Category Archives: VR

Comprimato plug-in manages Ultra HD, VR files within Premiere

Comprimato, makers of GPU-accelerated storage compression and video transcoding solutions, has launched Comprimato UltraPix. This video plug-in offers proxy-free, auto-setup workflows for Ultra HD, VR and more on hardware running Adobe Premiere Pro CC.

The challenge for post facilities finishing in 4K or 8K Ultra HD, or working on immersive 360­ VR projects, is managing the massive amount of data. The files are large, requiring a lot of expensive storage, which can be slow and cumbersome to load, and achieving realtime editing performance is difficult.

Comprimato UltraPix addresses this, building on JPEG2000, a compression format that offers high image quality (including mathematically lossless mode) to generate smaller versions of each frame as an inherent part of the compression process. Comprimato UltraPix delivers the file at a size that the user’s hardware can accommodate.

Once Comprimato UltraPix is loaded on any hardware, it configures itself with auto-setup, requiring no specialist knowledge from the editor who continues to work in Premiere Pro CC exactly as normal. Any workflow can be boosted by Comprimato UltraPix, and the larger the files the greater the benefit.

Comprimato UltraPix is a multi-platform video processing software for instant video resolution in realtime. It is a lightweight, downloadable video plug-in for OS X, Windows and Linux systems. Editors can switch between 4K, 8K, full HD, HD or lower resolutions without proxy-file rendering or transcoding.

“JPEG2000 is an open standard, recognized universally, and post production professionals will already be familiar with it as it is the image standard in DCP digital cinema files,” says Comprimato founder/CEO Jirˇí Matela. “What we have achieved is a unique implementation of JPEG2000 encoding and decoding in software, using the power of the CPU or GPU, which means we can embed it in realtime editing tools like Adobe Premiere Pro CC. It solves a real issue, simply and effectively.”

“Editors and post professionals need tools that integrate ‘under the hood’ so they can focus on content creation and not technology,” says Sue Skidmore, partner relations for Adobe. “Comprimato adds a great option for Adobe Premiere Pro users who need to work with high-resolution video files, including 360 VR material.”

Comprimato UltraPix plug-ins are currently available for Adobe Premiere Pro CC and Foundry Nuke and will be available on other post and VFX tools soon. You can download a free 30-day trial or buy Comprimato UltraPix for $99 a year.

The importance of audio in VR

By Anne Jimkes

While some might not be aware, sound is 50 percent of the experience in VR, as well as in film, television and games. Because we can’t physically see the audio, it might not get as much attention as the visual side of the medium. But the balance and collaboration between visual and aural is what creates the most effective, immersive and successful experience.

More specifically, sound in VR can be used to ease people into the experience, what we also call “on boarding.” It can be used subtly and subconsciously to guide viewers by motivating them to look in a specific direction of the virtual world, which completely surrounds them.

In every production process, it is important to discuss how sound can be used to benefit the storytelling and the overall experience of the final project. In VR, especially the many low-budget independent projects, it is crucial to keep the importance and use of audio in mind from the start to save time and money in the end. Oftentimes, there are no real opportunities or means to record ADR after a live-action VR shoot, so it is important to give the production mixer ample opportunity to capture the best production sound possible.

Anne Jimkes at work.

This involves capturing wild lines, making sure there is time to plant and check the mics, and recording room tone. Things that are already required, albeit not always granted, on regular shoots, but even more important on a set where a boom operator cannot be used due to the 360 degree view of the camera. The post process is also very similar to that for TV or film up to the point of actual spatialization. We come across similar issues of having to clean up dialogue and fill in the world through sound. What producers must be aware of, however, is that after all the necessary elements of the soundtrack have been prepared, we have to manually and meticulously place and move around all the “audio objects” and various audio sources throughout the space. Whenever people decide to re-orient the video — meaning when they change what is considered the initial point of facing forward or “north” — we have to rewrite all this information that established the location and movement of the sound, which takes time.

Capturing Audio for VR
To capture audio for virtual reality we have learned a lot about planting and hiding mics as efficiently as possible. Unlike regular productions, it is not possible to use a boom mic, which tends to be the primary and most naturally sounding microphone. Aside from the more common lavalier mics, we also use ambisonic mics, which capture a full sphere of audio and matches the 360 picture — if the mic is placed correctly on axis with the camera. Most of the time we work with Sennheiser and use their Ambeo microphone to capture 360 audio on set, after which we add the rest of the spatialized audio during post production. Playing back the spatialized audio has become easier lately, because more and more platforms and VR apps accept some form of 360 audio playback. There is still a difference between the file formats to which we can encode our audio outputs, meaning that some are more precise and others are a little more blurry regarding spatialization. With VR, there is not yet a standard for deliverables and specs, unlike the film/television workflow.

What matters most in the end is that people are aware of how the creative use of sound can enhance their experience, and how important it is to spend time on capturing good dialogue on set.


Anne Jimkes is a composer, sound designer, scholar and visual artist from the Netherlands. Her work includes VR sound design at EccoVR and work with the IMAX VR Centre. With a Master’s Degree from Chapman University, Jimkes previously served as a sound intern for the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences.

Dell 6.15

Assimilate’s Scratch VR Suite 8.6 now available

Back in February, Assimilate announced the beta version of its Scratch VR Suite 8.6. Well, now the company is back with a final version of the product, including user requests for features and functions.

Scratch VR Suite 8.6 is a realtime post solution and workflow for VR/360 content. With added GPU stitching of 360-video and ambisonic audio support, as well as live streaming, the Scratch VR Suite 8.6 allows VR content creators — DPs, DITs, post artists — a streamlined, end-to-end workflow for VR/360 content.

The Scratch VR Suite 8.6 workflow automatically includes all the basic post tools: dailies, color grading, compositing, playback, cloud-based reviews, finishing and mastering.

New features and updates include:
– 360 stitching functionality: Load the source media of multiple shots from your 360 cameras. into Scratch VR and easily wrap them into a stitch node to combine the sources into a equirectangular image.
• Support for various stitch template format, such as AutoPano, Hugin, PTGui and PTStitch scripts.
• Either render out the equirectangular format first or just continue to edit, grade and composite on top of the stitched nodes and render the final result.
• Ambisonic audio: Load, set and playback ambisonic audio files to complete the 360 immersive experience.
• Video with 360 sound can be published directly to YouTube 360.
• Additional overlay handles to the existing. 2D-equirectangular feature for more easily positioning. 2D elements in a 360 scene.
• Support for Oculus Rift, Samsung Gear VR, HTC Vive and Google Cardboard.
• Several new features and functions make working in HDR just as easy as SDR.
• Increased Format Support – Added support for all the latest formats for even greater efficiency in the DIT and post production processes.
• More Simplified DIT reporting function – Added features and functions enables even greater efficiencies in a single, streamlined workflow.
• User Interface: Numerous updates have been made to enhance and simplify the UI for content creators, such as for the log-in screen, matrix layout, swipe sensitivity, Player stack, tool bar and tool tips.


SMPTE’s ETCA conference takes on OTT, cloud, AR/VR, more

SMPTE has shared program details for its Entertainment Technology in the Connected Age (ETCA) conference, taking place in Mountain View, California, May 8-9 at the Microsoft Silicon Valley Campus.

Called “Redefining the Entertainment Experience,” this year’s conference will explore emerging technologies’ impact on current and future delivery of compelling connected entertainment experiences.

Bob DeHaven, GM of worldwide communications & media at Microsoft Azure, will present the first conference keynote, titled “At the Edge: The Future of Entertainment Carriage.” The growth of on-demand programming and mobile applications, the proliferation of the cloud and the advent of the “Internet of things” demands that video content is available closer to the end user to improve both availability and the quality of the experience.

DeHaven will discuss the relationships taking shape to embrace these new requirements and will explore the roles network providers, content delivery networks (CDNs), network optimization technologies and cloud platforms will play in achieving the industry’s evolving needs.

Hanno Basse, chief technical officer at Twentieth Century Fox Film, will present “Next-Generation Entertainment: A View From the Fox.” Fox distributes content via multiple outlets ranging — from cinema to Blu-ray, over-the-top (OTT), and even VR. Basse will share his views on the technical challenges of enabling next-generation entertainment in a connected age and how Fox plans to address them.

The first conference session, “Rethinking Content Creation and Monetization in a Connected Age,” will focus on multiplatform production and monetization using the latest creation, analytics and search technologies. The session “Is There a JND in It for Me?” will take a second angle, exploring what new content creation, delivery and display technology innovations will mean for the viewer. Panelists will discuss the parameters required to achieve original artistic intent while maintaining a just noticeable difference (JND) quality level for the consumer viewing experience.

“Video Compression: What’s Beyond HEVC?” will explore emerging techniques and innovations, outlining evolving video coding techniques and their ability to handle new types of source material, including HDR and wide color gamut content, as well as video for VR/AR.

Moving from content creation and compression into delivery, “Linear Playout: From Cable to the Cloud” will discuss the current distribution landscape, looking at the consumer apps, smart TV apps, and content aggregators/curators that are enabling cord-cutters to watch linear television, as well as the new business models and opportunities shaping services and the consumer experience. The session will explore tools for digital ad insertion, audience measurement and monetization while considering the future of cloud workflows.

“Would the Internet Crash If Everyone Watched the Super Bowl Online?” will shift the discussion to live streaming, examining the technologies that enable today’s services as well as how technologies such as transparent caching, multicast streaming, peer-assisted delivery and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) streaming might enable live streaming at a traditional broadcast scale and beyond.

“Adaptive Streaming Technology: Entertainment Plumbing for the Web” will focus specifically on innovative technologies and standards that will enable the industry to overcome inconsistencies of the bitrate quality of the Internet.

“IP and Thee: What’s New in 2017?” will delve into the upgrade to Internet Protocol infrastructure and the impact of next-generation systems such as the ATSC 3.0 digital television broadcast system, the Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) suite of internationally accepted open standards for digital television, and fifth-generation mobile networks (5G wireless) on Internet-delivered entertainment services.

Moving into the cloud, “Weather Forecast: Clouds and Partly Scattered Fog in Your Future” examines how local networking topologies, dubbed “the fog,” are complementing the cloud by enabling content delivery and streaming via less traditional — and often wireless — communication channels such as 5G.

“Giving Voice to Video Discovery” will highlight the ways in which voice is being added to pay television and OTT platforms to simplify searches.

In a session that explores new consumption models, “VR From Fiction to Fact” will examine current experimentation with VR technology, emerging use cases across mobile devices and high-end headsets, and strategies for addressing the technical demands of this immersive format.

You can resister for the conference here.


Sound editor/mixer Korey Pereira on 3D audio workflows for VR

By Andrew Emge

As the technologies for VR and 360 video rapidly advance and become more accessible, media creators are realizing the crucial role that sound plays in achieving realism. Sound designers are exploring this new frontier of 3D audio at the same time that tools for the medium are being developed and introduced. When everything is so new and constantly evolving, how does one learn where to start or decide where to invest time and experimentation?

To better understand this process, I spoke with Korey Pereira, a sound editor and mixer based in Austin, Texas. He recently entered the VR/360 audio world and has started developing a workflow.

Can you provide some background about who you are, the work you’ve done, and what you’ve been up to lately?
I’m the owner/creative director at Soularity Sound, an Austin-based post company. We primarily work with indie filmmakers, but also do some television and ad work. In addition to my work at Soularity, I also work as a sound editor and mixer at a few other Austin post facilities, including Soundcrafter. My credits with them include Richard Linklater’s Boyhood and Everybody Wants Some, as well as TV shows such as Shipping Wars and My 600lb Life.

You recently purchased the Pro Sound Effects NYC Ambisonics library. Can you talk about some VR projects you are working on?
In the coming months I plan to start creating audio content for VR with a local content creator, Deepak Chetty. Over the years we have collaborated on a number of projects, most recently I worked on his stereoscopic 3D sci-fi/action film, Hard Reset, which won the 2016 “Best 3D Live Action Short” from the Advanced Imaging Society.

Deepak Chetty shooting a VR project.

I love sci-fi as a genre, because there really are no rules. It lets you really go for it as far as sound. Deepak has been shifting his creative focus toward 360 content and we are hoping to start working together in that aspect in the near future.

The content Deepak is currently mostly working on non-fiction and documentary-based content in 360 — mainly environment capture with a through line of audio storytelling that serves as the backbone of the piece. He is also looking forward to experimenting with fiction-based narratives in the 360 space, especially with the use of spatial audio to enhance immersion for the viewer.

Prior to meeting Deepak, did you have any experience working with VR/3D audio?
No, this is my first venture into the world of VR audio or 3D audio. I have been mixing in surround for over a decade, but I am excited about the additional possibilities this format brings to the table.

What have been the most helpful sources for studying up and figuring out a workflow?
The Internet! There is such a wealth of information out there, and you kind of just have to dive in. The benefit of 360 audio being a relatively new format is that people are still willing to talk openly about it.

Was there anything particularly challenging to get used to or wrap your head around?
In a lot of ways designing audio for VR is not that different from traditional sound mixing for film. You start with a bed of ambiences and then place elements within a surround space. I guess the most challenging part of the transition is anticipating how the audience might hear your mix. If the viewer decides to watch a whole video facing the surrounds, how will it sound?

Can you describe the workflow you’ve established so far? What are some decisions you’ve made regarding DAW, monitoring, software, plug-ins, tools, formats and order of operation?
I am a Pro Tools guy, so my main goal was finding a solution that works seamlessly inside the Pro Tools environment. As I started looking into different options, the Two Big Ears Spatial Workstation really stood out to me as being the most intuitive and easiest platform to hit the ground running with. (Two Big Ears recently joined Facebook, so Spatial Workstation is now available for free!)

Basically, you install a Pro Tools plug-in that works as a 3D audio engine and gives you a Pro Tools project with all the routing and tracks laid out for you. There are object-based tracks that allow you to place sounds within a 3D environment as well as ambience tracks that allow you to add stereo or ambisonic beds as a basis for your mix.

The coolest thing about this platform is that it includes a 3D video player that runs in sync with Pro Tools. There is a binaural preview pathway in the template that lets you hear the shift in perspective as you move the video around in the player. Pretty cool!

In September 2016, another audio workflow for VR in Pro Tools entered the market from the Dutch company Audio Ease and their 360 pan suite. Much like the Spatial Workstation, the suite offers an object-based panner (360 pan) that when placed on every audio track allows you to pan individual items within the 360-degree field of view. The 360 pan suite also includes the 360 monitor, which allows you to preview head tracking within Pro Tools.

Where the 360 pan suite really stands out is with their video overlay function. By loading a 360 video inside of Pro Tools, Audio Ease adds an overlay on top of the Pro Tools video window, letting you pan each track in real time, which is really useful. For the features it offers, it is relatively affordable. The suite does not come with its own template, but they have a quick video guide to get you up and going fairly easily.

Are there any aspects that you’re still figuring out?
Delivery is still a bit up in the air. You may need to export in multiple formats to be able to upload to Facebook, YouTube, etc. I was glad to see that YouTube is supporting the ambisonic format for delivery, but I look forward to seeing workflows become more standardized across the board.

Any areas in which you see the need for further development, and/or where the tech just isn’t there yet?
I think the biggest limitation with VR is the lack of affordable and easy-to-use 3D audio capture devices. I would love to see a super-portable ambisonic rig that filmmakers can easily use in conjunction with shooting 360 video. Especially as media giants like YouTube are gravitating toward the ambisonic format for delivery, it would be great for them to be able to capture the actual space in the same format.

In January 2017, Røde announced the VideoMic Soundfield — an on-camera ambisonic, 360-degree surround sound microphone — though pricing and release dates have not yet been made public.

One new product I am really excited about is the Sennheiser Ambeo VR mic, which is around $1,650. That’s a bit pricey for the most casual user once you factor in a 4-track recorder, but for the professional user that already has a 788T, the Ambeo VR mic offers a nice turnkey solution. I like that the mic looks a little less fragile than some of the other options on the market. It has a built-in windscreen/cage similar to what you would see on a live handheld microphone. It also comes with a Rycote shockmount and cable to 4-XLR, which is nice.

Some leading companies have recently selected ambisonics as the standard spatial audio format — can you talk a bit about how you use ambisonics for VR?
Yeah, I think this is a great decision. I like the “future proof” nature of the ambisonic format. Even in traditional film mixing, I like having the option to export to stereo, 5.1 or 7.1 depending on the project. Until ambisonic becomes more standardized, I like that the Two Big Ears/FB 360 encoder allows you to export to the .tbe B-Format (FuMa or ambiX/YouTube) as well as quad-binaural.

I am a huge fan of the ambisonic format in general. The Pro Sound Effects NYC Ambisonics Library (and now Chicago and Tokyo as well) was my first experience using the format and I was blown away. In a traditional mixing environment it adds another level of depth to the backgrounds. I really look forward to being able to bring it to the VR format as well.


Andrew Emge is operations manager at Pro Sound Effects.


Lenovo intros VR-ready ThinkStation P320

Lenovo launched its VR-ready ThinkStation P320 at Develop3D Live, a UK-based conference that puts special focus on virtual reality as a productivity tool in design workflows. The ThinkStation P320 is the latest addition to the Lenovo portfolio of VR-ready certified workstations and is designed for power users looking to balance both performance and their budgets.

The workstation’s pro VR certification allows ThinkStation P320 users an to more easily add virtual reality into their workflow without requiring an initial high-end hardware and software investment.

The refreshed workstation will be available in both full-size tower and small form factor (SFF) and comes equipped with Intel’s newest Xeon processors and Core i7 processors — offering speeds of up to 4.5GHz with Turbo Boost (on the tower). Both form factors will also support the latest Nvidia Quadro graphics cards, including support for dual Nvidia Quadro P1000 GPUs in the small form factor.

The ISV-certified ThinkStation P320 supports up to 64GB of DDR4 memory and customization via the Flex Module. In terms of environmental sustainability, the P320 is Energy Star-qualified, as well as EPEAT Gold and Greenguard-certified.

The Lenovo ThinkStation P320 full-size tower and SFF will be available at the end of April.


Lost in Time game show embraces ‘Interactive Mixed Reality’

By Daniel Restuccio

The Future Group — who has partnered with Fremantle Media, Ross Video and Epic Games — have created a new super-agile entertainment platform that blends linear television and game technology into a hybrid format called “Interactive Mixed Reality.”

The brainchild of Bård Anders Kasin, this innovative content deployment medium generated a storm of industry buzz at NAB 2016, and their first production Lost in Time — a weekly primetime game show — is scheduled to air this month on Norwegian television.

The Idea
The idea originated more than 13 years ago in Los Angeles. In 2003, at age 22, Kasin, a self-taught multimedia artist from Notodden, Norway, sent his CV and a bunch of media projects to Warner Bros. in Burbank, California, in hopes of working on The Matrix. They liked it. His interview was on a Wednesday and by Friday he had a job as a technical director.

Kasin immersed himself in the cutting-edge movie revolution that was The Matrix franchise. The Wachowskis visionary production was a masterful inspiration and featured a compelling sci-fi action story, Oscar-winning editing, breakthrough visual effects (“bullet-time”) and an expanded media universe that included video games and an animè-style short The Animatrix. The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions were shot at the same time, as well as more than an hour of footage specifically designed for the video game. The Matrix Online, an Internet gaming platform, was a direct sequel to The Matrix Revolutions.

L-R: Bård Anders Kasin and Jens Petter Høili.

Fast forward to 2013 and Kasin has connected with software engineer and serial entrepreneur Jens Petter Høili, founder of EasyPark and Fairchance. “There was this producer I knew in Norway,” explains Kasin, “who runs this thing called the Artists’ Gala charity. He called and said, ‘There’s this guy you should meet. I think you’ll really hit it off.’” Kasin met Høili had lunch and discussed projects they each were working on. “We both immediately felt there was a connection,” recalls Kasin. No persuading was necessary. “We thought that if we combined forces we were going to get something that’s truly amazing.”

That meeting of the minds led to the merging of their companies and the formation of The Future Group. The mandate of Oslo-based The Future Group is to revolutionize the television medium by combining linear TV production with cutting-edge visual effects, interactive gameplay, home viewer participation and e-commerce. Their IMR concept ditches the individual limiting virtual reality (VR) headset, but conceptually keeps the idea of creating content that is a multi-level, intricate and immersive experience.

Lost in Time
Fast forward again, this time to 2014. Through another mutual friend, The Future Group formed an alliance with Fremantle Media. Fremantle, a global media company, has produced some of the highest-rated and longest-running shows in the world, and is responsible for top international entertainment brands such as Got Talent, Idol and The X Factor.

Kasin started developing the first IMR prototype. At this point, the Lost in Time production had expanded to include Ross Video and Epic Games. Ross Video is a broadcast technology innovator and Epic Games is a video game producer and the inventor of the Unreal game engine. The Future Group, in collaboration with Ross Video, engineered the production technology and developed a broadcast-compatible version of the Unreal game engine called Frontier, shown at NAB 2016, to generate high-resolution, realtime graphics used in the production.

On January 15, 2015 the first prototype was shown. When Freemantle saw the prototype, they were amazed. They went directly to stage two, moving to the larger stages at Dagslys Studios. “Lost in Time has been the driver for the technology,” explains Kasin. “We’re a very content-driven company. We’ve used that content to drive the development of the platform and the technology, because there’s nothing better than having actual content to set the requirements for the technology rather than building technology for general purposes.”

In Lost in Time, three studio contestants are set loose on a greenscreen stage and perform timed, physical game challenges. The audience, which could be watching at home or on a mobile device, sees the contestant seamlessly blended into a virtual environment built out of realtime computer graphics. The environments are themed as western, ice age, medieval times and Jurassic period sets (among others) with interactive real props.

The audience can watch the contestants play the game or participate in the contest as players on their mobile device at home, riding the train or literally anywhere. They can play along or against contestants, performing customized versions of the scripted challenges in the TV show. The mobile content uses graphics generated from the same Unreal engine that created the television version.

“It’s a platform,” reports partner Høili, referring to the technology behind Lost in Time. A business model is a way you make money, notes tech blogger Jonathan Clarks, and a platform is something that generates business models. So while Lost in Time is a specific game show with specific rules, built on television technology, it’s really a business technology framework where multiple kinds of interactive content could be generated. Lost in Time is like the Unreal engine itself, software that can be used to create games, VR experiences and more, limited only by the imagination of the content creator. What The Future Group has done is create a high-tech kitchen from which any kind of cuisine can be cooked up.

Soundstages and Gear
Lost in Time is produced on two greenscreen soundstages at Dagslys Studios in Oslo. The main “gameplay set” takes up all of Studio 1 (5,393 square feet) and the “base station set” is on Studio 3 (1,345 square feet). Over 150 liters (40 gallons) of ProCyc greenscreen paint was used to cover both studios.

Ross Video, in collaboration with The Future Group, devised an integrated technology of hardware and software that supports the Lost in Time production platform. This platform consists of custom cameras, lenses, tracking, control, delay, chroma key, rendering, greenscreen, lighting and switcher technology. This system includes the new Frontier hardware, introduced at NAB 2016, which runs the Unreal game engine 3D graphics software.

Eight Sony HDC-2500 cameras running HZC-UG444 software are used for the production. Five are deployed on the “gameplay set.” One camera rides on a technocrane, two are on manual pedestal dollies and one is on Steadicam. For fast-action tracking shots, another camera sits on the Furio RC dolly that rides on a straight track that runs the 90-foot length of the studio. The Furio RC pedestal, controlled by SmartShell, guarantees smooth movement in virtual environments and uses absolute encoders on all axes to send complete 3D tracking data into the Unreal engine.

There is also one Sony HDC-P1 camera that is used as a static, center stage, ceiling cam flying 30 feet above the gameplay set. There are three cameras in the home base set, two on Furio Robo dollies and one on a technocrane. In the gameplay set, all cameras (except the ceiling cam) are tracked with the SolidTrack IR markerless tracking system.

All filming is done at 1080p25 and output RGB 444 via SDI. They use a custom LUT on the cameras to avoid clipping and an expanded dynamic range for post work. All nine camera ISOs, separate camera “clean feeds,” are recorded with a “flat” LUT in RGB 444. For all other video streams, including keying and compositing, they use LUT boxes to invert the signal back to Rec 709.

Barnfind provided the fiber optic network infrastructure that links all the systems. Ross Video Dashboard controls the BarnOne frames as well as the router, Carbonite switchers, Frontier graphics system and robotic cameras.

A genlock signal distributed via OpenGear syncs all the gear to a master clock. The Future Group added proprietary code to Unreal so the render engine can genlock, receive and record linear timecode (LTC) and output video via SDI in all industry standard formats. They also added additional functionality to the Unreal engine to control lights via DMX, send and receive GPI signals, communicate with custom sensors, buttons, switches and wheels used for interaction with the games and controlling motion simulation equipment.

In order for the “virtual cameras” in the graphics systems and the real cameras viewing the real elements to have the exact same perspectives, an “encoded” camera lens is required that provides the lens focal length (zoom) and focus data. In addition the virtual lens field of view (FOV) must be properly calibrated to match the FOV of the real lens. Full servo digital lenses with 16-bit encoders are needed for virtual productions. Lost in Time uses three Canon lenses with these specifications: Canon Hj14ex4.3B-IASE, Canon Hj22ex7.6B-IASE-A and Canon Kj17ex7.7B-IASE-A.

The Lost in Time camera feeds are routed to the Carbonite family hardware: Ultrachrome HR, Carbonite production frame and Carbonite production switcher. Carbonite Ultrachrome HR is a stand-alone multichannel chroma key processor based on the Carbonite Black processing engine. On Lost in Time, the Ultrachrome switcher accepts the Sony camera RGB 444 signal and uses high-resolution chroma keyers, each with full control of delay management, fill color temperature for scene matching, foreground key and fill, and internal storage for animated graphics.

Isolated feeds of all nine cameras are recorded, plus two quad-splits with the composited material and the program feed. Metus Ingest, a The Future Group proprietary hardware solution, was used for all video recording. Metus Ingest can simultaneously capture and record  up to six HD channels of video and audio from multiple devices on a single platform.

Post Production
While the system is capable of being broadcast live, they decided not to go live for the debut. Instead they are only doing a modest amount of post to retain the live feel. That said, the potential of the post workflow on Lost in Time arguably sets a whole new post paradigm. “Post allows us to continue to develop the virtual worlds for a longer amount of time,” says Kasin. “This gives us more flexibility in terms of storytelling. We’re always trying to push the boundaries with the creative content. How we tell the story of the different challenges.”

All camera metadata, including position, rotation, lens data, etc., and all game interaction, were recorded in the Unreal engine with a proprietary system. This allowed graphics playback as a recorded session later. This also let the editors change any part of the graphics non-destructively. They could choose to replace 3D models or textures or in post change the tracking or point-of-view of any of the virtual cameras as well as add cameras for more virtual “coverage.”

Lost in Time episodes were edited as a multicam project, based on the program feed, in Adobe Premiere CC. They have a multi-terabyte storage solution from Pixit Media running Tiger Technology’s workflow manager. “The EDL from the final edit is fed through a custom system, which then builds a timeline in Unreal to output EXR sequences for a final composite.”

That’s it for now, but be sure to visit this space again to see part two of our coverage on The Future Group’s Lost in Time. Our next story will include the real and virtual lighting systems, the SolidTrack IR tracking system, the backend component, and interview with Epic Games’ Kim Libreri about Unreal engine development/integration and a Lost in Time episode editor.


Daniel Restuccio, who traveled to Oslo for this piece, is a writer, producer and teacher. He is currently multimedia department chairperson at California Lutheran in Thousand Oaks.


Timecode’s new firmware paves the way for VR

Timecode Systems, which makes wireless technologies for sharing timecode and metadata, has launched a firmware upgrade that enhances the accuracy of its wireless genlock.

Promising sub-line-accurate synchronization, the system allows Timecode Systems products to stay locked in sync more accurately, setting the scene for development of a wireless sensor sync solution able to meet the requirements of VR/AR and motion capture.

“The industry benchmark for synchronization has always been ‘frame-accurate’, but as we started exploring the absolutely mission-critical sync requirements of virtual reality, augmented reality and motion capture, we realized sync had to be even tighter,” said Ashok Savdharia, chief technical officer at Timecode Systems. “With the new firmware and FPGA algorithms released in our latest update, we’ve created a system offering wireless genlock to sub-line accuracy. We now have a solid foundation on which to build a robust and immensely accurate genlock, HSYNC and VSYNC solution that will meet the demands of VR and motion capture.”

A veteran in camera and image sensor technology, Savdharia joined Timecode Systems last year. In addition to building up the company’s multi-camera range of solutions, he is leading a development team to pioneering a wireless sync system for the VR and motion capture market.


Quick Chat: Scott Gershin from The Sound Lab at Technicolor

By Randi Altman

Veteran sound designer and feature film supervising sound editor Scott Gershin is leading the charge at the recently launched The Sound Lab at Technicolor, which, in addition to film and television work, focuses on immersive storytelling.

Gershin has more than 100 films to his credit, including American Beauty (which earned him a BAFTA nomination), Guillermo del Toro’s Pacific Rim and Dan Gilroy’s Nightcrawler. But films aren’t the only genre that Gershin has tackled — in addition to television work (he has an Emmy nom for the TV series Beauty and the Beast), this audio post pro has created the sound for game titles such as Resident Evil, Gears of War and Fable. One of his most recent projects was contributing to id Software’s Doom.

We recently reached out to Gershin to find out more about his workflow and this new Burbank-based audio entity.

Can you talk about what makes this facility different than what Technicolor has at Paramount? 
The Sound Lab at Technicolor works in concert with our other audio facilities, tackling film, broadcast and gaming projects. In doing so we are able to use Technicolor’s world-class dubbing, ADR and Foley stages.

One of the focuses of The Sound Lab is to identify and use cutting-edge technologies and workflows not only in traditional mediums, but in those new forms of entertainment such as VR, AR, 360 video/films, as well as dedicated installations using mixed reality. The Sound Lab at Technicolor is made up of audio artists from multiple industries who create a “brain trust” for our clients.

Scott Gershin and The Sound Lab team.

As an audio industry veteran, how has the world changed since you started?
I was one of the first sound people to use computers in the film industry. When I moved from the music industry into film post production, I brought that knowledge and experience with me. It gave me access to a huge number of tools that helped me tell better stories with audio. The same happened when I expanded into the game industry.

Learning the interactive tools of gaming is now helping me navigate into these new immersive industries, combining my film experience to tell stories and my gaming experience using new technologies to create interactive experiences.

One of the biggest changes I’ve seen is that there are so many opportunities for the audience to ingest entertainment — creating competition for their time — whether it’s traveling to a theatre, watching TV (broadcast, cable and streaming) on a new 60- or 70-inch TV, or playing video games alone on a phone or with friends on a console.

There are so many choices, which means that the creators and publishers of content have to share a smaller piece of the pie. This forces budgets to be smaller since the potential audience size is smaller for that specific project. We need to be smarter with the time that we have on projects and we need to use the technology to help speed up certain processes — allowing us more time to be creative.

Can you talk about your favorite tools?
There are so many great technologies out there. Each one adds a different color to my work and provides me with information that is crucial to my sound design and mix. For example, Nugen has great metering and loudness tools that help me zero in on my clients LKFS requirements. With each client having their own loudness requirements, the tools allow me to stay creative, and meet their requirements.

Audi’s The Duel

What are some recent projects you’ve worked on?
I’ve been working on a huge variety of projects lately. Recently, I finished a commercial for Audi called The Duel, a VR piece called My Brother’s Keeper, 10 Webisodes of The Strain and a VR music piece for Pentatonix. Each one had a different requirement.

What is your typical workflow like?
When I get a job in, I look at what the project is trying to accomplish. What is the story or the experience about? I ask myself, how can I use my craft, shaping audio, to better enhance the experience. Once I understand how I am going to approach the project creatively, I look at what the release platform will be. What are the technical challenges and what frequencies and spacial options are open to me? Whether that means a film in Dolby Atmos or a VR project on the Rift. Once I understand both the creative and technical challenges then I start working within the schedule allotted me.

Speed and flow are essential… the tools need to be like musical instruments to me, where it goes from brain to fingers. I have a bunch of monitors in front of me, each one supplying me with different and crucial information. It’s one of my favorite places to be — flying the audio starship and exploring the never-ending vista of the imagination. (Yeah, I know it’s corny, but I love what I do!)

HPA Tech Retreat takes on realities of virtual reality

By Tom Coughlin

The HPA Tech Retreat, run by the Hollywood Professional Association in association with SMPTE, began with an insightful one-day VR seminar— Integrating Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality into Entertainment Applications. Lucas Wilson from SuperSphere kicked off the sessions and helped with much of the organization of the seminar.

The seminar addressed virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR, a subset of AR where the real world and the digital world interact, like Pokeman Go). As in traditional planar video, 360-degree video still requires a director to tell a story and direct the eye to see what is meant to be seen. Successful VR requires understanding how people look at things, how they perceive reality, and using that understanding to help tell a story. Some things that may help with this are reinforcement of the viewer’s gaze with color and sound that may vary with the viewer — e.g. these may be different for the “good guy” and the “bad guy.”

VR workflows are quite different from traditional ones, with many elements changing with multiple-camera content. For instance, it is much more difficult to keep a camera crew out of the image, and providing proper illumination for all the cameras can be a challenge. The image below from Jaunt shows their 360-degree workflow, including the use of their cloud-based computational image service to stitch the images from the multiple cameras.
Snapchat is the biggest MR application, said Wilson. Snapchat’s Snapchat-stories could be the basis of future post tools.

Because stand-alone headsets (head-mounted displays, or HMDs) are expensive, most users of VR rely on smart phone-based displays. There are also some places that allow one or more people to experience VR, such as the IMAX center in Los Angeles. Activities such as VR viewing will be one of the big drivers for higher-resolution mobile device displays.

Tools that allow artists and directors to get fast feedback on their shots are still in development. But progress is being made, and today over 50 percent of VR is used for video viewing rather than games. Participants in a VR/AR market session, moderated by the Hollywood Reporter’s Carolyn Giardina and including Marcie Jastrow, David Moretti, Catherine Day and Phil Lelyveld, seemed to agree that the biggest immediate opportunity is probably with AR.

Koji Gardiner from Jaunt gave a great talk on their approach to VR. He discussed the various ways that 360-degree video can be captured and the processing required to create finished stitched video. For an array of cameras with some separation between the cameras (no common axis point for the imaging cameras), there will be area that needs to be stitched together between camera images using common reference points between the different camera images as well as blind spots near to the cameras where they are not capturing images.

If there is a single axis for all of the cameras then there are effectively no blind spots and no stitching possible as shown in the image below. Covering all the space to get a 360-degree video requires additional cameras located on that axis to cover all the space.

The Fraunhofer Institute, in Germany, has been showing a 360-degree video camera with an effective single axis for several cameras for several years, as shown below. They do this using mirrors to reflect images to the individual cameras.

As the number of cameras is increased, the mathematical work to stitch the 360-degree images together is reduced.

Stitching
There are two approaches commonly used in VR stitching of multiple camera videos. The easiest to implement is a geometric approach that uses known geometries and distances to objects. It requires limited computational resources but results in unavoidable ghosting artifacts at seams from the separate images.

The Optical Flow approach synthesizes every pixel by computing correspondences between neighboring cameras. This approach eliminates the ghosting artifacts at the seams but has its own more subtle artifacts and requires significantly more processing capability. The Optical Flow approach requires computational capabilities far beyond those normally available to content creators. This has led to a growing market to upload multi-camera video streams to cloud services that process the stitching to create finished 360-degree videos.

Files from the Jaunt One camera system are first downloaded and organized on a laptop computer and then uploaded to Jaunt’s cloud server to be processed and create the stitching to make a 360 video. Omni-directionally captured audio can also be uploaded and mixed ambisonically, resulting in advanced directionality in the audio tied to the VR video experience.

Google and Facebook also have cloud-based resources for computational photography used for this sort of image stitching.

The Jaunt One 360-degree camera has a 1-inch 20MP rolling shutter sensor with frame rates up to 60fps with 3200 ISO max, 29dB SNR at ISO800. It has a 10 stops per camera module, with 130-degree diagonal FOV, 4/2.9 optics and with up to 16K resolution (8K per eye). Jaunt One at 60fps provides 200GB/minute uncompressed. This can fill a 1TB SSD in five minutes. They are forced to use compression to be able to use currently affordable storage devices. This compression creates 11GB per minute, which can fill a 1TB SSD in 90 minutes.

The actual stitched image, laid out flat, looks like a distorted projection. But when viewed in a stereoscopic viewer it appears to look like a natural image of the world around the viewer, giving an immersive experience. At one point in time the viewer does not see all of the image but only the image in a restricted space that they are looking directly at as shown in the red box in the figure below.

The full 360-degree image can be pretty high resolution, but unless the resolution is high enough, the resolution inside the scene being viewed at any point in time will be much less that the resolution of the overall scene, unless special steps are taken.

The image below shows that for a 4k 360-degree video the resolution in the field of view (FOV) may be only 1K, much less resolution and quite perceptible to the human eye.

In order to provide a better viewing experience in the FOV, either the resolution of the entire view must be better (e.g. the Jaunt One high-resolution version has 8K per eye and thus 16K total displayed resolution) or there must be a way to increase the resolution in the most significant FOV in a video, so at least in that FOV, the resolution leads to a greater feeling of reality.

Virtual reality, augmented reality and mixed reality create new ways of interacting with the world around us and will drive consumer technologies and the need for 360-degree video. New tools and stitching software, much of this cloud-based, will enable these workflows for folks who want to participate in this revolution in content. The role of a director is as important as ever as new methods are needed to tell stories and guide the viewer to engage in this story.

2017 Creative Storage Conference
You can learn more about the growth in VR content in professional video and how this will drive new digital storage demand and technologies to support the high data rates needed for captured content and cloud-based VR services at the 2017 Creative Storage Conference — taking place May 24, 2017 in Culver City.


Thomas M. Coughlin of Coughlin Associates is a storage analyst and consultant. He has over 30 years in the data storage industry and is the author of Digital Storage in Consumer Electronics: The Essential Guide.