Category Archives: Audio Mixing

The challenges of dialogue and ice in Game of Thrones ‘Beyond the Wall’

By Jennifer Walden

Fire-breathing dragons and hordes of battle-ready White Walkers are big attention grabbers on HBO’s Game of Thrones, but they’re not the sole draw for audiences. The stunning visual effects and sound design are just the gravy on the meat and potatoes of a story that has audiences asking for more.

Every line of dialogue is essential for following the tangled web of storylines. It’s also important to take in the emotional nuances of the actors’ performances. Striking the balance between clarity and dynamic delivery isn’t an easy feat. When a character speaks in a gruff whisper because, emotionally, it’s right for the scene, it’s the job of the production sound crew and the post sound crew to make that delivery work.

At Formosa Group’s Hollywood location, an Emmy-winning post sound team works together to put as much of the on-set performances on the screen as possible. They are supervising sound editor Tim Kimmel, supervising dialogue editor Paul Bercovitch and dialogue/music re-recording mixer Onnalee Blank.

Tim Kimmel and Onnalee Blank

“The production sound crew does such a phenomenal job on the show,” says Kimmel. “They have to face so many issues on set, between the elements and the costumes. Even though we have to do some ADR, it would be a whole lot more if we didn’t have such a great sound crew on-set.”

In Season 7, Episode 6, “Beyond the Wall,” the sound team faced a number of challenges. Starting at the beginning of this episode, Jon Snow [Kit Harington] and his band of fighters trek beyond the wall to capture a White Walker. As they walk across a frozen, windy landscape, they pass the time by getting to know each other more. Here the threads of their individual stories from past seasons start to weave together. Important connections are being made in each line of dialogue.

Those snowy scenes were shot in Iceland and the actors wore metal spikes on their shoes to help them navigate the icy ground. Unfortunately, the spikes also made their footsteps sound loud and crunchy, and that got recorded onto the production tracks.

Another challenge came from their costumes. They wore thick coats of leather and fur, which muffled their dialogue at times or pressed against the mic and created a scratchy sound. Wind was also a factor, sometimes buffeting across the mic and causing a low rumble on the tracks.

“What’s funny is that parts of the scene would be really tough to get cleaned up because the wind is blowing and you hear the spikes on their shoes — you hear costume movements. Then all of a sudden they stop and talk for a minute and the wind stops and it’s the most pristine, quiet, perfect recording you can think of,” explains Kimmel. “It almost sounded like it was shot on a soundstage. In Iceland, when the wind isn’t blowing and the actors aren’t moving, it’s completely quiet and still. So it was tough to get those two to match.”

As supervising sound editor, Kimmel is the first to assess the production dialogue tracks. He goes through an episode and marks priority sections for supervising dialogue editor Bercovitch to tackle first. He says, “That helps Tim [Kimmel] put together his ADR plan. He wants to try to pare down that list as much as possible. For Beyond the Wall, he wanted me to start with the brotherhood’s walk-and-talk north of the wall.”

Bercovitch began his edit by trying to clean up the existing dialogue. For that opening sequence, he used iZotope RX 6’s Spectral Repair to clean up the crunchy footsteps and the rumble of heavy winds. Next, he searched for usable alt takes from the lav and boom tracks, looking for a clean syllable or a full line to cut in as needed. Once Bercovitch was done editing, Kimmel could determine what still needed to be covered in ADR. “For the walk-and-talk beyond the wall, the production sound crew really did a phenomenal job. We didn’t have to loop that scene in its entirety. How they got as good of recordings as they did is honestly beyond me.”

Since most of the principle actors are UK and Ireland-based, the ADR is shot in London at Boom Post with ADR supervisor Tim Hands. “Tim [Hands] records 90% of the ADR for each season. Occasionally, we’ll shoot it here if the actor is in LA,” notes Kimmel.

Hands had more lines than usual to cover on Beyond the Wall because of the battle sequence between the brotherhood and the army of the dead. The principle actors came in to record grunts, efforts and breaths, which were then cut to picture. The battle also included Bercovitch’s selects of usable production sound from that sequence.

Re-recording mixer Blank went through all of those elements on dub Stage 1 at Formosa Hollywood using an Avid S6 console to control the Pro Tools 12 session. She chose vocalizations that weren’t “too breathy, or sound like it’s too much effort because it just sounds like a whole bunch of grunts happening,” she says. “I try to make the ADR sound the same as the production dialogue choices by using EQ, and I only play sounds for whoever is on screen because otherwise it just creates too much confusion.”

One scene that required extensive ADR was for Arya (Maisie Williams) and Sansa (Sophie Turner) on the catwalk at Winterfell. In the seemingly peaceful scene, the sisters share an intimate conversation about their father as snow lightly falls from the sky. Only it wasn’t so peaceful. The snow was created by a loud snow machine that permeated the production sound, which meant the dialogue on the entire scene needed to be replaced. “That is the only dialogue scene that I had no hand in and I’ve been working on the show for three seasons now,” says Bercovitch.

For Bercovitch, his most challenging scenes to edit were ones that might seem like they’d be fairly straightforward. On Dragonstone, Daenerys (Emilia Clarke) and Tyrion (Peter Dinklage) are in the map room having a pointed discussion on succession for the Iron Throne. It’s a talk between two people in an interior environment, but Bercovitch points out that the change of camera perspective can change the sound of the mics. “On this particular scene and on a lot of scenes in the show, you have the characters moving around within the scene. You get a lot of switching between close-ups and longer shots, so you’re going between angles with a usable boom to angles where the boom is not usable.”

There’s a similar setup with Sansa and Brienne (Gwendoline Christie) at Winterfell. The two characters discuss Brienne’s journey to parley with Cersei (Lena Headey) in Sansa’s stead. Here, Bercovitch faced the same challenge of matching mic perspectives, and also had the added challenge of working around sounds from the fireplace. “I have to fish around in the alt takes — and there were a lot of alts — to try to get those scenes sounding a little more consistent. I always try to keep the mic angles sounding consistent even before the dialogue gets to Onnalee (Blank). A big part of her job is dealing with those disparate sound sources and trying to make them sound the same. But my job, as I see it, is to make those sound sources a little less disparate before they get to her.”

One tool that’s helped Bercovitch achieve great dialogue edits is iZotope’s RX 6. “It doesn’t necessarily make cleaning dialogue faster,”he says. “It doesn’t save me a ton of time, but it allows me to do so much more with my time. There is so much more that you can do with iZotope RX 6 that you couldn’t previously do. It still takes nitpicking and detailed work to get the dialogue to where you want it, but iZotope is such an incredibly powerful tool that you can get the result that you want,” he says.

On the dub stage, Blank says one of her most challenging scenes was the opening walk-and-talk sequence beyond the wall. “Half of that was ADR, half was production, and to make it all sound the same was really challenging. Those scenes took me four days to mix.”

Her other challenge was the ADR scene with Arya and Sansa in Winterfell, since every line there was looped. To help the ADR sound natural, as if it’s coming from the scene, Blank processes and renders multiple tracks of fill and backgrounds with the ADR lines and then re-records that back into Avid Pro Tools. “That really helps it sit back into the screen a little more. Playing the Foley like it’s another character helps too. That really makes the scene come alive.”

Bercovitch explains that the final dialogue you hear in a series doesn’t start out that way. It takes a lot of work to get the dialogue to sound like it would in reality. “That’s the thing about dialogue. People hear dialogue all day, every day. We talk to other people and it doesn’t take any work for us to understand when other people speak. Since it doesn’t take any work in one’s life why would it require a lot of work when putting a film together? There’s a big difference between the sound you hear in the world and recorded sound. Once it has been recorded you have to take a lot of care to get those recordings back to a place where your brain reads it as intelligible. And when you’re switching from angle to angle and changing mic placement and perspective, all those recordings sound different. You have to stitch those together and make them sound consistent so it sounds like dialogue you’d hear in reality.”

Achieving great sounding dialogue is a team effort — from production through post. “Our post work on the dialogue is definitely a team effort, from Paul’s editing and Tim Hands’ shooting the ADR so well to Onnalee getting the ADR to match with the production,” explains Kimmel. “We figure out what production we can use and what we have to go to ADR for. It’s definitely a team effort and I am blessed to be working with such an amazing group of people.”


Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio engineer and writer.

Broadway Video’s Sue Pelino and team win Emmy

Sue Pelino and the sound mixing team at New York City’s Broadway Video have won the Emmy for Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Variety Series Or Special for their work on the 2017 Rock & Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony that aired on HBO in April. Pelino served as re-recording mixer on the project.

Says Pelino, who is VP of audio post production at Broadway Video, “Our goal in preparing the televised package was to capture the true essence of the night. We wanted viewers to experience the energy and feel as if they were sitting in the tenth row of the Barclays Center. It’s a remarkable feeling to know that we have achieved that goal.”

Pelino is already the proud owner of two Emmy awards and has nine nominations under her belt. Her career as an audio post production engineer rests on her early years playing guitar in rock bands and recording original songs in her home studio.

Additional members of the winning sound team for the 2017 Rock & Roll Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony — produced by HBO entertainment in association with Playtone, Line by Line Productions, Alex Coletti Productions and the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame Foundation — include Al Centrella, John Harris, Dave Natale, Jay Vicari, Erik Von Ranson and Simon Welch.

Dell 6.15

Eleven’s Ben Freer celebrates 10 years, Jordan Meltzer now mixer

Eleven, a Santa Monica-based audio boutique, has some mixer news. Ben Freer is celebrating his 10th year with the studio, and Jordan Meltzer has been promoted to mixer and sound designer.

A Manchester-native with a California upbringing, Freer was inspired by all things sound from a young age and was first introduced to Eleven as an intern in 2007. Mentored by Eleven founder/mixer Jeff Payne and quickly climbing the ranks to become an official staff member the same year. Freer has mixed for renowned clients in the advertising and multimedia industries, including Toyota, GMC, T-Mobile, Nike, H&R Block, The Weeknd and Lorde.

“When I started at Eleven, I didn’t know much about audio mixing, I just knew that I wanted to immerse myself in it,” says Freer. “Working with the industry’s best and eventually getting my own mix room has been an incredibly humbling experience.”

Los Angeles native Jordan Meltzer got hooked on sound and began gravitating toward the craft after seeing The Who perform at the Hollywood Bowl at age 9. He played in bands while growing up in the San Fernando Valley, eventually completing his BA in audio post production from Emerson College. After joining Eleven as an intern, similar to Freer, he climbed the ranks and took on a newfound role as assistant mixer, building his portfolio on a variety of films and commercials with clients HP, Dodge, Disney, FitBit and Sam Smith. Meltzer’s contributions led him to a recent promotion as mixer and sound designer.

“Climbing the Eleven ladder has been fulfilling, satisfying and challenging,” says Meltzer. “I remember sitting in the studio as an intern with Ben and Jeff, trying to learn and absorb it all. I always saw myself sitting in the chair, and it’s truly an honor to now be recognized as a mixer at such a warm, supportive and creative company.”

Main Image: L-R: Ben Freer and Jordan Meltzer


Emmy Awards: American Horror Story: Roanoke

A chat with supervising sound editor Gary Megregian

By Jennifer Walden

Moving across the country and buying a new house is an exciting and scary process, but when it starts raining teeth at that new residence the scary factor pretty much makes the exciting feelings void. That’s the situation that Matt and Shelby, a couple from Los Angeles, find themselves in for American Horror Story’s sixth season on FX Networks. After moving into an old mansion in Roanoke, North Carolina, they discover that the dwelling and the local neighbors aren’t so accepting of outsiders.

American Horror Story: Roanoke explores a true-crime-style format that uses re-enactments to play out the drama. The role of Matt is played by Andre Holland in “reality” and by Cuba Gooding, Jr. in the re-enactments. Shelby is played by Lily Rabe and Sarah Paulson, respectively. It’s an interesting approach that added a new dynamic to an already creative series.

Emmy-winning Technicolor at Paramount supervising sound editor Gary Megregian is currently working on his seventh season of American Horror Story, coming to FX in early September. He took some time out to talk about Season 6, Episode 1, Chapter 1, for which he and his sound editorial team have been nominated for an Emmy for Outstanding Sound Editing for a Limited Series. They won the Emmy in 2013, and this year marks their sixth nomination.

American Horror Story: Roanoke is structured as a true-crime series with re-enactments. What opportunities did this format offer you sound-wise?
This season was a lot of fun in that we had both the realistic world and the creative world to play in. The first half of the series dealt more with re-enactments than the reality-based segments, especially in Chapter 1. Aside from some interview segments, it was all re-enactments. The re-enactments were where we had more creative freedom for design. It gave us a chance to create a voice for the house and the otherworldly elements.

Gary Megregian

Was series creator Ryan Murphy still your point person for sound direction? For Chapter 1, did he have specific ideas for sound?
Ryan Murphy is definitely the single voice in all of his shows but my point person for sound direction is his executive producer Alexis Martin Woodall, as well as each episode’s picture editor.

Having been working with them for close to eight years now, there’s a lot of trust. I usually have a talk with them early each season about what direction Ryan wants to go and then talk to the picture editor and assistant as they’re building the show.

The first night in the house in Roanoke, Matt and Shelby hear this pig-like scream coming from outside. That sound occurs often throughout the episode. How did that sound come to be? What went into it?
The pig sounds are definitely a theme that goes through Season 6, but they started all the way back in Season 1 with the introduction of Piggy Man. Originally, when Shelby and Matt first hear the pig we had tried designing something that fell more into an otherworldly sound, but Ryan definitely wanted it to be real. Other times, when we see Piggy Man we went back to the design we used in Season 1.

The doors in the house sound really cool, especially that back door. What were the sources for the door sounds? Did you do any processing on the recordings to make them spookier?
Thanks. Some of the doors came from our library at Technicolor and some were from a crowd-sourced project from New Zealand-based sound designer Tim Prebble. I had participated in a project where he asked everyone involved to record a complete set of opens, closes, knocks, squeaks, etc. for 10 doors. When all was said and done, I gained a library of over 100GB of amazing door recordings. That’s my go-to for interesting doors.

As far as processing goes, nothing out of the ordinary was used. It’s all about finding the right sound.

When Shelby and Lee (Adina Porter) are in the basement, they watch this home movie featuring Piggy Man. Can you tell me about the sound work there?
The home movie was a combination of the production dialogue, Foley, the couple instances of hearing pig squeals and Piggy Man design along with VHS and CRT noise. For dialogue, we didn’t clean up the production tracks too much and Foley was used to help ground it. Once we got to the mix stage, re-recording mixers Joe Earle and Doug Andham helped bring it all together in their treatment.

What was your favorite scene to design? Why? What went into the sound?
One of my favorite scenes is the hail/teeth storm when Shelby’s alone in the house. I love the way it starts slow and builds from the inside, hearing the teeth on the skylight and windows. Once we step outside it opens up to surround us. I think our effects editor/designer Tim Cleveland did a great job on this scene. We used a number of hail/rain recordings along with Foley to help with some of the detail work, especially once we step outside.

Were there any audio tools that were helpful when working on Chapter 1? Can you share specific examples of how you used them?
I’m going to sound like many others in this profession, but I’d say iZotope RX. Ryan is not a big fan of ADR, so we have to make the production work. I can count on one hand the number of times we’ve had any actors in for ADR last season. That’s a testament to our production mixer Brendan Beebe and dialogue editor Steve Stuhr. While the production is well covered and recorded well, Steve still has his work cut out for him to present a track that’s clean. The iZotope RX suite helps with that.

Why did you choose Chapter 1 for Emmy consideration for its sound editorial?
One of the things I love about working on American Horror Story is that every season is like starting a new show. It’s fun to establish the sound and the tone of a show, and Chapter 1 is no exception. It’s a great representation of our crew’s talent and I’m really happy for them that they’re being recognized for it. It’s truly an honor.


Emmy Awards: Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown

Re-recording mixer Brian Bracken and supervising sound editor Benny Mouthon

By Jennifer Walden

CNN’s Anthony Bourdain: Parts Unknown is an award-winning travel series about food and politics. Or is it a food series about travel and politics? Perhaps it’s best described as a three-course mind-meal of food, travel and regional political/economic commentary with a dash of history. Whatever it is, it’s addicting, and Bourdain’s candor is refreshing. And if even some of the dishes that Bourdain consumes seem less than appetizing, the show itself is totally binge-worthy. Now on Netflix, all nine season are available for mass consumption.

Benny Mouthon

From its inception, String & Can in New York City has handled the post sound on Parts Unknown. Sound designers/re-recording mixers Benny Mouthon and Brian Bracken have amassed a total of nine Emmy nominations for their sound work on the show. This year Mouthon is nominated for Outstanding Sound Editing For A Nonfiction Program on Season 8, Episode 1 “Hanoi,” and Bracken is nominated for Outstanding Sound Mixing For A Nonfiction Program on Season 8’s finale, Episode 9 “Rome.”

Even though their nominations are specifically for sound editing and sound mixing, Mouthon and Bracken handle all the audio post needs for each episode they work on, from dialogue editing and sound design to final mix. It’s a substantial amount of work per episode considering Bourdain generally doesn’t use a production sound mixer. Sound-wise, it’s often just a case of catch what you can on the busy streets and crowded eateries.

Here, Mouthon and Bracken share details about what went into their Emmy-nominated episodes.

You’re nine seasons into Parts Unknown and the show just gets better and better. Sound-wise, how has the show grown? What’s changed over the years?
Benny Mouthon: We usually don’t have a location sound mixer on the show, but I feel that the camera crew has been paying more attention to mic placements. Also, the converters on the cameras have gotten better as the cameras have evolved. They can record much better quality sound than a few years ago, though still not as good as a high-end field sound recorder.

The bulk of the dialogue that we get is a lavaliere on Tony Bourdain and his guest or guests. Then they have Sanken shotgun mics on the cameras. As they move around the subjects in the frame, the shotguns tend to not be very usable so we rely on the lav mics a lot. Since the producers are the only ones that spend time both in the field and in the mix, we have had many discussions after the screenings over the years as to what works, what doesn’t and how things can be done better next time. Thanks to this dialogue I can definitely say that the quality of the audio has gotten better with time.

On the post side, we have more powerful tools than we did when the series first started. With the iZotope RX tools we’ve been able to clean up tracks that would have been unusable before. We often have to deal with distortion, or clothing rustle, or wind noise, and now all of those issues are easier to deal with.

Editors will often send us problematic audio scenes during the edit to see if they can be salvaged. In the past we used to turn down many, but in the last couple of years our “success rate” has gotten much better.

Brian Bracken

Brian Bracken: The cinematic landscape lends itself to us being able to enhance the show more by using the production audio. For instance, in the “Rome” episode, there’s a highway scene with fast “car-bys.” Those were very well recorded, and the cars sound very powerful when they pass by. That wasn’t really how it was delivered to us back in the earlier seasons. Like Benny said, with the equipment getting better the recordings get better and the attention to detail in terms of sound has really paid off.

Mouthon: As the show evolves, the cameramen get to play with nicer toys, and they’re also recording more b-roll. They started to use the Canon D5 early on for this, with better lenses — lenses that gave the show a much more filmic look. Tony also likes to pay homage to films quite a lot, Brian’s “Rome” episode is just one great example.

As this “cinema-style” became more the norm, I think they realized that the edits can be limited if they don’t have very specific sounds that were recorded while they were in a particular place. So they have grown more aware of what will make for a better edit and therefore a better soundscape afterwards for us.

Talking about soundscapes, let’s look at the “Hanoi” episode. You start with a rural soundscape of wind in grass, chickens and bugs, and then it changes to urban sounds like motorbikes and horns. How much sound was taken from production?
Mouthon: A fair amount was taken from production, and I have to give a big credit to Hunter Gross, the picture editor on that episode. He’s very good at laying out a lot of the B-roll and complementing that with sound effects so that I have a great starting point. The huge advantage I had was that I was in Hanoi about 10 years ago on a personal holiday and I had a little Zoom recorder with me. I was able to use a lot of my own recordings of Hanoi, which included a lot of great stereo street sounds.

The downside to not having a location sound mixer is that the camera crew gets everything they can but it’s in mono. They don’t have the time to go back to a location with a stereo recorder or an X/Y mic configuration on a camera to record that way. There’s just no time. So I was able to use a lot of my own recordings to complement what they had gotten in mono, along with my memory of how absolutely insane traffic is in Hanoi.

It’s busy even on the smaller side streets. I remember just standing on the curb on my first day and not knowing how to cross the street. It is just completely flooded with scooters everywhere. There was an old lady standing next to me who looked at me pitifully and she just walked right out into the street, staring straight ahead to where she was going. I decided to just follow her and miraculously the scooters just avoid you and you just trust that you won’t be hit.

Sound-wise, I remember that everyone honks, and they go pretty fast. So I was given a lot of B-roll from Hunter to complement the scenes. I really like to pan the sound and follow an individual scooter from left to right. I also put in a lot of my stereo recordings to complement their sound a bit better and I was able to add a lot of Italian scooter sounds, as well as some Honda bikes. I try to stay as true as possible to what I am seeing but the idea was to make the sound feel a little bit claustrophobic.

What sounds would you say are characteristic of Hanoi’s soundscape? What sounds make that city sound like that city?
Mouthon: The two-stroke engine. There are a lot of scooters, very whiney and mid-ranged. The sound of motorbikes is relentless, and it’s coming from everywhere — left, right, up, down — you are constantly making sure that you’re not getting in the way of someone who is driving very fast.

The scooter sounds were useful in another way. We could take you out of one scene and bring you into a completely different situation, one that is much more present. It can be loud, fill the space and give your senses a shock.

For the first half of the episode, Bourdain is eating outside on the street and there’s traffic and crowds. Tell me about the principle dialog for those locations. It seems like it would have been quite a challenge to clean and edit the dialog there.
Mouthon: There was a lot of street noise, but that’s kind of the charm — having Bourdain sitting on a plastic stool on the pavement, eating a bowl of soup. Thankfully, the camera work is such that they do pan over into the street and you see a bunch of scooters going back and forth.

As a viewer, it’s easier to accept the sound of the scooters and the noise when you get to see how dense the traffic is. But it was still tricky. There were a lot of scooter sounds and traffic noises that had to be finessed out of sentences because the noise sounded cut off. Often I had to grab B-roll sound to help match that sentence into the upcoming sentence that they decided to use.

In general, the rain was more problematic than the traffic noise. There is a scene where he is outside late in the evening and it’s pouring rain. That was harder to deal with. I used a little bit of EQ and compression to control it a little but the sound overall is pretty true to what it sounded like there.

President Obama shows up in Hanoi. How cool is that? Sound-wise, was there anything to note about that sequence?
Mouthon: The scene was shot in a restaurant and they asked people not to speak too loudly but, as is often the case in those smaller restaurants, the walls are very straight and parallel, and the floor is made of tile and the sound just echoes. There isn’t much in there to absorb the sound, so it was a little bit echoey, a little live, but not unmanageable.

I did add a little bit of stereo rain as former President Obama was coming out of the limousine because he was holding an umbrella. I also added in a little bit of crowd sounds just to enhance it a bit overall. At the end of act four, we see Tony walking through the rain and I complemented that with stereo ambience of growling thunder.

The “Hanoi” episode wraps up on an emotional note. The music does a lot to carry the emotion. Did you do anything sound-wise to help support that?
Mouthon: Hunter and the producer Tom Vitale often like to end on an emotional note. They like it to be a little poetic, and I agree with that. There were just a couple little hints of B-roll sound there, but I kept it very low because it’s the music that’s supposed to take the show out. Also, ending on music was a great way to tie it back to the beginning.

For “Rome,” the mood is very tongue-in-cheek. The episode opens with a street performer singing a spirited song, and the lyrics are about killing her lover. From a mix standpoint Brian, were you able to enhance the playfulness of this episode?
Bracken: Hunter did this episode as well. He was the one who really sold that tongue-in-cheek aspect of the episode, and I just tried to enhance it. I was there to support that performance in the mix. During that scene you have two performers in the market, and the market sounds were getting in the way of their guitars, and it wasn’t an easy task to make it sound as clean as it did.

In terms of the mix, what were some creative opportunities you had on the “Rome” episode?
Bracken: There were some cool things during the Mussolini section where they showed archival footage. Recreating the sound for that, making it feel as real as possible was fun. I like doing all of that marching stuff, with the very militant crowds. That was fun to do.

I also really liked doing that car scene — where the cars are whizzing by on the highway. It starts out far back and you hear this gentle rumble, then all of a sudden when that first car passes it’s like a punch in the face. The power continues throughout that whole little section until it is over-the-top loud. It’s almost like you’re standing on the side of the road. I was able to take their production audio and enhance that with other car-bys to really give it that sweeping stereo image. When a car goes by it just doesn’t cut away — you hear it decay a lot longer as the next car comes by.

The boxing scene was fun too because there were those hits. When they punch each other, I basically wanted it to sound the way Bourdain describes it: as a slap of leather against wet skin. When you hear him say that you have this picture in your head of what it should sound like and hopefully it matches everybody’s expectations when they hear those punches being thrown and landing.

What was the most challenging scene for you to mix in this episode, and how did you handle it?
Bracken: There’s a scene where Bourdain is talking with a group of people and they are in a café right on the side of the road. There are cars driving by, but I didn’t have that camera pan-over to show that there was traffic. I had to cut out all the stuff in between but not have gaps in the ambience. That’s a challenge you face all the time with any restaurant scene. So I cut out what I didn’t like.

I cut out the sound between words and layered in a nice crowd bed in mono. Then I did a separate bed in stereo. I find that when I only do the bed in stereo it sounds too wide. So I need something to marry the wide aspect of the scene and the narrow aspect of the voices. So between the mono bed, the dialogue, and the stereo bed I can do fader movements to make it sound smooth.

Of all the episodes in Season 8, why did you choose the mix on “Rome” for Emmy consideration?
Bracken: The episode really had great production audio. I had a lot to work with. They did a great job out there in the field.

Also, the episode is very cinematic. I love how Hunter and Tom end on a low note. They do that for this episode as well. I love the echoey footsteps that are leading you through the Palazzo Del Congressi. To me, the “Rome” episode sounded the best, and it was the most artistic one that I worked on this season.

Benny, of all the episodes in Season 8, why did you choose the sound editing on “Hanoi” for Emmy consideration?
Mouthon: For me, it was a mixture of having enjoyed playing around with all of the sounds of the scooters and knowing that they were almost a secondary character in the episode. But it was also a very nostalgic episode for me since it reminded me of the week I spent there and so maybe it was a bit more present in my head than the other episodes. No offense to the other episodes of course!


Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio engineer and writer. Follow her on Twitter @audiojeney.


Emmy Awards: HBO’s The Night Of

Nominee Nicholas Renbeck, supervising sound editor/re-recording mixer

By Jennifer Walden

The HBO drama series The Night Of tells the tale of Nasir “Naz” Khan, a young Pakistani-American male accused of brutally murdering a young woman in her uptown Manhattan home. The series takes the audience on a tour of New York City’s penal system, from the precinct to the morgue, into the court room and out to Riker’s Island. It also explores different neighborhoods, from uptown Manhattan across the East River into Queens. Each location has a rich tapestry of sound, a vibrant background upon which the drama plays out.

Supervising sound editor/re-recording mixer Nicholas Renbeck from c5 Sound in New York, has been nominated for two Emmys for his work on the show: one for Outstanding Sound Editing For A Limited Series for Ep. 2 “Subtle Beast,” and one for Outstanding Sound Mixing For A Limited Series for Ep.1 “The Beach.” He’s already won a 2017 Golden Reel Award for Best Sound Editing on The Night Of.

Here he shares insight on building the expressive backgrounds and mixing the effects to create a rich world around the actors.

Nicholas Renbeck

How did you get involved with the show?
They were looking to do the sound in New York and c5 Sound was one of the places they were considering. I interviewed for the job and ended up getting it.

I flew out to Los Angeles while they were wrapping up locking the picture cut. Just prior to going they had sent me screening links to watch the series, all but the last episode. So I viewed the first seven episodes pretty much straight in a row, and in less than 24 hours I got on the plane and flew out to LA to spot the entire show with Steve Zaillian (series creator/ director/writer), still not knowing what happens in the last episode. While on the plane I had all these possible sound ideas swirling around in my head, mixed with this deep desire to know what happens in the final episode.

Then upon arriving I sat and did a spotting session with Steve and Nick Houy, the picture editor. We watched all eight episodes over a two-day period and talked about the sound concerns and possibilities.

This was your first time working with show runners Richard Price and Steven Zaillian. Did they have specific plans for how they wanted to use sound in the show?
Steve had a definite vision for where he wanted to go with the show. He had very specific ideas on what it would sound like in the prison, or what the city should sound like depending on the neighborhood. When I sat down with them, they already had a lot of sounds in their Avid Media Composer that they were working with. Actually, much more than any show I’ve worked on before.

Warren Shaw (a fellow supervising sound editor/sound designer who was New York-based but went out to Los Angeles a little while ago) had been brought onto the show early on while they were still cutting. Warren did some great initial sound design for them on a few of the later episodes. I got to hear what his ideas were and we brought his work, along with everything they had in the Avid, into our working sound sessions. Then Ruy Garcia, Wyatt Sprague (sound design/effects editors) and I kept going further, adding more elements and refining ideas.

I find there’s always a transitional step when moving from a mono or stereo Avid track into a 5.1 surround environment. Everybody up to this point is used to listening to things in a certain way. Now we’ve added four more speakers, and there’s a re-adjustment processes that happens. So, I spent a good amount of time working to present all the material in a way that would play to the strengths of a 5.1 sound environment.

What came about was a wonderful combination of all our ideas up to that point. I would make a full 5.1 sound effect premix in one of c5 sound design suites for an entire episode, then bring Steve in and get his reaction, and then afterward build from that. What we learned from working with Steve on Episode 102 we would then take and apply to Episode 103, building as we went.

How did they want the prison to sound? What descriptions did they give?
You hear this low rumbling tone, this presence of heaviness. That really spoke to Steve’s idea of what he wanted the prison atmosphere to encompass. We found sounds and tones to mold that mood, working to create what that feeling is like when the prison is busy and full of activity. We also created the flip side of what that oppressive sound is when the lights are out and we are alone with Naz [Riz Ahmed] in this very scary place that’s now quiet. We kept working to give the cell block a heaviness so that it feels like it’s pulling you down as you go through these scenes with Naz and see what his life has become at this point.

Marissa Littlefield, our ADR supervisor, Steve and I had conversations about what we needed in terms of added voices and how we would handle that. We did a lot of interesting casting for loop group, with a focus on being specific to the locations around the city. We definitely put our loop group coordinators Dann Fink and Bruce Winant (of Loopers Unlimited) through the paces of casting. It was nice to be able to combine those added voices from the loop group with the substantial production recording that was done on set, along with a number of sounds we had in our personal sound libraries. I think we were pretty successful at creating those different locations based on both voices and sound atmospheres.

What about the reverb work for the prison and the precinct? You have dry loop group recordings, so what reverbs did you use to help fit those into the environments?
I jump back and forth using Avid’s ReVibe II, Space and Audio Ease’s Altiverb. In doing some of his design work I know Ruy liked to use Soundtoy’s Echoboy delay for some fun stuff, and I believe Michael Berry (re-recording mixer on music/dialog/ADR/Foley) used ReVibe II and Altiverb for most of the show. So there was a variety of different reverbs and effects that we would use.

In some cases, we would apply reverb directly to the sound file, and in other cases we would wait until we got to the mix. In terms of the loop group voices, Michael Berry spent time figuring out where he wanted those to sit — how far back in the environment they would play and how they would play against the effects tracks that we created. We found a nice balance there.

Where did you mix “The Beach” episode? What console did you use?
Michael Berry was in charge of all the dialog, ADR, music and Foley premixing, which he did at PostWorks/Technicolor in New York, on the Avid S5. I did the sound effects premixing at c5 Sound, in a 5.1 design/mix room on an Avid D-Command. The final mix then happened at PostWorks/Technicolor. All of the sound editorial was done at c5.

What were some challenges you had while mixing “The Beach” and how did you handle them?
The trickiest scene for us was the one under the George Washington Bridge. The production tracks were challenging due to the noise of the river and the George Washington Bridge overhead. However, the performances were so good we really wanted to save them at all costs. Sara Stern (dialogue editor) worked for a good while to clean up the initial dialogue, and then Michael [Berry] really worked at those tracks to find a way to save and salvage the on-camera performances. iZotope RX5 (RX6 wasn’t out yet) was our friend in a big way.

Then we had to figure out where the atmospheres wanted to be because the performances are so strong that you don’t want to put the effects or the music over what the actors are doing. You don’t want to overpower that or take away from what is happening on-screen. There’s a lot of subtlety in our decisions. A little went a long way.

Did you have a favorite scene in terms of mixing sound effects on your side of the board?
I really liked the opening section of the Queens neighborhood during the day and going into the night with the drive into Manhattan. The whole driving sequence into the city in the cab has some real nice moments…the juxtaposing of the interiors of the house and cab with city’s night exteriors.

Of all the episodes you could’ve picked from Season 1, why did you choose the mix on “The Beach” for Emmy consideration?
It’s the first episode and it really grabs you. I was just sitting there on the edge of my seat watching it for the first time. The performances were so powerful and our challenge was to add to that. How can you help build on that?

Steve, Michael and I felt this was the right episode to go with. It has interesting atmospheric sounds, the music is strong and the performances are strong. Across the board, the music, the effects and the dialogue were all there nicely represented.

Let’s talk about the sound editing on “Subtle Beast,” which is up for Emmy consideration. What were some opportunities you had for creative sound on this episode?
What was nice about “Subtle Beast” is that we had so many different and interesting locations to address and figure out. There is the morgue, which is the hallway and the waiting area, the parking lot outside and the morgue itself. All of those were fantastic spots where we could design the backgrounds and sound effects to create the mood. This episode showcased most of the locations from the first episode again. And we see Naz being brought from the police precinct in the van across town to the holding cell under the courthouse, which is a great sequence. Then finally Naz goes into the transport to Riker’s Island. You have this array of locations in which to create this rich tapestry of sound.

Nothing is huge. There are no large gun battles or things of that nature. There are just many different locations for which we can create some interesting moods.

You did a fantastic job on the backgrounds. They are so expressive. I particularly like when the transport van is backing up to the precinct to pick up the prisoners. You hear the music playing from inside the van and it’s bouncing around the street outside.
There is some fantastic music editing by Dan Evans Farkas and Grant Conway that is happening there as well. It was nice to figure out, from an editorial sense, how to get in all your editing food groups — your sound effects, your music, your production, your loop group, ADR and Foley. There were a lot of good moments in that episode. In looking at the episodes we could have chosen, I felt that “Subtle Beast” was the strongest for us.

In terms of sound editing on “Subtle Beast,” what was the most challenging scene?
I’m not sure about most challenging, but the most engaging sequence for me was the trip from the police precinct in the van to the night holding cell. Once that van pulls in and Naz is being marched down the hall it’s a ride of sound, music and tension. And, possibly, fear.

There’s so much to work with, from the point at which the van is backing up, we’ve got the odd metal double doors on the van, then the juxtaposition of the van, to Detective Box’s (Bill Camp) car drive, to John Stone (John Turturro) going home to his brownstone. All these actions are intercutting with each other. When the van pulls up at Baxter Street, we lose the music and are left with these echoing footsteps and police radio surrounded by the dripping water of the location. Then finally down into night holding cells and with the yelling distant voices. Naz doesn’t know what’s coming but it doesn’t sound good. So that was one of the more intense and fun spots for me personally.

In building these backgrounds, what were some of your sources? Being in New York, were you able to go out and capture local ambiences? Or was it completely crafted in post?
We did some recordings around town to pick up what we needed. Since c5 is based in New York, we have a really great library of New York sounds to pull from. Also, the production location recordists did a great job of capturing stuff as well so we were able to use a number of those sounds in our sound bed. I would say 85 percent of the ambiences were created in post, and the other 15 percent was what was recorded on set.

Strangely enough I personally have lived in two of the main locations of the series: the Upper West Side of Manhattan — on the exact street of Andrea’s brownstone — and Jackson Heights, Queens, where Naz’s family lives. So I was well aware of what these neighborhoods sounded like at all hours of the day and night and would use my own internal “appropriate location audio filter” when working on those locations. At the end of the day that’s sort of a silly side note, but I like to think it helps us stay true to the sounds of those neighborhoods.

Beyond the background sounds but in keeping with what we crafted in post, once we get to Riker’s I think it’s worth noting that the entire cellblock set had a floor of painted plywood. So it really fell to our Foley department to make sure all our foot falls on concrete were covered and ready to take center stage if called upon. The whole Foley team led by Marko Costanzo (artist), George Lara (recordist) and Steve Visscher (supervising Foley editor) did a wonderful job.

Anything else you’d like to share about The Night Of?
It was a show that involved a lot of really good collaboration in terms of sound and music. I personally feel very fortunate to have had such a good sound crew comprising so many talented people, and very lucky for the opportunity to get to mix next to Michael Berry and see the care and skill he brings to the process. I am also very appreciative of the support we got along the way from everybody at HBO, our wonderful post supervisor Lori Slomka, as well as our picture editor Nick Houy and his crew.

Lastly, I think through our conversations and discussions with Steve Zaillian we were successful in figuring out how best to shape and mold the tracks into something that is very compelling to watch and listen to and I hope people really enjoy it.


Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio engineer and writer.


Emmy Awards: OJ: Made in America composer Gary Lionelli

By Jennifer Walden

The aftermath of a tragic event plays out in front of the eyes of the nation. OJ Simpson, wanted for the gruesome murder of his wife and her friend, fails to turn himself in to the authorities. News helicopters follow the police chase that follows Simpson back to his Rockingham residence where they plan to take him into custody. Decades later, three-time Emmy-winning composer Gary Lionelli is presented with the opportunity to score that iconic Bronco chase.

Here, Lionelli talks about his approach to scoring ESPN’s massive documentary OJ: Made in America. His score on Part 3 is currently up for Emmy consideration for Outstanding Music Composition for a Limited Series. The entire OJ: Made in America score is available digitally through Lakeshore Records.

Gary Lionelli

Scoring OJ: Made in America seems like such a huge undertaking. It’s a five-part series, and each part is over 90 minutes long. How did you tackle this beast?
I’d never scored anything that long within such a short timeframe. Because each part was so long, it wasn’t like doing a TV series but more like scoring five 90-minute films back-to-back. I just focused on one cue at a time, putting one foot in front of the other so I wouldn’t feel overwhelmed by the full scope of the work and could relax enough to write the score! I knew I’d get to the finish line at some point, but it seemed so far away most of the time that I just didn’t want to dwell on that.

When you got this project, did they deliver it as one crazy, long piece? Or did they give it to you in its separate parts?
I got everything at once, which was totally mind-boggling. When you get any project, you need to watch it before you start working on it. For this one, it meant watching a seven-and-a-half-hour film, which was a feat in and of itself. The scale was just huge on this. Looking back, my eyelids still twitch.

It was a pretty nerve-racking time because the schedule was really tight. That was one of the most challenging parts of doing this project. I could have used a year to write this music, because five films are ordinarily what I‘d do in a year, not six months. But all of us who write music for film know that you have to work within extreme deadlines as a matter of course. So you say yes, and you find a way to do it.

So you basically locked yourself up for 14 hours a day, and just plugged away at it?
Right, except it was actually about 15 hours a day, seven days a week, with no breaks. I finished the score 11 days before its theatrical release, which is insane. But, hey, that part is all in the past now, and it’s great to see the film out there getting such attention. One thing that made it worthwhile to me in the end was the quality of the filmmaking — I was riveted by the film the whole time I was working on it.

When composing, you worked only on one part at a time and not with an overall story arc in mind?
I watched all five parts over the course of four days. Once I’d watched the first two parts, I couldn’t wait to start writing so I did that for a bit and then went back to watch the rest.

The director Ezra Edelman wanted me to first score the infamous Bronco chase, which is in Part 3. It’s a 30-minute segment of that particular episode. It was a long sequence of events, all having to do with the chase itself, the events leading up to it and the aftermath of it. So that is what I scored first. It’s kind of strange to dive into a film by first scoring such a pivotal, iconic event. But it worked out — what I wrote for that segment stuck.

It was strange to be writing music for something I had seen on television 20 years before – just to think that there I was, watching the Bronco chase on TV along with everyone else, not having the remotest idea that 20 years down the line I was going to be writing music for this real-life event. It’s just a very odd thing.

The Bronco chase wasn’t a high-speed chase. It was a long police escort back to OJ’s house. The music you wrote for this segment was so brooding and it fit perfectly…
I loved when Zoe Tur, the helicopter pilot, said they were giving OJ a police motorcade. That’s exactly what he got. So I didn’t want to score the sequence by commenting literally on what was happening — what people were doing, or the fact that this was a “chase.” What I tried to do was focus on the subtext, which was the tragedy of the circumstances, and have that direct the course of the music, supplying an overarching musical commentary.

For your instrumentation, did the director let you be carried away by your own muse? Or did he request specific instruments?
He was specific about two things: one, that there would be a trumpet in the score, and two, he wanted an oboe. Other than those two instruments, it was up to me. I have a trumpet player, Jeff Bunnell, who I’ve worked with before. It’s a great partnership because he’s a gifted improviser, and sometimes he knows what I want even when I don’t. He did a fantastic job on the score.

I also had a 40-piece string section recorded at the Eastman Scoring Stage at Warner Bros. Studios. We used players here in town and they added a lot, really bringing the score to life.

Were you conducting the orchestra? Or did you stay close to the engineer in the booth?
I wanted to be next to the recording engineer so I could hear everything as it was being recorded. I had a conductor instead. Besides, I’m a terrible conductor.

What instruments did you choose for the Bronco chase score?
For one of the scenes, I used layers of distorted electric guitars. Another element of the score was musical sound manipulation of acoustic instruments through electronics. It’s a time-consuming way to conjure up sounds, with all the trial and error involved, but the results can sometimes give a film an identity beyond what you can do with an orchestra alone.

So you recorded real instruments and then processed them? Can you share an example of your processing chain?
Sometimes I will get my guitar out and play a phrase. I’ll take that phrase and play it backwards, drop it two octaves, put it through a ring modulator, and then I’ll chop it up into short segments and use that to create a rhythmic pattern. The result is nothing like a real guitar. I didn’t necessarily know what I was going for at the start, but then I’d end up with this cool beat. Then I’d build a cue around that.

The original sound could be anything. I could tap a pencil on a desk and then drop that three octaves, time compress it and do all sorts of other processing. The result is a weird drum sound that no one’s ever heard before. It’s all sorts of experimentation, with the end result being a sound that has some originality and that piques the interest of the person watching the film.

To break that down a little further, what program do you work in?
I work in Pro Tools. I went from Digital Performer to Logic — I think most film composers use Logic or Cubase, but there are a growing number who actually use Pro Tools. I don’t need MIDI to jump through a lot of hoops. I just need to record basic lines because most of that stuff gets replaced by real players anyhow.

When you work in Pro Tools, it’s already the delivery format for the orchestra, so you eliminate a conversion step. I’ve been using Pro Tools for the past four years, and so far it’s been working out great. It has some limitations in MIDI, but not that many and nothing that I can’t work around.

What are some of your favorite processing plug-ins?
For pitching, I use Melodyne by Celemony and Serato’s Pitch ‘n’ Time. There’s a new pitch shifter in Pro Tools called X-Form that’s also good. I also use Waves SoundShifter — whatever seems to do a better job for what I’m working on. I always experiment to see which one works the best to give me the sound I’m looking for.

Besides pitch shifters, I use GRM Tools by Ina-GRM. They make weird plug-ins, like one called Shift, that really convolute sound to the point where you can take a drum or rhythmic guitar and turn it into a high-hat sound. It doesn’t sound like a real high-hat. It sounds like a weird high-hat, not a real one. You never know what you’re going to get from this plug-in, and that’s why I like it so much.

I also use a lot of Soundtoys plug-ins, like Crystallizer, which can really change sounds in unexpected ways. Soundtoys has great distortion plug-ins too. I’m always on the hunt for something new.

A lot of times I use hardware, like guitar pedals. It’s great to turn real knobs and get results and ideas from that. Sometimes the hardware will have a punchier sound, and maybe you can do more extreme things with it. It’s all about experimentation.

You’ve talked before about using a Guitarviol. Was that how you created the long, suspended bass notes in the Bronco chase score?
Yes, I did use the Guitarviol in that and in other places in the score, too. It’s a very weird instrument, because it looks like a cello but doesn’t sound like one, and it definitely doesn’t sound like a guitar. It has a weird, almost Middle Eastern sound to it, and that makes you want to play in that scale sometimes. Sometimes I’ll use it to write an idea, and then I’ll have my cellist play the same thing on cello.

The Guitarviol is built by Jonathan Wilson, who lives in Los Angeles. He had no idea when he invented this thing that it was going to get adopted by the film composer community here in town. But it has, and he can’t make them fast enough.

Do you end up layering the Guitarviol and the cello in the mix? Or do you just go with straight cello?
It’s usually just straight cello. There are a couple of cellists I use who are great. I don’t want to dilute their performance by having mine in the background. The Guitarviol is an inspiration to write something for the cellists to hear, and then I’ll just have them take over from there.

The overall sound of Part 3 is very brooding, and the percussion choices have complementary deep tones. Can you tell me about some of the choices you made there?
Those are all real drums. I don’t use any samples. I love playing real drums. I have a real timpani, a big Brazilian Surdo drum, a gigantic steel bass drum that sounds like a Caribbean steel drum but only two octaves lower (it has a really odd sound), and I have a classic Ludwig Beatles drum kit. I have a marimba and a collection of small percussion instruments. I use them all.

Sometimes I will pitch the recordings down to make them sound bigger. The Surdo by itself sounds huge, and when you pitch that down half an octave it’s even bigger. So I used all of those instruments and I played them. I don’t think I used a single drum sample on the entire score.

When you use percussion samples, you have to hunt around in your entire hard drive for a great tom-tom or a Taiko drum. It’s so much easier to run over to one in your studio and just play it. You never know how it’s going to sound, depending on how you mic it that day. And it’s more inspiring to play the real thing. You get great variation. Every time you hit the drum it sounds different, but a sample sound pretty much sounds the same every time you trigger it.

For striking, did you choose mallets, brushes, sticks, your hands, or other objects?
For the Surdo, I used my hands. I use marimba mallets and timpani mallets for the other instruments. For example, I’ll use timpani mallets for the big steel bass drum. Sometimes I’ll use timpani mallets on my drum kit’s bass drum, because it gives a different sound. It has a more orchestral sound, not like a kick drum from a rock band.

I’m always experimenting. I use brushes a lot on cymbals, and I use the brushes on the steel drum because it gives it a weird sound. You can even use brushes on the timpani, and that creates a strange sound. There are definitely no rules. Whatever you think or can imagine having an effect on the drum, you just try it out. You never know what you’ll get — it’s always good to give it a chance.

In addition to the Bronco chase scene, are there any other tracks that stood out for you in Part 3?
When you score something this long, at a certain point everything starts to run together in your mind. You don’t remember what cue belongs to what scene. But there are many that I can remember. During the jury section of that episode, I used an oboe for Johnny Cochran speaking to the jury. That was an interesting pairing, the oboe and Johnny Cochran. In a way, the oboe became an extension of his voice during his closing argument. I can’t really explain why it worked, but somehow it was the right match.

For the beginning of Part 3, when the police arrive because there was a phone call from Nicole Brown Simpson saying she was afraid of OJ, the cue there was very understated. It had a lot of strange, low sounds to it. That one comes to mind.

At the end of Part 3, they go to OJ’s Rockingham residence, and his lawyers had staged the setting. I did a cue there that was sort of quizzical in a way, just to show the ridiculousness of the whole thing. It was like a farce, the way they set up his residence. So I made the score take a right turn into a different area for that part. It gets away from the dark, brooding undercurrent that the rest of Part 3’s score had.

Of all the parts you could have submitted for Emmy consideration, why did you choose Part 3?
It was a toss-up between Part 2 and Part 3. Part 2 had some of the more major trumpet themes, more of the signature sound with the trumpet and the orchestra. But there were a few examples of that in Part 3, too.

I just felt the Bronco chase, score-wise, had a lot of variation to it, and that it moved in a way that was unpredictable. I ultimately thought that was the way to go, though it was a close race between Part 2 and Part 3.

I found out later that ESPN had submitted Part 3 for Emmy consideration in other categories, so there is a bit of synergy there.

—————-

Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio engineer and writer.

FMPX8.14

Behind the Title: 3008 Editorial’s Matt Cimino and Greg Carlson

NAMES: Matt Cimino and Greg Carlson

COMPANY: 3008 Editorial in Dallas

WHAT’S YOUR JOB TITLE?
Cimino: We are sound designers/mixers.

WHAT DOES THAT ENTAIL?
Cimino: Audio is a storytelling tool. Our job is to enhance the story directly or indirectly and create the illusion of depth, space and a sense of motion with creative sound design and then mix that live in the environment of the visuals.

Carlson: And whenever someone asks, I always tend to prioritize sound design before mixing. Although I love every aspect of what we do, when a spot hits my room as a blank slate, it’s really the sound design that can take it down a hundred different paths. And for me, it doesn’t get better than that.

WHAT WOULD SURPRISE PEOPLE THE MOST ABOUT WHAT FALLS UNDER THAT TITLE?
Carlson: I’m not sure a brief job title can encompass what anyone really does. I am a composer as well as a sound designer/mixer, so I bring that aspect into my work. I love musical elements that help stitch a unified sound into a project.

Cimino: That there really isn’t “a button” for that!

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE PART OF THE JOB?
Carlson: The freedom. Having the opportunity to take a project where I think it should go and along the way, pushing it to the edge and back. Experimenting and adapting makes every spot a completely new trip.

Matt Cimino

Cimino: I agree. It’s the challenge of creating an expressive and aesthetically pleasing experience by taking the soundtrack to a whole new level.

WHAT’S YOUR LEAST FAVORITE?
Cimino: Not Much. However, being an imperfect perfectionist, I get pretty bummed when I do not have enough time to perfect the job.

Carlson: People always say, “It’s so peaceful and quiet in the studio, as if the world is tuned out.” The downside of that is producer-induced near heart attacks. See, when you’re rocking out at max volume and facing away from the door, well, people tend to come in and accidentally scare you to death.

WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE TIME OF THE DAY?
Cimino: I’m a morning person!

Carlson: Time is an abstract notion in a dark room with no windows, so no time in particular. However, the funniest time of day is when you notice you’re listening about 15 dB louder than the start of the day. Loud is better.

IF YOU DIDN’T HAVE THIS JOB, WHAT WOULD YOU BE DOING INSTEAD?
Cimino: Carny. Or Evel Knievel.

Carlson: Construction/carpentry. Before audio, I had lots of gritty “hands-on” jobs. My dad taught me about work ethic, to get my hands dirty and to take pride in everything. I take that same approach with every spot I touch. Now I just sit in a nice chair while doing it.

WHY DID YOU CHOOSE THIS PROFESSION? HOW EARLY ON DID YOU KNOW THIS WOULD BE YOUR PATH?
Cimino: I’ve had a love for music since high school. I used to read all the liner notes on my vinyl. One day I remember going through my father’s records and thinking at that moment, I want to be that “sound engineer” listed in the notes. This led me to study audio at Columbia College in Chicago. I quickly gravitated towards post production audio classes and training. When I wasn’t recording and mixing music, I was doing creative sound design.

Carlson: I was always good with numbers and went to Michigan State to be an accountant. But two years in, I was unhappy. All I wanted was to work on music and compose, so I switched to audio engineering and never looked back. I knew the second I walked into my first studio, I had found my calling. People always say there isn’t a dream job; I disagree.

CAN YOU DESCRIBE YOUR COMPANY?
Cimino: A fun, stress-free environment full of artistry and technology.

Carlson: It is a place I look forward to every day. It’s like a family, solely focused on great creative.

CAN YOU NAME SOME RECENT SPOTS YOU HAVE WORKED ON?
Cimino: Snapple, RAM, Jeep, Universal Orlando, Cricket Wireless, Maserati.

Carlson: AT&T, Lay’s, McDonald’s, Bridgestone Golf.

Greg Carlson

WHAT IS THE PROJECT THAT YOU ARE MOST PROUD OF?
Carlson: It’s nearly impossible to pick one, but there is a project I see as pivotal in my time here in Dallas. It was shortly after I arrived six years ago. I think it was a boost to my confidence and in turn, enhanced my style. The client was The Home Depot and the campaign was Lets Do This. A creative I admire greatly here in town gave me the chance to spearhead the sonic approach for the work. There are many moments, milestones and memories, but this was a special project to me.

Cimino: There are so many. One of the most fun campaigns I worked on was for Snapple, where each spot opened with the “pop!” of the Snapple cap. I recorded several pops (close-miced) and selected one that I manipulated to sound larger than life but also retain the sound of the brands signature cap pop being opened. After the cap pops, the spot transforms into an exploding fruit infusion. The sound was created by smashing Snapple bottles for the glass break, crushing, smashing and squishing fruit with my hands, and using a hydrophone to record splashing and underwater sounds to create the slow-motion effect of the fruit morphing. So much fun.

NAME THREE PIECES OF TECHNOLOGY YOU CAN’T LIVE WITHOUT.
Cimino: During a mix, my go-tos are iZotope, Sound Toys and Slate Digital. Outside the studio I can’t live without my Apple!

Carlson: ProTools, all things iZotope, Native Instruments.

THIS IS A HIGH-STRESS JOB WITH DEADLINES AND CLIENT EXPECTATIONS. WHAT DO YOU DO TO DE-STRESS FROM IT ALL?
Cimino: Family and friends. I love watching my kiddos play select soccer. Relaxing pool or beachside with a craft cider. Or on a single path/trail with my mountain bike.

Carlson: I work on my home, build things, like to be outside. When I need to detach for a bit, I prefer dangerous power tools or being on a body of water.


Multiple Emmy-winner Edward J. Greene, CAS, has passed away

Ed Greene died peacefully in Los Angeles on August 9, with his family by his side. He was 82 years old and is survived by his wife and children.

Born and raised in New York City, Greene attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.  He began his pro audio career with a summer job in 1954 at Allegro Studios in New York doing voice and piano demos for music publishers. Within two years the studio was doing full recording sessions. Greene joined the army 1956 and served as recording engineer for the US Army Band and Chorus in Washington, DC. Upon discharge from the Army he co-founded Edgewood Studios in Washington, with partners radio and television commentator Charles Osgood and composer George Wilkins. Some of his recordings are legendary and include Charlie Byrd and Stan Getz’s “Jazz Samba” and Ramsey Lewis’ “The In Crowd.”

In 1970, Greene came to California as chief engineer for MGM Records and worked with Sammy Davis Jr., The Osmonds, Lou Rawls and the prominent artists of that time. When many of these artists started doing television programs, he was asked to participate. He was brought into television mixing by Frank Sinatra, at a production meeting for Sinatra’s first broadcast.

Greene mixed many music, variety and award shows as well as earned the well-deserved reputation of being the “go-to” guy when it came to doing live drama for television like ER, Fail Safe and The West Wing Live. Ed garnered 22 Emmy wins, his most recent in 2015, and an astonishing 61 Emmy nominations (ranking him 3rd for most nominations and 2nd for most wins by an individual). He was a member of the Television Academy when it formed its current incarnation in 1977.

 

had a special affinity for mixing live broadcasts. His live productions included decades of The Kennedy Center Honors, The Grammy Awards, The Tony Awards, The Academy Awards and The SAG Awards. He also mixed the Live from Lincoln Center specials, Carnegie Hall, Live at 100, numerous Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parades, Tournament of Roses Parade, The AFI Life Achievement Awards, The 52nd Presidential Inaugural Gala, The 1996 Summer Olympics, The 2002 Winter Olympics Opening and Closing Ceremonies and years of American Idol. His live production work garnered him a Cinema Audio Society Award and four additional CAS nominations.

Green served on the Board of Directors of the Cinema Audio Society from 2005 to his death. In 2007, Ed was presented with the CAS Career Achievement Award recognizing his career, his willingness to mentor and his contribution to the art of sound.

 

Richard King talks sound design for Dunkirk

Using historical sounds as a reference

By Mel Lambert

Currently garnering critical acclaim for its stunning and immersive soundtrack — particularly the IMAX showcase screenings — writer/director Christopher Nolan’s latest film follows the fate of nearly 400,000 allied soldiers who were marooned on the beaches of Dunkirk, and the extraordinary plans to rescue them using small ships from nearby English seaports. Although, sadly, more than 68,000 soldiers were captured or killed during the Battle of Dunkirk and the subsequent retreat, more than 300,000 were rescued over a nine-day period in May 1940.

Uniquely, Dunkirk’s primary story arcs — the Mole, or harbor from which the larger ships can take off troops; the Sea, focusing on the English flotilla of small boats; and the Air, spotlighting the activities of Spitfire pilots who protect the beaches and ships from German air-force attacks — follow different timelines, with the Mole sequences being spread over a week, the Sea over a day and the Air over an hour. A Warner Bros. release, Dunkirk stars Fionn Whitehead, Mark Rylance, Cillian Murphy, Tom Hardy and Kenneth Branagh. (An uncredited Michael Caine is the voice heard during various radio communications.)

Richard King

Marking his sixth collaboration with Nolan, supervising sound editor Richard King worked previously on Interstellar (2014), The Dark Knight Rises, Inception, The Dark Knight and The Prestige. He brings his unique sound perspective to these complex narratives, often with innovative sound design. Born in Tampa, King attended the University of South Florida, graduating with a BFA in painting and film, and entered the film industry in 1985. He is the recipient of three Academy Awards for Best Achievement in Sound Editing for Inception, The Dark Knight and Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World (2003), plus two BAFTA Awards and four MPSE Golden Reel Awards for Best Sound Editing.

The Sound of History
“When we first met to discuss the film,” King recalls, “Chris [Nolan] told me that he wanted Dunkirk to be historically accurate but not slavishly so — he didn’t plan to make a documentary. For example, several [Junkers Ju 87] Stuka dive bombers appear in the film, but there are no high-quality recordings of these aircraft, which had sirens built into the wheel struts for intimidation purposes. There are no Stukas still flying, nor could I find any design drawings so we could build our own. Instead, we decided to re-imagine the sound with a variety of unrelated sound effects and ambiences, using the period recordings as inspiration. We went out into a nearby desert with some real air raid sirens, which we over-cranked to make them more and more piercing — and to add some analog distortion. To this more ‘pure’ version of the sound we added an interesting assortment of other disparate sounds. I find the result scary as hell and probably very close to what the real thing sounded like.”

For other period Axis and Allied aircraft, King was able to locate several British Supermarine Spitfire fighters and a Bristol Blenheim bomber, together with a German Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter. “There are about 200 Spitfires in the world that still fly; three were used during filming of Dunkirk,” King continues. “We received those recordings, and in post recorded three additional Spitfires.”

King was able to place up to 24 microphones in various locations around the airframe near the engine — a supercharged V-12 Rolls-Royce Merlin liquid-cooled model of 27-liter capacity, and later 37-liter Gremlin motors — as well as close to the exhaust and within the cockpit, as the pilots performed a number of aerial movements. “We used both mono and stereo mics to provide a wide selection for sound design,” he says.

King was looking for the sound of an “air ballet” with the aircraft moving quickly across the sky. “There are moments when the plane sounds are minimized to place the audience more in the pilot’s head, and there are sequences where the plane engines are more prominent,” he says. “We also wanted to recreate the vibrations of this vintage aircraft, which became an important sound design element and was inspired by the shuddering images. I remember that Chris went up in a trainer aircraft to experience the sensation for himself. He reported that it was extremely loud with lots of vibration.

To match up with the edited visuals secured from 65/70mm IMAX and Super Panavision 65mm film cameras, King needed to produce a variety of aircraft sounds. “We had an ex-RAF pilot that had flown in modern dogfights to recreate some of those wartime flying gymnastics. The planes don’t actually produce dramatic changes in the sound when throttling and maneuvering, so I came up with a simple and effective way to accentuate this somewhat. I wanted the planes to respond to the pilots stick and throttle movements immediately.”

For armaments, King’s sound effects recordists John Fasal and Eric Potter oversaw the recording of a vintage Bofors 40mm anti-aircraft cannon seen aboard the allied destroyers and support ships. “We found one in Napa Valley,” north of San Francisco, says King. “The owner had to make up live rounds, which we fired into a nearby hill. We also recorded a number of WWII British Lee-Enfield bolt-action rifles and German machine guns on a nearby range. We had to recreate the sound of the Spitfire’s guns, because the actual guns fitted to the Spitfires overheat when fired at sea level and cannot maintain the 1,000 rounds/minute rate we were looking for, except at altitude.”

King readily acknowledges the work at Warner Bros Sound Services of sound-effects editor Michael Mitchell, who worked on several scenes, including the ship sinkings, and sound effects editor Randy Torres, who worked with King on the plane sequences.

Group ADR was done primarily in the UK, “where we recorded at De lane Lea and onboard a decommissioned WWII warship owned by the Imperial War Museum,” King recalls. “The HMS Belfast, which is moored on the River Thames in central London, was perfect for the reverberant interiors we needed for the various ships that sink in the film. We also secured some realistic Foley of people walking up and down ladders and on the superstructure.” Hugo Weng served as dialog editor and David Bach as supervising ADR editor.

Sounds for Moonstone, the key small boat whose fortunes the film follows across the English Channel, were recorded out of Marina del Rey in Southern California, “including its motor and water slaps against the hull. “We also secured some nice Foley on deck, as well as opening and closing of doors,” King says.

Conventional Foley was recorded at Skywalker Sound in Northern California by Shelley Roden, Scott Curtis and John Roesch. “Good Foley was very important for Dunkirk,” explains King. “It all needed to sound absolutely realistic and not like a Hollywood war movie, with a collection of WWII clichés. We wanted it to sound as it would for the film’s characters. John and his team had access to some great surfaces and textures, and a wonderful selection of props.” Michael Dressel served as supervising Foley editor.

In terms of sound design, King offers that he used historical sounds as a reference, to conjure up the terror of the Battle for Dunkirk. “I wanted it to feel like a well-recorded version of the original event. The book ‘Voices of Dunkirk,’ written by Joshua Levine and based on a compilation of first-hand accounts of the evacuation, inspired me and helped me shape the explosions on the beach, with the muffled ‘boom’ as the shells and bombs bury themselves in the sand and then explode. The under-water explosions needed to sound more like a body slam than an audible noise. I added other sounds that amped it a couple more degrees.”

The soundtrack was re-recorded in 5.1-channel format at Warner Bros. Sound Services Stage 9 in Burbank during a six-week mix by mixers Gary Rizzo handling dialog, with sound effects and music overseen by Gregg Landaker — this was his last film before his retiring. “There was almost no looping on the film aside from maybe a couple of lines,” King recalls. “Hugo Weng mined the recordings for every gem, and Gary [Rizzo] was brilliant at cleaning up the voices and pushing them through the barrage of sound provided by sound effects and music somehow without making them sound pushed. Production recordist Mark Weingarten faced enormous challenges, contending with strong wind and salt spray, but he managed to record tracks Gary could work with.”

The sound designer reports that he provided some 20 to 30 tracks of dialog and ADR “with options for noisy environments,” plus 40 to 50 tracks of Foley, dependent on the action. This included shoes and hob-nailed army boots, and groups of 20, especially in the ship scenes. “The score by composer Hans Zimmer kept evolving as we moved through the mixing process,” says King. “Music editor Ryan Rubin and supervising music editor Alex Gibson were active participants in this evolution.”

“We did not want to repeat ourselves or repeat others work,” King concludes. “All sounds in this movie mean something. Every scene had to be designed with a hard-hitting sound. You need to constantly question yourself: ‘Is there a better sound we could use?’ Maybe something different that is appropriate to the sequence that recreates the event in a new and fresh light? I am super-proud of this film and the track.”

Nolan — who was born in London to an American mother and an English father and whose family subsequently split their time between London and Illinois — has this quote on his IMDB page: “This is an essential moment in the history of the Second World War. If this evacuation had not been a success, Great Britain would have been obliged to capitulate. And the whole world would have been lost, or would have known a different fate: the Germans would undoubtedly have conquered Europe, the US would not have returned to war. Militarily it is a defeat; on the human plane it is a colossal victory.”

Certainly, the loss of life and supplies was profound — wartime Prime Minister Winston Churchill described Operation Dynamo as “the greatest military disaster in our long history.”


Mel Lambert has been involved with production industries on both sides of the Atlantic for more years than he cares to remember. He is principal of Content Creators, a LA-based copywriting and editorial service, and can be reached at mel.lambert@content-creators.com. He is also a long-time member of the UK’s National Union of Journalists.