Category Archives: TV Series

Mozart in the Jungle

The colorful dimensions of Amazon’s Mozart in the Jungle

By Randi Altman

How do you describe Amazon’s Mozart in the Jungle? Well, in its most basic form it’s a comedy about the changing of the guard — or maestro — at the New York Philharmonic, and the musicians that make up that orchestra. When you dig deeper you get a behind-the-scenes look at the back-biting and crazy that goes on in the lives and heads of these gifted artists.

Timothy Vincent

Timothy Vincent

Based on the novel Mozart in the Jungle: Sex, Drugs, and Classical Music by oboist Blair Tindall, the series — which won the Golden Globe last year and was nominated this year — has shot in a number of locations over its three seasons, including Mexico and Italy.

Since its inception, Mozart in the Jungle has been finishing in 4K and streaming in both SDR and HDR. We recently reached out to Technicolor’s senior color timer, Timothy Vincent, who has been on the show since the pilot to find out more about the show’s color workflow.

Did Technicolor have to gear up infrastructure-wise for the show’s HDR workflow?
We were doing UHD 4K already and were just getting our HDR workflows worked out.

What is the workflow from offline to online to color?
The dailies are done in New York based on the Alexa K1S1 709 LUT. After the offline and online, I get the offline reference made with the dailies so I can look at if I have a question about what was intended.

If someone was unsure about watching in HDR versus SDR, what would you tell them?
The emotional feel of both the SDR and the HDR is the same. That is always the goal in the HDR pass for Mozart. One of the experiences that is enhanced in the HDR is the depth of field and the three dimensional quality you gain in the image. This really plays nicely with the feel in the landscapes of Italy, the stage performances where you feel more like you are in the audience, and the long streets of New York just to name a few.

Mozart in the JungleWhen I am grading the HDR version, I am able to retain more highlight detail than I was in the SDR pass. For someone who has not yet been able to experience HDR, I would actually recommend that the watch an episode of the show in SDR first and then in HDR so they can see the difference between them. At that point they can choose what kind of viewing experience they want. I think that Mozart looks fantastic in both versions.

What about the “look” of the show. What kind of direction where you given?
We established the look of the show based on conversations and collaboration in my bay. It has always been a filmic look with soft blacks and yellow warm tones as the main palette for the show. Then we added in a fearlessness to take the story in and out of strong shadows. We shape the look of the show to guide the viewers to exactly the story that is being told and the emotions that we want them to feel. Color has always been used as one of the storytelling tools on the show. There is a realistic beauty to the show.

What was your creative partnership like with the show’s cinematographer, Tobias Datum?
I look forward to each episode and discovering what Tobias has given me as palette and mood for each scene. For Season 3 we picked up where we left off at the end of Season 2. We had established the look and feel of the show and only had to account for a large portion of Season 3 being shot in Italy. Making sure to feel the different quality of light and feel of the warmth and beauty of Italy. We did this by playing with natural warm skin tones and the contrast of light and shadow he was creating for the different moods and locations. The same can be said for the two episodes in Mexico in Season 2. I know now what Tobias likes and can make decisions I’m confident that he will like.

Mozart in the JungleFrom a director and cinematographer’s point of view, what kind of choices does HDR open up creatively?
It depends on if they want to maintain the same feel of the SDR or if they want to create a new feel. If they choose to go in a different direction, they can accentuate the contrast and color more with HDR. You can keep more low-light detail while being dark, and you can really create a separate feel to different parts of the show… like a dream sequence or something like that.

Any workflow tricks/tips/trouble spots within the workflow or is it a well-oiled machine at this point?
I have actually changed the way I grade my shows based on the evolution of this show. My end results are the same, but I learned how to build grades that translate to HDR much easier and consistently.

Do you have a color assistant?
I have a couple of assistants that I work with who help me with prepping the show, getting proxies generated, color tracing and some color support.

What tools do you use — monitor, software, computer, scope, etc.?
I am working on Autodesk Lustre 2017 on an HP Z840, while monitoring on both a Panasonic CZ950 and a Sony X300. I work on Omnitek scopes off the downconverter to 2K. The show is shot on both Alexa XT and Alexa Mini, framing for 16×9. All finishing is done in 4K UHD for both SDR and HDR.

Anything you would like to add?
I would only say that everyone should be open to experiencing both SDR and HDR and giving themselves that opportunity to choose which they want to watch and when.

ACE Eddie nominees include Arrival, Manchester by the Sea, Better Call Saul

The American Cinema Editors (ACE) have named the nominees for the 67th ACE Eddie Award, which recognize editing in 10 categories of film, television and documentaries.

Winners will be announced during ACE’s annual awards ceremony on January 27 at the Beverly Hilton Hotel. In addition to the regular editing awards, J.J. Abrams will receive the ACE Golden Eddie Filmmaker of the Year award.

Check out the nominees:

BEST EDITED FEATURE FILM (DRAMATIC)
Arrival
Joe Walker, ACE

Hacksaw Ridge
John Gilbert, ACE

Hell or High Water
Jake Roberts

Manchester by the Sea
Jennifer Lame
 
Moonlight
Nat Sanders, Joi McMillon

BEST EDITED FEATURE FILM (COMEDY)
Deadpool
Julian Clarke, ACE

Hail, Caesar!
Roderick Jaynes

The Jungle Book
Mark Livolsi, ACE

La La Land
Tom Cross, ACE

The Lobster
Yorgos Mavropsaridis

BEST EDITED ANIMATED FEATURE FILM
Kubo and the Two Strings
Christopher Murrie, ACE

Moana
Jeff Draheim, ACE

Zootopia
Fabienne Rawley and Jeremy Milton

BEST EDITED DOCUMENTARY (FEATURE)

13th
Spencer Averick

Amanda Knox
Matthew Hamachek

The Beatles: Eight Days a Week — The Touring Years
Paul Crowder

OJ: Made in America
Bret Granato, Maya Mumma and Ben Sozanski

Weiner
Eli B. Despres

BEST EDITED DOCUMENTARY (TELEVISION)
The Choice 2016
Steve Audette, ACE

Everything Is Copy
Bob Eisenhardt, ACE

We Will Rise: Michelle Obama’s Mission to Educate Girls Around the World
Oliver Lief

BEST EDITED HALF-HOUR SERIES
Silicon Valley: “The Uptick”
Brian Merken, ACE

Veep: “Morning After”
Steven Rasch, ACE

Veep: “Mother”
Shawn Paper

BEST EDITED ONE-HOUR SERIES — COMMERCIAL
Better Call Saul: “Fifi”
Skip Macdonald, ACE

Better Call Saul: “Klick”
Skip Macdonald, ACE & Curtis Thurber

Better Call Saul: “Nailed”
Kelley Dixon, ACE and Chris McCaleb

Mr. Robot: “eps2.4m4ster-s1ave.aes”
Philip Harrison

This is Us: “Pilot”
David L. Bertman, ACE

BEST EDITED ONE-HOUR SERIES – NON-COMMERCIAL
The Crown: “Assassins”
Yan Miles, ACE

Game of Thrones: “Battle of the Bastards”
Tim Porter, ACE

Stranger Things: “Chapter One: The Vanishing of Will Byers”
Dean Zimmerman

Stranger Things: “Chapter Seven: The Bathtub”
Kevin D. Ross

Westworld: “The Original”
Stephen Semel, ACE and Marc Jozefowicz

BEST EDITED MINISERIES OR MOTION PICTURE (NON-THEATRICAL)
All the Way
Carol Littleton, ACE

The Night Of: “The Beach”
Jay Cassidy, ACE

The People V. OJ Simpson: American Crime Story: “Marcia, Marcia, Marcia”
Adam Penn, Stewart Schill, ACE and C. Chi-yoon Chung

BEST EDITED NON-SCRIPTED SERIES:
Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown: “Manila” 
Hunter Gross, ACE

Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown: Senegal
Mustafa Bhagat

Deadliest Catch: “Fire at Sea: Part 2”
Josh Earl, ACE and Alexander Rubinow, ACE

Final ballots will be mailed on January 6, and voting ends on January 17. The Blue Ribbon screenings, where judging for all television categories and the documentary categories take place, will be on January 15. Projects in the aforementioned categories are viewed and judged by committees comprised of professional editors (all ACE members). All 850-plus ACE members vote during the final balloting of the ACE Eddies, including active members, life members, affiliate members and honorary members.

Main Image: Tilt Photo

G-Tech 6-15

What it sounds like when Good Girls Revolt for Amazon Studios

By Jennifer Walden

“Girls do not do rewrites,” says Jim Belushi’s character, Wick McFadden, in Amazon Studios’ series Good Girls Revolt. It’s 1969, and he’s the national editor at News of the Week, a fictional news magazine based in New York City. He’s confronting the new researcher Nora Ephron (Grace Gummer) who claims credit for a story that Wick has just praised in front of the entire newsroom staff. The trouble is it’s 1969 and women aren’t writers; they’re only “researchers” following leads and gathering facts for the male writers.

When Nora’s writer drops the ball by delivering a boring courtroom story, she rewrites it as an insightful articulation of the country’s cultural climate. “If copy is good, it’s good,” she argues to Wick, testing the old conventions of workplace gender-bias. Wick tells her not to make waves, but it’s too late. Nora’s actions set in motion an unstoppable wave of change.

While the series is set in New York City, it was shot in Los Angeles. The newsroom they constructed had an open floor plan with a bi-level design. The girls are located in “the pit” area downstairs from the male writers. The newsroom production set was hollow, which caused an issue with the actors’ footsteps that were recorded on the production tracks, explains supervising sound editor Peter Austin. “The set was not solid. It was built on a platform, so we had a lot of boomy production footsteps to work around. That was one of the big dialogue issues. We tried not to loop too much, so we did a lot of specific dialogue work to clean up all of those newsroom scenes,” he says.

The main character Patti Robinson (Genevieve Angelson) was particularly challenging because of her signature leather riding boots. “We wanted to have an interesting sound for her boots, and the production footsteps were just useless. So we did a lot of experimenting on the Foley stage,” says Austin, who worked with Foley artists Laura Macias and Sharon Michaels to find the right sound. All the post sound work — sound editorial, Foley, ADR, loop group, and final mix was handled at Westwind Media in Burbank, under the guidance of post producer Cindy Kerber.

Austin and dialog editor Sean Massey made every effort to save production dialog when possible and to keep the total ADR to a minimum. Still, the newsroom environment and several busy street scenes proved challenging, especially when the characters were engaged in confidential whispers. Fortunately, “the set mixer Joe Foglia was terrific,” says Austin. “He captured some great tracks despite all these issues, and for that we’re very thankful!”

The Newsroom
The newsroom acts as another character in Good Girls Revolt. It has its own life and energy. Austin and sound effects editor Steve Urban built rich backgrounds with tactile sounds, like typewriters clacking and dinging, the sound of rotary phones with whirring dials and bell-style ringers, the sound of papers shuffling and pencils scratching. They pulled effects from Austin’s personal sound library, from commercial sound libraries like Sound Ideas, and had the Foley artists create an array of period-appropriate sounds.

Loop group coordinator Julie Falls researched and recorded walla that contained period appropriate colloquialisms, which Austin used to add even more depth and texture to the backgrounds. The lively backgrounds helped to hide some dialogue flaws and helped to blend in the ADR. “Executive producer/series creator Dana Calvo actually worked in an environment like this and so she had very definite ideas about how it would sound, particularly the relentlessness of the newsroom,” explains Austin. “Dana had strong ideas about the newsroom being a character in itself. We followed her guide and wanted to support the scenes and communicate what the girls were going through — how they’re trying to break through this male-dominated barrier.”

Austin and Urban also used the backgrounds to reinforce the difference between the hectic state of “the pit” and the more mellow writers’ area. Austin says, “The girls’ area, the pit, sounds a little more shrill. We pitched up the phone’s a little bit, and made it feel more chaotic. The men’s raised area feels less strident. This was subtle, but I think it helps to set the tone that these girls were ‘in the pit’ so to speak.”

The busy backgrounds posed their own challenge too. When the characters are quiet, the room still had to feel frenetic but it couldn’t swallow up their lines. “That was a delicate balance. You have characters who are talking low and you have this energy that you try to create on the set. That’s always a dance you have to figure out,” says Austin. “The whole anarchy of the newsroom was key to the story. It creates a good contrast for some of the other scenes where the characters’ private lives were explored.”

Peter Austin

The heartbeat of the newsroom is the teletype machines that fire off stories, which in turn set the newsroom in motion. Austin reports the teletype sound they used was captured from a working teletype machine they actually had on set. “They had an authentic teletype from that period, so we recorded that and augmented it with other sounds. Since that was a key motif in the show, we actually sweetened the teletype with other sounds, like machine guns for example, to give it a boost every now and then when it was a key element in the scene.”

Austin and Urban also built rich backgrounds for the exterior city shots. In the series opener, archival footage of New York City circa 1969 paints the picture of a rumbling city, moved by diesel-powered buses and trains, and hulking cars. That footage cuts to shots of war protestors and police lining the sidewalk. Their discontented shouts break through the city’s continuous din. “We did a lot of texturing with loop group for the protestors,” says Austin. He’s worked on several period projects over years, and has amassed a collection of old vehicle recordings that they used to build the street sounds on Good Girls Revolt. “I’ve collected a ton of NYC sounds over the years. New York in that time definitely has a different sound than it does today. It’s very distinct. We wanted to sell New York of that time.”

Sound Design
Good Girls Revolt is a dialogue-driven show but it did provide Austin with several opportunities to use subjective sound design to pull the audience into a character’s experience. The most fun scene for Austin was in Episode 5 “The Year-Ender” in which several newsroom researchers consume LSD at a party. As the scene progresses, the characters’ perspectives become warped. Austin notes they created an altered state by slowing down and pitching down sections of the loop group using Revoice Pro by Synchro Arts. They also used Avid’s D-Verb to distort and diffuse selected sounds.

Good Girls Revolt“We got subjective by smearing different elements at different times. The regular sound would disappear and the music would dominate for a while and then that would smear out,” describes Austin. They also used breathing sounds to draw in the viewer. “This one character, Diane (Hannah Barefoot), has a bad experience. She’s crawling along the hallway and we hear her breathing while the rest of the sound slurs out in the background. We build up to her freaking out and falling down the stairs.”

Austin and Urban did their design and preliminary sound treatments in Pro Tools 12 and then handed it off to sound effects re-recording mixer Derek Marcil, who polished the final sound. Marcil was joined by dialog/music re-recording mixer David Raines on Stage 1 at Westwind. Together they mixed the series in 5.1 on an Avid ICON D-Control console. “Everyone on the show was very supportive, and we had a lot of creative freedom to do our thing,” concludes Austin.


Creating and tracking roaches for Hulu’s 11.22.63

By Randi Altman

Looking for something fun and compelling to watch while your broadcast shows are on winter break? You might want to try Hulu’s original eight-part miniseries 11.22.63, which the streaming channel released last February.

It comes with a pretty impressive pedigree — it’s based on a Stephen King novel, it’s executive produced by J.J. Abrams, it stars Oscar-nominee James Franco (127 Hours) and it’s about JFK’s assassination and includes time travel. C’mon!

The plot involves Franco’s character traveling back to 1960 in an effort to stop JFK’s assassination, but just as he makes headway, he feels the past pushing back in some dangerous, and sometimes gross, ways.

Bruce Branit

In the series pilot, Franco’s character, Jack Epping, is being chased by Kennedy’s security after he tries to sneak into a campaign rally. He ducks in a storage room to hide, but he’s already ticked off the past, which slowly serves him up a room filled with cockroaches that swarm him. The sequence is a slow build, with roaches crawling out, covering the floor and then crawling up him.

I’m not sure if Franco has a no-roach clause in his contract (I would), but in order to have control over these pests, it was best to create them digitally. This is where Bruce Branit, owner of BranitFX in Kansas City, Missouri came in. Yes, you read that right, Kansas City, and his resume is impressive. He is a frequent collaborator with Jay Worth, Bad Robot’s VFX supervisor.

So for this particular scene, BranitFX had one or two reference shots, which they used to create a roach brush via Photoshop. Once the exact look was determined regarding the amount of attacking roaches, they animated it in 3D and and composited. They then used 2D and 3D tracking tools to track Franco while the cockroaches swarmed all over him.

Let’s find out more from Bruce Branit.

How early did you get involved in that episode? How much input did you have in how it would play out?
For this show, there wasn’t a lot of lead time. I came on after shooting was done and there was a rough edit. I don’t think the edit changed a lot after we started.

What did the client want from the scene, and how did you go about accomplishing that?
VFX supervisor Jay Worth and I have worked together on a lot of shows. We’d done some roaches for an episode of Almost Human, and also I think for Fringe, so we had some similar assets and background with talking “roach.” The general description was tons of roaches crawling on James Franco.

Did you do previs?
Not really. I rendered about 10 angles of the roach we had previously worked with and made Adobe Photoshop brushes out of each frame. I used that to paint up a still of each shot to establish a baseline for size, population and general direction of the roaches in each of the 25 or so shots in the sequence.

Did you have to play with the movements a lot, or did it all just come together?
We developed a couple base roach walks and behaviors and then populated each scene with instances of that. This changed depending on whether we needed them crossing the floor, hanging on a light fixture or climbing on Franco’s suit. The roach we had used in the past was similar to what the producers on 11.22.63 had in mind. We made a few minor modifications with texture and modeling. Some of this affected the rig we’d built so a lot of the animations had to be rebuilt.

Can you talk about your process/workflow?
This sequence was shot in anamorphic and featured a constantly flashing light on the set going from dark emergency red lighting to brighter florescent lights. So I generated unsqueezed lens distortion, removed and light mitigated interim plates to pull all of our 2D and 3D tracking off of. The tracking was broken into 2D, 3D and 3D tracking by hand involving roaches on Franco’s body as he turns and swats at them in a panic. The production had taped large “Xs” on his jacket to help with this roto-tracking, but those two had to be painted out for many shots prior to the roaches reaching Franco.

The shots were tracked in Fusion Studio for 2D and SynthEyes for 3D. A few shots were also tracked in PFTrack.

The 3D roach assets were animated and rendered in NewTek LightWave. Passes for the red light and white light conditions were rendered as well as ambient show and specular passes. Although we were now using tracking plates with the 2:1 anamorphic stretch removed, a special camera was created in LightWave that was actually double the anamorphic squeeze to duplicate the vertical booked and DOF from an anamorphic lens. The final composite was completed in Blackmagic Fusion Studio using the original anamorphic plates.

What was the biggest challenge you faced working on this scene?
Understanding the anamorphic workflow was a new challenge. Luckily, I had just completed a short project of my own called Bully Mech that was shot with Lomo anamorphic lenses. So I had just recently developed some familiarity and techniques to deal with the unusual lens attributes of those lenses. Let’s just say they have a lot of character. I talked with a lot of cinematographer friends to try to understand how the lenses behaved and why they stretched the out-of-focus element vertically while the image was actually stretched the other way.

What are you working on now?
I‘ve wrapped up a small amount of work on Westworld and a handful of shots on Legends of Tomorrow. I’ve been directing some television commercials the last few months and just signed a development deal on the Bully Mech project I mentioned earlier.

We are making a sizzle reel of the short that expands the scope of the larger world and working with concept designers and a writer to flush out a feature film pitch. We should be going out with the project early next year.


GenPop’s Bill Yukich directs, edits gritty open for Amazon’s Goliath 

Director/editor Bill Yukich helmed the film noir-ish opening title sequence for Amazon’s new legal drama, Goliath. Produced by LA-based content creation studio GenPop, the black and white intro starts with Goliath lead actor Billy Bob Thornton jumping into the ocean. While underwater, and smoking a cigarette and holding a briefcase, he casually strolls through rooms filled with smoke and fire. At the end of the open, he rises from the water as the Santa Monica Pier appears next to him and as the picture turns from B&W to color. The Silent Comedy’s “Bartholomew” track plays throughout.

The ominous backdrop, of a man underwater but not drgoliathowning, is a perfect visual description of Thornton’s role as disgraced lawyer Billy McBride. Yukich’s visuals, he says, are meant to strike a balance between dreamlike and menacing.

The approved concept called for a dry shoot, so Yukich came up with solutions to make it seem as though the sequence was actually filmed underwater. Shot on a Red Magnesium Weapon camera, Yukich used a variety of in-camera techniques to achieve the illusion of water, smoke and fire existing within the same world, including the ingenious use of smoke to mimic the movement of crashing waves.

After wrapping the live-action shoot with Thornton, Yukich edited and color corrected the sequence. The VFX work was mostly supplementary and used to enhance the practical effects which were captured on set, such as adding extra fireballs into the frame to make the pyrotechnics feel fuller. Editing was via Adobe Premiere and VFX and color was done in Autodesk Flame. In the end, 80 percent was live action and only 20 percent visual effects.

Once post production was done, Yukich projected the sequence onto a screen which was submerged underwater and reshot the projected footage. Though technically challenging, Yukich says, this Inception-style method of re-shooting the footage gave the film the organic quality that he was looking for.

Yukich recently worked as lead editor for Beyoncé’s visual album Lemonade. Stepping behind the lens was a natural progression for Yukich, who began directing concerts for bands like Godsmack and The Hollywood Undead, as well as music videos for HIM, Vision of Disorder and The Foo Fighters.

NAB 1/17

SMPTE: The convergence of toolsets for television and cinema

By Mel Lambert

While the annual SMPTE Technical Conferences normally put a strong focus on things visual, there is no denying that these gatherings offer a number of interesting sessions for sound pros from the production and post communities. According to Aimée Ricca, who oversees marketing and communications for SMPTE, pre-registration included “nearly 2,500 registered attendees hailing from all over the world.” This year’s conference, held at the Loews Hollywood Hotel and Ray Dolby Ballroom from October 24-27, also attracted more than 108 exhibitors in two exhibit halls.

Setting the stage for the 2016 celebration of SMPTE’s Centenary, opening keynotes addressed the dramatic changes that have occurred within the motion picture and TV industries during the past 100 years, particularly with the advent of multichannel immersive sound. The two co-speakers — SMPTE president Robert Seidel and filmmaker/innovator Doug Trumbull — chronicled the advance in audio playback sound since, respectively, the advent of TV broadcasting after WWII and the introduction of film soundtracks in 1927 with The Jazz Singer.

Robert Seidel

ATSC 3.0
Currently VP of CBS Engineering and Advanced Technology, with responsibility for TV technologies at CBS and the CW networks, Seidel headed up the team that assisted WRAL-HD, the CBS affiliate in Raleigh, North Carolina, to become the first TV station to transmit HDTV in July 1996.  The transition included adding the ability to carry 5.1-channel sound using Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards and Dolby AC-3 encoding.

The 45th Grammy Awards Ceremony broadcast by CBS Television in February 2004 marked the first scheduled HD broadcast with a 5.1 soundtrack. The emergent ATSC 3.0 standard reportedly will provide increased bandwidth efficiency and compression performance. The drawback is the lack of backwards compatibility with current technologies, resulting in a need for new set-top boxes and TV receivers.

As Seidel explained, the upside for ATSC 3.0 will be immersive soundtracks, using either Dolby AC-4 or MPEG-H coding, together with audio objects that can carry alternate dialog and commentary tracks, plus other consumer features to be refined with companion 4K UHD, high dynamic range and high frame rate images. In June, WRAL-HD launched an experimental ATSC 3.0 channel carrying the station’s programming in 1080p with 4K segments, while in mid-summer South Korea adopted ATSC 3.0 and plans to begin broadcasts with immersive audio and object-based capabilities next February in anticipation of hosting the 2018 Winter Olympics. The 2016 World Series games between the Cleveland Indians and the Chicago Cubs marked the first live ATSC 3.0 broadcast of a major sporting event on experimental station Channel 31, with an immersive-audio simulcast on the Tribune Media-owned Fox affiliate WJW-TV.

Immersive audio will enable enhanced spatial resolution for 3D sound-source localization and therefore provide an increased sense of envelopment throughout the home listening environment, while audio “personalization” will include level control for dialog elements, alternate audio tracks, assistive services, other-language dialog and special commentaries. ATSC 3.0 also will support loudness normalization and contouring of dynamic range.

Doug Trumbull

Higher Frame Rates
With a wide range of experience within the filmmaking and entertainment technologies, including visual effects supervision on 2001: A Space Odyssey, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Star Trek: The Motion Picture and Blade Runner, Trumbull also directed Silent Running and Brainstorm, as well as special venue offerings. He won an Academy Award for his Showscan process for high-speed 70mm cinematography, helped develop IMAX technologies and now runs Trumbull Studios, which is innovating a new MAGI process to offer 4K 3D at 120fps. High production costs and a lack of playback environments meant that Trumbull’s Showscan format never really got off the ground, which was “a crushing disappointment,” he conceded to the SMPTE audience.

But meanwhile, responding to falling box office receipts during the ‘50s and ‘60s, Hollywood added more consumer features, including large-screen presentations and surround sound, although the movie industry also began to rely on income from the TV community for broadcast rights to popular cinema releases.

As Seidel added, “The convergence of toolsets for both television and cinema — including 2K, 4K and eventually 8K — will lead to reduced costs, and help create a global market around the world [with] a significant income stream.” He also said that “cord cutting” — substituting cable subscription services for Amazon.com, Hulu, iTunes, Netflix and the like — is bringing people back to over-the-air broadcasting.

Trumbull countered that TV will continue at 60fps “with a live texture that we like,” whereas film will retain its 24fps frame rate “that we have loved for years and which has a ‘movie texture.’ Higher frame rates for cinema, such as 48fps used by Peter Jackson for several of the Lord of the Rings films, has too much of a TV look. Showscan at 120fps and a 360-degree shutter avoided that TV look, which is considered objectionable.” (Early reviews of director Ang Lee’s upcoming 3D film Billy Lynn’s Long Halftime Walk, which was shot in 4K at 120fps, have been critical of its video look and feel.)

complex-tv-networkNext-Gen Audio for Film and TV
During a series of “Advances in Audio Reproduction” conference sessions, chaired by Chris Witham, director of digital cinema technology at Walt Disney Studios, three presentations covered key design criteria for next-generation audio for TV and film. During his discussion called “Building the World’s Most Complex TV Network — A Test Bed for Broadcasting Immersive & Interactive Audio,” Robert Bleidt, GM of Fraunhofer USA’s audio and multimedia division, provided an overview of a complete end-to-end broadcast plant that was built to test various operational features developed by Fraunhofer, Technicolor and Qualcomm. These tests were used to evaluate an immersive/object-based audio system based on MPEG-H for use in Korea during planned ATSC 3.0 broadcasting.

“At the NAB Convention we demonstrated The MPEG Network,” Bleidt stated. “It is perhaps the most complex combination of broadcast audio content ever made in a single plant, involving 13 different formats.” This includes mono, stereo, 5.1-channel and other sources. “The network was designed to handle immersive audio in both channel- and HOA-based formats, using audio objects for interactivity. Live mixes from a simulated sports remote was connected to a network operating center, with distribution to affiliates, and then sent to a consumer living room, all using the MPEG-H audio system.”

Bleidt presented an overview of system and equipment design, together with details of a critical AMAU (audio monitoring and authoring unit) that will be used to mix immersive audio signals using existing broadcast consoles limited to 5.1-channel assignment and panning.

Dr. Jan Skoglund, who leads a team at Google developing audio signal processing solutions, addressed the subject of “Open-source Spatial Audio Compression for VR Content,” including the importance of providing realistic immersive audio experiences to accompany VR presentations and 360-degree 3D video.

“Ambisonics have reemerged as an important technique in providing immersive audio experiences,” Skoglund stated. “As an alternative to channel-based 3D sound, Ambisonics represent full-sphere sound, independent of loudspeaker location.” His fascinating presentation considered the ways in which open-source compression technologies can transport audio for various species of next-generation immersive media. Skoglund compared the efficacy of several open-source codecs for first-order Ambisonics, and also the progress being made toward higher-order Ambisonics (HOA) for VR content delivered via the internet, including enhanced experience provided by HOA.

Finally, Paul Peace, who oversees loudspeaker development for cinema, retail and commercial applications at JBL Professional — and designed the Model 9350, 9300 and 9310 surround units — discussed “Loudspeaker Requirements in Object-Based Cinema,” including a valuable in-depth analysis of the acoustic delivery requirements in a typical movie theater that accommodates object-based formats.

Peace is proposing the use of a new metric for surround loudspeaker placement and selection when the layout relies on venue-specific immersive rendering engines for Dolby Atmos and Barco Auro-3D soundtracks, with object-based overhead and side-wall channels. “The metric is based on three foundational elements as mapped in a theater: frequency response, directionality and timing,” he explained. “Current set-up techniques are quite poor for a majority of seats in actual theaters.”

Peace also discussed new loudspeaker requirements and layout criteria necessary to ensure a more consistent sound coverage throughout such venues that can replay more accurately the material being re-recorded on typical dub stages, which are often smaller and of different width/length/height dimensions than most multiplex environments.


Mel Lambert, who also gets photo credit on pictures from the show, is principal of Content Creators, an LA-based copywriting and editorial service, and can be reached at mel.lambert@content-creators.com Follow him on Twitter @MelLambertLA.

 

NAB 1/17

Quick Chat: Efilm’s new managing director Al Cleland

Al Cleland has been promoted to managing director of Deluxe’s Efilm, which is a digital color, finishing and location services company working on feature films, episodics and trailers. For the past eight years, Cleland has been VP of trailers at Efilm.

A 30-year veteran of the post business, Cleland started his career at Editel and joined CIS, which later became Efilm, as one of the company’s original employees. He served as senior V/GM at Technicolor Creative Services for 10 years, and at Postworks, Los Angeles, returning to Efilm as VP of trailers. We threw three questions at Cleland, let’s see what he had to say…


After working on trailers for the last eight years, you must be excited to be working in all aspects of what Efilm does.
Our trailer department started out dedicated to finishing one studio’s trailers and we’ve expanded into a dedicated hub for the marketing departments of all the studios. Our trailers department has had the advantage of connectivity and common practices with all of Deluxe’s facilities throughout the world. I’ve loved being part of that growth process and, in my new position, I’ll continue to oversee that vital part of the company.

What’s challenging about trailers that people even in the business might not think about?
The great team in that division have to pull together shots and visual effects while the film itself is being finished, which is a unique logistical challenge. And they’re doing all kinds of small changes and creating effects specific to the trailer and to the MPAA requirements for trailers. It’s a unique skill set.

What do you hope to accomplish for Efilm going forward?
Efilm is expanding in terms of the amount of work and the kind of work we’re doing, and I intend to push that expansion along at an even faster rate. We’ve always had an amazing team of colorists, producers and editors that are really the heart of Efilm. We have wonderful technical and support staff. And, of course, we have access to all of those elements at our partner companies and we continue to build on that.

It’s early to talk about specifics, but we all know the industry is changing rapidly. We’ve been among the very first to introduce new technologies and workflows and that’s something the team here is going to expand on.


The A-List — Director Ed Zwick talks Jack Reacher: Never Go Back

By Iain Blair

Director, screenwriter and producer Ed Zwick got his start in television as co-creator of the Emmy Award-winning series Thirtysomething. His feature film career kicked off when he directed the Rob Lowe/Demi Moore vehicle, About Last Night. Zwick went on to direct the Academy Award-winning films Glory and Legends of the Fall. 

Zwick also produced the Oscar-nominated I Am Sam, as well as Traffic — winner of two Golden Globes and four Academy Awards — directed by Steven Soderbergh. He won an Academy Award as a producer of 1999’s Best Picture, Shakespeare in Love.

Ed Zwick

His latest film, Paramount’s Jack Reacher: Never Go Back, reunites him with his The Last Samurai star Tom Cruise. It’s an action-packed follow-up to 2012’s Jack Reacher hit that grossed over $200 million in worldwide box office.

The set-up? Years after resigning command of an elite military police unit, the nomadic, righter-of-wrongs Reacher is drawn back into the life he left behind when his friend and successor, Major Susan Turner (Cobie Smulders), is framed for espionage. Naturally, Reacher will stop at nothing to prove her innocence and to expose the real perpetrators behind the killings of his former soldiers. Mayhem quickly ensues, helped along with plenty of crazy stunts and cutting-edge VFX.

I recently chatted with Zwick about making the film.

You’ve worked in so many genres, but this is your first crime thriller. 
I’ve always loved crime thrillers — especially films like Three Days of the Condor and Bullitt where the characters and their relationships are far more important than the action. That’s where I tried to take this.

Jack Reacher: Never Go BackTom Cruise is famous for being a perfectionist and doing all his own stunts when possible. Any surprises re-teaming with him?
Yeah, I always say the most boring job on set is being Tom’s stunt double. Tom is a perfectionist and he loves to be involved in every aspect of the production, so no surprises there. He has such a great love for all the different genres, but a particular love for action films and thrillers. It was very important for him that he didn’t do something that was like all the other films out there. I think we all felt that superhero fatigue has been setting in, so the idea was to do things on a more human scale, and make it more realistic and authentic, both with the characters and with the action.

What were the main technical challenges of making this?
We shot it all in New Orleans, and it’s a road movie. So we had to shoot Washington, DC, there too, and create a cross-country journey with different airports and so on. We did all of that with some sleight of hand and extensions and VFX. I think it’s also a challenge to come up with new settings for action pieces we haven’t seen before, and that’s where the parade and rooftop sequences in New Orleans come in, along with the fight on the plane. The book it’s based on is set in LA and DC, but they’re both tough to shoot in, and with the great tax breaks in Louisiana and all the great locations, it made sense to shoot there.

Jack Reacher: Never Go BackEvery shoot is tough, but it was pretty straightforward on this, though shutting down the whole French Quarter took some doing —  but all the city officials were so helpful. The rooftop stuff was very challenging to do, and we did a lot of prep and began on post right away, on day one.

Do you like the post process?
I love it. I can sit there with a cup of coffee and my editor and rewrite the entire script as much as I can. It’s the best part and most creative part of the whole process.

Where did you post?
We did it all in LA. We just set up some offices in Santa Monica where I live and did all the editorial there.

You’ve typically worked with Steve Rosenblum, but you edited this film with Billy Weber, who’s been nominated twice for Oscars (Top Gun, The Thin Red Line) and whose credits include The Warriors, Pee Wee’s Big Adventure, Beverly Hills Cop II, Midnight Run and The Tree of Life, among others. How did that relationship work?
Steve wasn’t available so I asked him, ‘Who can I hire that you’d be jealous of?’ He said, ‘There’s only one person — Billy Weber. He’s your guy.’ He was right. Billy’s legendary and has cut so many great movies for directors like Terrence Malik, Tony Scott, Walter Hill, Martin Brest, Tim Burton, and he’s a prince. I love editing, and I loved working with him. He’s a great collaborator, and I was very open to all his ideas.Jack Reacher: Never Go Back

He came to New Orleans and we set up a cutting room there and he did the assembly there as we shot. Then we moved back to LA. Billy lives on the other side of town, so to beat the traffic we’d start every day at 6am and wrap at 3pm. It was a great system.

Can you talk about the importance of music and sound in the film?
I love working with the audio, and Henry Jackman did a great, classic-modern score. It was crucial, not just for all the action, but for some of the quieter moments. Then we mixed the sound at Fox, with Andy Nelson who’s now done 10 of my movies.

This is obviously not a VFX-driven piece, but the VFX play a big role.
You’re right, and we didn’t want it to look like there was a ton of CG work. In the end, we had well over 200 shots, including stuff like the Capitol Dome in DC in the background and tons of bullet hits on cars and enhancements. But I didn’t want all the VFX to be at all noticeable. Lola and Flash Film Works did the work, and often today where you need bullet hits on a car, it’s far cheaper and more time-effective to add them in post, so there was a lot of that.

How important was the DI on this and where did you do it?
We did it at Company 3 in Santa Monica with colorist Stephen Nakamura, who is brilliant. We went for a natural look but also enhanced some of the dramatic scenes [via Resolve]. It’s remarkable what you can do now in the DI, and as we shot on film I wanted to preserve some of that real film look, so I think it’s a light touch, but also a sophisticated one in the DI.

What’s next?
I don’t have anything lined up, so I’m taking a break.


Industry insider Iain Blair has been interviewing the biggest directors in Hollywood and around the world for years. He is a regular contributor to Variety and has written for such outlets as Reuters, The Chicago Tribune, The Los Angeles Times and the Boston Globe.


Vancouver names first film commissioner, opens Film & Media Centre

The city of Vancouver and the Vancouver Economic Commission (VEC) have named David Shepheard as Vancouver’s first film commissioner. At the same time, they announced the creation of the Vancouver Film & Media Center, which aims to bring more work to the city. Vancouver is already the third largest film production center in North America — behind New York and Los Angeles.

Shepheard, who brings over 16 years of experience to his new role, previously ran the film commission services for Film London, the capital’s Media Development Agency. Film London supports producers shooting in London, advises them on accessing UK tax breaks and co-production opportunities, and promotes London’s film, TV, post production, animation, VFX and games sectors. Prior to that, Shepheard was CEO of Open House Films in the UK — a consultancy partnership specializing in developing strategies, film commissions and media development agencies at city, regional and state levels in Europe, Africa, North America, Asia and the Middle East.

“As one of Vancouver’s high-growth industries, film and media has been a big contributor to our economic growth and has a tremendous positive impact in our city,” reports Mayor Gregor Robertson. “David Shepheard’s expertise and experience — coupled with the new Film & Media Centre — will take our digital entertainment industry to the next level on the international stage.”

Nancy Mott and actor Ryan Reynolds during the filming of Deadpool. Deadpool 2 returns to Vancouver for production in January 2017.

In recent years, Vancouver has experienced big growth in film and TV production, and the industry has been a top contributor to British Columbia’s diversified economy, creating jobs, services and tax revenue. Last year, with pilot production filming increasing by 67 percent from 2015 to 2016. In 2015, the city issued almost 5,000 permits for 353 productions filmed in Vancouver; provisional data for 2016 from the city of Vancouver’s film office projects that this year’s numbers are expected to be even higher.

Shepheard will work with executive director Nancy Mott to attract film and TV production, co-production and post production projects to Vancouver. Through the prior business development activities of its Asia-Pacific Centre, the VEC has already identified opportunities in Japan, China and Korea, all of whom have been stepping up investment and production activity.

The sounds of Brooklyn play lead role in HBO’s High Maintenance

By Jennifer Walden

New Yorkers are jaded, and one of the many reasons is that just about anything they want can be delivered right to their door: Chinese food, prescriptions, craft beer, dry cleaning and weed. Yes, weed. This particular item is delivered by “The Guy,” the protagonist of HBO’s new series, High Maintenance.

The Guy (played by series co-creator Ben Sinclair) bikes around Brooklyn delivering pot to a cast of quintessentially quirky New York characters. Series creators Sinclair and Katja Blichfeld string together vignettes — using The Guy as the common thread — to paint a realistic picture of Brooklynites.

andrew-guastella

Nutmeg’s Andrew Guastella. Photo credit: Carl Vasile

“The Guy delivers weed to people, often going into their homes and becoming part of their lives,” explains sound editor/re-recording mixer Andrew Guastella at Nutmeg, a creative marketing and post studio based in New York. “I think that what a lot of viewers like about the show is how quickly you come to know complete strangers in a sort of intimate way.”

Blichfeld and Sinclair find inspiration for their stories from their own experiences, says Guastella, who follows suit in terms of sound. “We focus on the realism of the sound, and that’s what makes this show unique.” The sound of New York City is ever-present, just as it is in real life. “Audio post was essential for texturizing our universe,” says Sinclair. “There’s a loud and vibrant city outside of those apartment walls. It was important to us to feel the presence of a city where people live on top of each other.”

Big City Sounds
That edict for realism drives all sound-related decisions on High Maintenance. On a typical series, Guastella would strive to clean up every noise on the production dialogue, but for High Maintenance, the sound of sirens, horns, traffic, even car alarms are left in the tracks, as long as they’re not drowning out the dialogue. “It’s okay to leave sounds in that aren’t obtrusive and that sell the fact that they are in New York City,” he says.

For example, a car alarm went off during a take. It wasn’t in the way of the dialogue but it did drop out on a cut, making it stand out. “Instead of trying to remove the alarm from the dialogue, I decided to let it roll and I added a chirp from a car alarm, as if the owner turned off the alarm [or locked the car], to help incorporate it into the track. A car alarm is a sound you hear all the time in New York.”

Exterior scenes are acceptably lively, and if an interior scene is feeling too quiet, Guastella can raise a neighborly ruckus. “In New York, there’s always that noisy neighbor. Some show creators might be a little hesitant to use that because it could be distracting, but for this show, as long as it’s real, Ben and Katja are cool with it,” he says. During a particularly quiet interior scene, he tried adding the sounds of cars pulling away and other light traffic to fill up the space, but it wasn’t enough, so Guastella asked the creators, “’How do you feel about the neighbors next door arguing?’ And they said, ‘That’s real. That’s New York. Let’s try it out.’”

Guastella crafted a commotion based on his own experience of living in an apartment in Queens. Every night he and his wife would hear the downstairs neighbors fighting. “One night they were yelling and then all we heard was this loud, enormous slam. Hopefully, it was a door,” jokes Guastella. “Ben and Katja are always pulling from their own experiences, so I tried to do that myself with the soundtrack.”

Despite the skill of production sound mixer Dimitri Kouri, and a high tolerance for the ever-present sound of New York City, Guastella still finds himself cleaning dialogue tracks using iZotope’s RX 5 Advanced. One of his favorite features is RX Connect. With this plug-in feature, he can select a region of dialogue in his Avid Pro Tools session and send that region directly to iZotope’s standalone RX application where he can edit, clean and process the dialogue. Once he’s satisfied, he can return that cleaned up dialogue right back in sync on the timeline of his Pro Tools session where he originally sent it from.

“I no longer have to deal with exporting and importing audio files, which was not an efficient way to work,” he says. “And for me, it’s important that I work within the standalone application. There are plug-in versions of some RX tools, but for me, the standalone version offers more flexibility and the opportunity to use the highly detailed visual feedback of its audio-spectrum analyzer. The spectrogram makes using tools like Spectral Repair and De-click that much more effective and efficient. There are more ways to use and combine the tools in general.”

Guastella has been with the series since 2012, during its webisode days on Vimeo. Back then, it was a passion-project, something he’d work on at home on his own time. From the beginning, he’s handled everything audio: the dialogue cleaning and editing, the ambience builds and Foley and the final mix. “Andrew [Guastella] brought his professional ear and was always such a pleasure to work with. He always delivered and was always on time,” says Blichfeld.

The only aspect that Guastella doesn’t handle is the music. “That’s a combination of licensed music (secured by music supervisor Liz Fulton) and original composition by Chris Bear. The music is well-established by the time the episode gets to me,” he says.

On the Vimeo webisodes, Guastella would work an episode’s soundtrack into shape, and then send it to Blichfeld and Sinclair for notes. “They would email me or we would talk over the phone. The collaborative process wasn’t immediate,” he says. Now that HBO has picked up the series and renewed it for Season 2, Guastella is able to work on High Maintenance in his studio at Nutmeg, where he has access to all the amenities of a full-service post facility, such as sound effects libraries, an ADR booth, a 5.1 surround system and room to accommodate the series creators who like to hang around and work on the sound with Guastella. “They are very particular about sound and very specific. It’s great to have instant access to them. They were here more than I would’ve expected them to be and it was great spending all that time with them personally and professionally.”

In addition to being a series co-creator, co-writer and co-director with Blichfeld, Sinclair is also one of show’s two editors. This meant they were being pulled in several directions, which eventually prevented them from spending so much time in the studio with Guastella. “By the last three episodes of this season, I had absorbed all of their creative intentions. I was able to get an episode to the point of a full mix and they would come in just for a few hours to review and make tweaks.”

With a bigger budget from HBO, Guastella is also able to record ADR when necessary, record loop group and perform Foley for the show at Nutmeg. “Now that we have a budget and the space to record actual Foley, we’re faced with the question of how much Foley do we want to do? When you Foley sound for every movement and footstep, it doesn’t always sound realistic, and the creators are very aware of that,” says Guastella.

5.1 Surround Mix
In addition to a minimalist approach, another way he keeps the Foley sounding real is by recording it in the real world. In Episode 3, the story is told from a dog’s POV. Using a TASCAM DR 680 digital recorder and a Sennheiser 416 shotgun mic, Guastella recorded an “enormous amount of Foley at home with my Beagle, Bailey, and my father-in-law’s Yorkie and Doberman. I did a lot of Foley recording at the dog park, too, to capture Foley for the dog outside.”

Another difference between the Vimeo episodes and the HBO series is the final mix format. “HBO requires a surround sound 5.1 mix and that’s something that demands the infrastructure of a professional studio, not my living room,” says Guastella. He takes advantage of the surround field by working with ambiences, creating a richer environment during exterior shots which he can then contrast with a closer, confined sound for the interior shots.

“This is a very dialogue-driven show so I’m not putting too much information in the surrounds. But there is so much sound in New York City, and you are really able to play with perspective of the interior and exterior sounds,” he explains. For example, the opening of Episode 3, “Grandpa,” follows Gatsby the dog as he enters the front of his house and eventually exits out of the back. Guastella says he was “able to bring the exterior surrounds in with the characters, then gradually pan them from surround to a heavier LCR once he began approaching the back door and the backyard was in front of him.”

The series may have made the jump from Vimeo to HBO but the soul of the show has changed very little, and that’s by design. “Ben, Katja, and Russell Gregory [the third executive producer] are just so loyal to the people who helped get this series off the ground with them. On top of that, they wanted to keep the show feeling how it did on the web, even though it’s now on HBO. They didn’t want to disappoint any fans that were wondering if the series was going to turn into something else… something that it wasn’t. It was really important to the show creators that the series stayed the same, for their fans and for them. Part of that was keeping on a lot of the people who helped make it what it was,” concludes Guastella.

Check out High Maintenance on HBO, Fridays at 11pm.


Jennifer Walden is a NJ-based audio engineer and writer. Follow her at @audiojeney.