probably the lack of travel. I love our office, but it would be fun to do my job in different cities once in a while.

What is your favorite time of the day?
Walking in my front door and seeing my wife and kids.

If you didn’t have this job, what would you be doing instead?
Something that involves beaches and nice weather.

How early on did you know this would be your path?
I totally fell into this profession. I went to school to become a music engineer/producer. I had no idea there was a whole industry for mixing TV spots. Once I got into it though, I knew immediately that I loved it.

Can you name some recent projects you have worked on?
I worked on some really nice pieces for Maybelline, Google, Lincoln and TD Ameritrade.

What is the project that you are most proud of?
Miracle Stain, a Super Bowl commercial that I mixed for Tide a few years back. I finished the mix at 10pm on Thursday and got a call at 2am that there had been some changes, so I had to come back to work in the middle of the night. I tweaked the mix until the sun came up and had it ready to ship by 9am. It was one of those very epic projects that had all the classic markings of a Super Bowl spot.

Name three pieces of technology you can’t live without.
My iPhone, my DSLR camera and iZotope RX.

What social media channels do you follow?
I’m a big Instagram guy. I love seeing people’s lives told through photos. Facebook is so 2015.

Do you listen to music while you work? Care to share your favorite music to work to?
Since I work in audio I can’t listen to music while I work, but when I’m not working I listen to a lot of modern country music, Dave Matthews Band (not afraid to say it!), prog metal and pretty much everything in between.

This is a high stress job with deadlines and client expectations. What do you do to de-stress from it all?
I just leased a Jeep Wrangler Unlimited. There’s nothing like putting the top down and taking a drive to the beach!

The sound of two worlds for The Lost City of Z

By Jennifer Walden

If you are an explorer, your goal is to go where no one has gone before, or maybe it’s to unearth and re-discover a long-lost world. Director James Gray (The Immigrant), takes on David Grann’s non-fiction novel The Lost City of Z, which follows the adventures of British explorer Colonel Percival Fawcett, who in 1925 disappeared with his son in the Amazon jungle while on a quest to locate an ancient lost city.

Gray’s biographical film, which premiered October 15 at the 54th New York Film Festival, takes an interpretive approach to the story by exploring Fawcett’s inner landscape, which is at odds with his physical location — whether he’s in England or the Amazon, his thoughts drift between the two incongruent worlds.

Once Gray returned from filming The Lost City of Z in the jungles of Colombia, he met up with supervising sound editor/sound designer Robert Hein at New York’s Harbor Picture Company. Having worked together on The Immigrant years ago, Hein says he and Gray have an understanding of each other’s aesthetics. “He has very high goals for himself, and I try to have that also. I enjoy our collaboration; we keep pushing the envelope. We have a mutual appreciation for making a film the greatest it can be. It’s an evolution, and we keep pushing the film to new places.”

The Sound of Two Worlds
Gray felt Hein and Harbor Picture Company would be the perfect partner to handle the challenging sound job for The Lost City of Z. “It involved the creation of two very different worlds: Victorian England, and the jungle. Both feature the backdrop of World War I. Therefore, we wanted someone who naturally thinks outside the box, someone who doesn’t only look at the images on the screen, but takes chances and does things outside the realm of what you originally had in mind, and Bob [Hein] and his crew are those people.”

Bob Hein

Gray tasked Hein with designing a soundscape that could merge Fawcett’s physical location with his inner world. Fawcett (Charlie Hunnam) is presented with physical attacks and struggles, but it’s his inner struggle that Gray wanted to focus on. Hein explains, “Fawcett is a conflicted character. A big part of the film is his longing for two worlds: the Amazon and England. When he’s in one place, his mind is in the other, so that was very challenging to pull off.”

To help convey Fawcett’s emotional and mental conflicts, Hein introduced the sounds of England into the Amazon, and vice-versa, subtly blending the two worlds. Through sound, the audience escapes the physical setting and goes into Fawcett’s mind. For example, the film opens with the sounds of the jungle, to which Hein added an indigenous Amazonian battle drum that transforms into the drumming of an English soldier, since Fawcett is physically with a group of soldiers preparing for a hunt. Hein explains that Fawcett’s belief that the Amazonians were just as civilized as Europeans (maybe even more so) was a controversial idea at the time. Merging their drumming wasn’t just a means of carrying the audience from the Amazon to England; it was also a comment on the two civilizations.

“In a way, it’s kind of emblematic of the whole sound design,” explains Hein. “It starts out as one thing but then it transforms into another. We did that throughout the film. I think it’s very beautiful and engaging. Through the sound you enter into his world, so we did a lot of those transitions.”

In another scene, Fawcett is traveling down a river in the jungle and he’s thinking about his family in England. Here, Hein adds an indigenous bird calling, and as the scene develops he blends the sound of that bird with an English church bell. “It’s very subtle,” he says. “The sounds just merge. It’s the merging of two worlds. It’s a feeling more than an obvious trick.”

During a WWI battle scene, Fawcett leads a charge of troops out of their trench. Here Hein adds sounds related to the Amazon in juxtaposition of Fawcett’s immediate situation. “Right before he goes into war, he’s back in the jungle even though he is physically in the trenches. What you hear in his head are memories of the jungle. You hear the indigenous Amazonians, but unless you’re told what it is you might not know.”

A War Cry
According to Hein, one of the big events in the film occurs when Fawcett is being attacked by Amazonians. They are shooting at him but he refuses to accept defeat. Fawcett holds up his bible and an arrow goes tearing into the book. At that moment, the film takes the audience inside Fawcett’s mind as his whole life flashes by. “The sound is a very big part of that because you hear memories of England and memories of his life and his family, but then you start to hear an indigenous war cry that I changed dramatically,” explains Hein. “It doesn’t sound like something that would come out of a human voice. It’s more of an ethereal, haunted reference to the war cry.”

As Fawcett comes back to reality that sound gets erased by the jungle ambience. “He’s left alone in the jungle, staring at a tribe of Indians that just tried to kill him. That was a very effective sound design moment in this film.”

To turn that war cry into an ethereal sound, Hein used a granular synthesizer plug-in called Paulstretch (or Paul’s Extreme Sound Stretch) created by Software Engineer by Paul Nasca. “Paulstretch turns sounds almost into music,” he says. “It’s an old technology, but it does some very special things. You can set it for a variety of effects. I would play around with it until I found what I liked. There were a lot of versions of a lot of different ideas as we went along.”

It’s all part of the creative process, which Gray is happy to explore. “What’s great is that James [Gray] is excited about sound,” says Hein. “He would hang out and we would play things together and we would talk about the film, about the main character, and we would arrive at sounds together.”

Drones
Additionally, Hein sound designed drones to highlight the anxiety and trepidation that Fawcett feels. “The drones are low, sub-frequency sounds but they present a certain atmosphere that conveys dread. These elements are very subtle. You don’t get hit over the head with them,” he says.

The drones and all the sound design were created from natural sounds from the Amazon or England. For example, to create a low-end drone, they would start with jungle sounds — imagine a bee’s nest or an Amazonian instrument — and then manipulate those. “Everything was done to immerse the audience in the world of The Lost City of Z in its purest sense,” says Hein, who worked closely with Harbor’s sound editors Glenfield Payne, Damian Volpe and Dave Paterson. “They did great work and were crucial in the sound design.”

The Amazon
Gray also asked that Hein design the indigenous Amazon world exactly the way that it should be, as real as it could be. Hein says, “It’s very hard to find the correct sound to go along with the images. A lot of my endeavor was researching and finding people who did recordings in the Amazon.”

He scoured the Smithsonian Institute Archives, and did hours of research online, looking for audio preservationists who captured field recordings of indigenous Amazonians. “There was one amazing coincidence,” says Hein. “There’s a scene in the movie where the Indians are using an herbal potion to stun the fish in the river. That’s how they do it so as not to over-fish their environment. James [Gray] had found this chant that he wanted to have there, but that chant wasn’t actually a fishing chant. Fortunately, I found a recording of the actual fishing chant online. It’s beautifully done. I contacted the recordist and he gave us the rights to use it.”

Filming in the Amazon, under very difficult conditions presented Hein with another post production challenge. “Location sound recording in the jungle is challenging because there were loud insects, rain and thunder. There were even far-afield trucks and airplanes that didn’t exist at the time.”

Gray was very concerned that sections of the location dialogue would be unusable. “The performances in the film are so great because they went deep into the Amazon jungle to shoot this film. Physically being in that environment I’m sure was very stressful, and that added a certain quality to the actors’ performances that would have been very difficult to replace with ADR,” says Hein, who carefully cleaned up the dialogue using several tools, including iZotope’s RX 5 Advanced audio restoration software. “With RX 5 Advanced, we could microscopically choose which sounds we wanted to keep and which sounds we wanted to remove, and that’s done visually. RX gives you a visual map of the audio and you can paint out sounds that are unnecessary. It’s almost like Photoshop for sound.”

Hein shared the cleaned dialogue tracks with Gray, who was thrilled. “He was so excited about them. He said, “I can use my location sound!” That was a big part of the project.”

ADR and The Mix
While much of the dialogue was saved, there were still a few problematic scenes that required ADR, including a scene that was filmed during a tropical rainstorm, and another that was shot on a noisy train as it traveled over the mountains in Colombia. Harbor’s ADR supervisor Bobby Johanson, who has worked with Gray on previous films, recorded everything on Harbor’s ADR stage that is located just down the hall from Hein’s edit suite and the dub stage.

Gray says, “Harbor is not just great for New York; it’s great, period. It is this fantastic place where they’ve got soundstages that are 150 feet away from the editing rooms, which is incredibly convenient. I knew they could handle the job, and it was really a perfect scenario.”

The Lost City of Z was mixed in 5.1 surround on an Avid/Euphonix System 5 console by re-recording mixers Tom Johnson (dialogue/music) and Josh Berger (effects, Foley, backgrounds) in Studio A at Harbor Sound’s King Street location in Soho. It was also reviewed on the Harbor Grand stage, which is the largest theatrical mix stage in New York. The team used the 5.1 environment to create the feeling of being engulfed by the jungle. Fawcett’s trips, some which lasted years, were grueling and filled with disease and death. “The jungle is a scary place to be! We really wanted to make sure that the audience understood the magnitude of Percy’s trips to the Amazon,” says Berger. “There are certain scenes where we used sound to heighten the audience’s perspective of how erratic and punishing the jungle can be, i.e. when the team gets caught in rapids or when they come under siege from various Indian tribes.”

Johnson, who typically mixes at Skywalker Sound, had an interesting approach to the final mix. Hein explains that Johnson would first play a reel with every available sound in it — all the dialogue and ADR, all the sound effects and Foley — and the music. “We played it all in the reel,” says Hein. “It would be overwhelming. It would be unmixed and at times chaotic. But it gave us a very good idea of how to approach the mix.”

As they worked through the film, the sound would evolve in unexpected ways. What they heard toward the end of the first pass influenced their approach on the beginning of the second pass. “The film became a living being. We became very flexible about how the sound design was coming in and out of different scenes. The sound became very integrated into the film as a whole. It was really great to experience that,” shares Hein.

As Johnson and Berger mixed, Hein was busy creating new sound design elements for the visual effects that were still coming in at the last minute. For example, the final version of the arrows that were shot in the film didn’t come in until the last minute. “The arrows had to have a real special quality about them. They were very specific in communicating just how dangerous the situation actually was and what they were up against,” says Hein.

Later in the film, Amazonians throw tomahawks at Fawcett and his son as they run through the jungle. “Those tomahawks were never in the footage,” he says. “We had just an idea of them until days before we finished the mix. There was also a jaguar that comes out of the jungle and threatens them. That also came in at the last minute.”

While Hein created new sound elements in his edit suite next to the dub stage, Gray was able to join him for critique and collaboration before those sounds were sent next door to the dub stage. “Working with James is a high-energy, creative blast and super fun. He’s constantly coming up with new ideas and challenges. He spends every minute in the mix encouraging us, challenging us and, best of all, making us laugh a lot. He’s a great storyteller, and his knowledge of film and film history is remarkable. Working with James Gray is a real highlight in my career,” concludes Hein.


Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio engineer and writer. 

Napoleon Audio launched, Gregg Singer named EP

Veteran agency and audio producer Gregg Singer has joined The Napoleon Group in New York City as executive producer of its newly-launched Napoleon Audio.

Singer intends to integrate Napoleon’s audio capabilities with the group’s soup-to-nuts offerings, which span previz through live action production and post. “We’re creating a true full-service audio production company within The Napoleon Group,” he explains. “This will encompass everything from audio recording and mixing to in-studio direction and supervision, creative writing, sound design, original and stock music, music supervision and licensing, voice-over work and on-camera casting.”

gregg_singerNapoleon Audio’s rooms have mirrored gear and shared ISDN capabilities, a common network and separate isolation booths that can be linked or paired with either control room for simultaneous recording. Alongside the suites is an acoustically-treated stage that connects to the control rooms and enables the capture of live performances. In addition to audio post, the new division will offer trafficking, talent services, location recording and foreign language services, he adds.

Singer himself has an eclectic background, spanning everything from TV and radio production, marketing, advertising and creative development to sales, management, budgeting and strategic planning.  A film and television graduate of the Newhouse School at Syracuse, he got his start working on commercial shoots in New York. He then transitioned to the agency side and worked his way up through the production department, working as a producer, senior producer and head of production at such shops as JWT, BBDO, Bozell/Eskew, Cline Davis Mann and Kirshenbaum & Bond.

Singer left the agency world and joined audio post facility Sound Lounge in 2002 to launch a full-service audio production company. He left Sound Lounge in 2011 and was most recently partner and EP at Propeller Music Group.