Category Archives: Audio Mixing

The A-List: The sound of La La Land

By Jennifer Walden

Director/writer Damien Chazelle’s musical La La Land has landed an incredible 14 Oscar nominations — not to mention fresh BAFTA wins for Best Film, Best Cinematography, Original Music and Best Leading Actress, in addition to many, many other accolades.

The story follows aspiring actress Mia (Emma Stone) who meets the talented-but-struggling jazz pianist Sebastian (Ryan Gosling) at a dinner club, where he’s just been fired from his gig of plinking out classic Christmas tunes for indifferent diners. Mia throws out a compliment as Sebastian approaches, but he just breezes right past, ignoring her completely. Their paths cross again at a Los Angeles pool party, and this time Mia makes a lasting impression on Sebastian. They eventually fall in love, but their life together is complicated by the realities of making their own dreams happen.

Sounds of the City
La La Land is a love story but it’s also a love letter to Los Angeles, says supervising sound editor Ai-Ling Lee, who shares an Oscar nomination for Best Sound Editing on the film with co-supervising sound editor Mildred Iatrou Morgan. One of Chazelle’s initial directives was to have the cityscape sound active and full of life. “He gave me film references, like Boogie Nights and Mean Streets, even though the latter was a New York film. He liked the amount of sound coming out from the city, but wanted a more romantic approach to the soundscape on La La Land. He likes the idea of the city always being bustling,” says Lee.

Mildred Iatrou Morgan and Ai-Ling Lee. Photo Credit: Jeffrey Harlacker

In addition to La La Land’s musical numbers, director Chazelle wanted to add musical moments throughout the film, some obvious, like the car radios in the opening traffic jam, and some more subtle. Lee explains, “You always hear music coming from different sources in the city, like music coming out of a car going by or mariachi music coming from down the hallway of Sebastian’s apartment building.” The culturally diverse incidental music, traffic sounds, helicopters, and local LA birds, like mourning doves, populate the city soundscape and create a distinct Los Angeles vibe.

For Lee’s sound editorial and sound design, she worked in a suite at EPS-Cineworks in Burbank — the same facility where the picture editor and composer were working. “Damien and Tom Cross [film editor] were cutting the picture there, and Justin Hurwitz the composer was right next door to them, and I was right across the hall from them. It was a very collaborative environment so it was easy to bring someone over to review a scene or sounds. I could pop over there to see them if I had any questions,” says Lee, who was able to design sound against the final music tracks. That was key to helping those two sound elements gel into one cohesive soundtrack.

Bursting Into Song
Director Chazelle’s other initial concern for sound was the music, particularly how the spoken dialogue would transitions into the studio recorded songs. That’s where supervising sound editor Morgan got to flex her dialogue editing muscles. “Milly [Morgan] knows this style of ADR, having worked on musicals before,” says Lee. “Damien wanted the dialogue to seamlessly transition into a musical moment. He didn’t want it to feel like suddenly we’re playing a pre-recorded song. He liked to have things sound more natural, with realistic grounded sounds, to help blend the music into the scene,” says Lee.

To achieve a smooth dialogue transition, Morgan recorded ADR for every line that led into a song to ensure she had a good transition between production dialogue and studio recorded dialogue, which would transition more cleanly into the studio-recorded music. “I cued that way for La La Land, but I ended up not having to use a lot of that. The studio recorded vocals and the production sound were beautifully recorded using the same mics in both cases. They were matching very well and I was able to go with the more emotional, natural sounding songs that were sung on-set in some cases,” says Morgan, who worked from her suite at 20th Century Fox studios along with ADR editor Galen Goodpaster.

Mia’s audition song, “The Fools Who Dream,” was one track that Morgan and the director were most concerned about. As Mia gives her impromptu audition she goes from speaking softly to suddenly singing, and then she starts singing louder. That would have been difficult to recreate in post because her performance on-set — captured by production mixer Steven Morrow — was so beautiful and emotional. The trouble was there were creaking noises on the track. Morgan explains, “As Mia starts singing, the camera moves in on her. It moves through the office and through the desk. It was a breakaway desk and they broke it apart so that the camera could move through it. That created all the creaking I heard on the track.”

Morgan was able to save the live performance by editing in clean ambience between words, and finding alternate takes that weren’t ruined by the creaking noise. She used Elastic Audio inside Pro Tools, as well as the Pro Tools TCE tool (time compression/expansion tool) to help tweak the alt takes into place. “I had to go through all of the outtakes, word by word, syllable by syllable, and find ones that fit in with the singing, and didn’t have creaks on them… and fit in terms of sync. It was very painstaking. It took me a couple of days to do it but it was a very rewarding result. That took a lot of time but it was so worth it because that was a really important moment in the movie,” says Morgan.

Reality Steps In
Not all on-set song performances could be used in the final track, so putting the pre-recorded songs in the space helped to make the transition into musical moments feel more realistic. Precisely crafted backgrounds, made with sounds that fit the tone of the impending song, gradually step aside as the music takes over. But not all of the real-world sounds go away completely. Foley helped to ground a song into the reality on screen by marrying it to the space. For example, Mia’s roommates invite her to a party in a song called “Someone in the Crowd.” Diegetic sounds, such as the hairdryer, the paper fan flicking open, occasional footsteps, and clothing rustles helped the pre-recorded song fit naturally into the scene. Additionally, Morgan notes that production mixer Morrow “did an excellent job of miking the actors with body mics and boom mics, even during the musical numbers that were sung to playback, like ‘Someone in the Crowd,’ just in case there was something to capture that we could use. There were a couple of little vocalizations that we were able to use in the number.”

Foley also played a significant role in the tap dance song “A Lovely Night.” Originally performed as a soft shoe dance number, director Chazelle decided to change it to a tap dance number in post. Lee reveals, “We couldn’t use the production sound since there was music playback in the scene for the actors to perform to. So, we had to fully recreate everything with the sound. Damien had a great idea to try to replace the soft shoe sound with tap shoes. It was an excellent idea because the tap sound plays so much better with the dance music than the soft shoe sound does.”

Lee enlisted Mandy Moore, the dance choreographer on the film, and several dancers to re-record the Foley on that scene. Working with Foley artist Dan O’Connell, of One Step Up located on The Jane Russell Foley Stage at 20th Century Fox Studios, they tried various weights of tap shoes on different floor surfaces before narrowing it down to the classic “Fred and Ginger” sound that Chazelle was looking for. “Even though they are dancing on asphalt, we ended up using a wooden floor surface on the Foley stage. Damien was very precise about playing up a step here and playing up a scuff there, because it plays better against the music. It was really important to have the taps done to the rhythm of the song as opposed to being in sync with the picture. It fools your brain. Once you have everything in rhythm with the music, the rest flows like butter,” says Lee. She cut the tap dance Foley to picture according to Chazelle’s tastes, and then invited Moore to listen to the mix to make sure that the tap dance routine was realistic from a dancer’s point of view.

Inside the Design
One of Lee’s favorite scenes to design was the opening sequence of the film, which starts with the sound of a traffic jam on a Los Angeles freeway. The sound begins in mono with a long horn honk over a black and white Cinemascope logo. As the picture widens and the logo transitions into color, Lee widens the horn honk into stereo and then into the surrounds. From that, the sound builds to a few horns and cars idling. Morgan recorded a radio announcer to establish the location as Los Angeles. The 1812 Overture plays through a car radio, and the sound becomes futzed as the camera pans to the next car in the traffic jam. With each car the camera passes the radio station changes. “This is Los Angeles and it is a mixed cultural city. Damien wanted to make sure there was a wide variety of music styles, so Justin [Hurwitz] gave me a bunch of different music choices, an eclectic selection to choose from,” says Lee. She added radio tuning sounds, car idling sounds, and Foley of tapping on the steering wheel to ground the scene in reality. “We made sure that the sound builds but doesn’t overpower the first musical number. The first trumpet hit comes through this traffic soundscape, and gradually the real city sounds give way to the first song, ‘Another Day of Sun.’”

One scene that stood out for Morgan was after Mia’s play, when she’s in her dressing room feeling sad that the theater was mostly empty for her performance. Not even Sebastian showed up. As she’s sitting there, we hear two men from the audience disparaging her and her play. Initially, Chazelle and his assistant recorded a scratch track for that off-stage exchange, but he asked Morgan to reshoot it with actors. “He wanted it to sound very naturalistic, so we spent some time finding just the right actors who didn’t sound like actors. They sound like regular people,” says Morgan.

She had the actors improvise their lines on why they hated the play, how superficial it was and how pretentious it was. Following some instruction from Chazelle, they cut the scene together. “We screened it and it was too mean, so we had to tone it back a little,” shares Morgan. “That was fun because I don’t always get to do that, to create an ADR scene from scratch. Damien is meticulous. He knows what he wants and he knows what he doesn’t want. But in this case, he didn’t know exactly what they should say. He had an idea. So I do my version and he gave me ideas and it went back and forth. That was a big challenge for me but a very enjoyable one.”

The Mix
In addition to sound editing, Lee also mixed the final soundtrack with re-recording mixer Andy Nelson at Fox Studios in Los Angeles. She and Nelson share an Oscar nomination for Best Sound Mixing on La La Land. Lee says, “Andy and I had made a film together before, called Wild, directed by Jean-Marc Vallée. So it made sense for me to do both the sound design and to mix the effects. Andy mixed the music and dialogue. And Jason Ruder was the music editor.”

From design to mix, Chazelle’s goal was to have La La Land sound natural — as though it was completely natural for these people to burst into song as they went through their lives. “He wanted to make sure it sounded fluid. With all the work we did, we wanted to make the film sound natural. The sound editing isn’t in your face. When you watch the movie as a whole, it should feel seamless. The sound shouldn’t take you out of the experience and the music shouldn’t stand apart from the sound. The music shouldn’t sound like a studio recording,” concludes Lee. “That was what we were trying to achieve, this invisible interaction of music and sound that ultimately serves the experience.”


Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio engineer and writer.

A closer look at some London-based audio post studios

By Mel Lambert

While in the UK recently for a holiday/business trip, I had the opportunity to visit several of London’s leading audio post facilities and catch up with developments among the Soho community.

‘Baby Driver’

I also met up with Julian Slater, a highly experienced supervising sound editor, sound designer and re-recording mixer who relocated to the US a couple of years ago, working first at Formosa Group and then at the Technicolor at Paramount facility in Hollywood. Slater was in London working on writer/director Edgar Wright’s action-drama Baby Driver, starring Lily James, Jon Hamm, Jon Bernthal and Jamie Foxx. The film follows the progress of a young getaway driver who, after being coerced into working for a crime boss, finds himself taking part in a heist that’s doomed to fail.

Goldcrest Films
Slater handled sound effects pre-dubs at Goldcrest Films on Dean Street in the heart of Soho’s film district, while co-mixer Tim Cavagin worked on dialog and Foley pre-mixes at Twickenham TWI Studios in Richmond, a London suburb west of the capital. Finals started just before Christmas at Goldcrest, with Slater handling music and SFX, while Cavagin oversaw dialog and Foley. “We are using Goldcrest’s new Dolby Atmos-capable Theater 1, which opened last May,” explains Slater. “The post crew includes sound effects editors Arthur Graley, Jeremy Price and Martin Cantwell, plus dialog/ADR supervisor Dan Morgan and Foley editor Peter Hanson.

“I cannot reveal too much about my sound design for Baby Driver,” admits Slater, “but because the lead character [actor Ansel Elgort] has a hearing anomaly, I am working with pitch changes to interweave various elements of the film’s soundtrack.”

Baby Driver is scheduled for UK and US release in August, and will be previewed in mid-March at the SXSW Film Festival in Austin. Composer Steven Price’s score for the film was recorded at Abbey Road Studios in North London. Price wrote the music for writer/director Alfonso Cuarón’s Gravity (2013), which won him the Academy Award for Best Original Score.

British-born Wright is probably best known for comedies, such as Shaun of the Dead (2004), Hot Fuzz (2007) and The World’s End (2013), several of which featured Slater’s talents as supervising sound editor, sound designer and/or re-recording mixer.

Slater is a multiple BAFTA and Emmy Award nominee. After graduating from the School of Audio Engineering (now the SAE Institute) in London, at the age of 22 he co-founded the Hackenbacker post company and designed sound for his first feature film, director Mike Figgis’ Leaving Las Vegas (1995). Subsequent films include In Bruges (2008), Dark Shadows (2012), Scott Pilgrim Vs. the World (2010) and Attack the Block (2011).

Goldcrest Films, which has a NYC-based studio as well, provides post services for film and broadcast projects, including Carol (2015), The Danish Girl (2015) and Les Misérables (2012). The facility features three Dolby dubbing theaters with DCI-compliant projection, plus ADR and Foley recording stages, sound design and editing suites, offline editorial and grading suites. “Last May we opened Theatre 1,” reports studio manager Rob Weatherall, “a fully sound-isolated mixing theater that is Dolby Atmos Premier-certified.”

Goldcrest Films Theater 1 (L-R): Alex Green, Rowan Watson, Julian Slater, Rob Weatherall and Robbie Scott.

First used to re-record writer/director Paul Greengrass’ Jason Bourne (2016), the new room houses a hybrid Avid 32-fader S6 M40 Pro Tools control surface section within a 72-fader dual-engine AMS Neve DFC3D Gemini frame. By building interchangeable AMS and S6 “buckets” in a single console frame, the facility can mix and match formats according to the re-recording engineers’ requirements — either “in the box” using the S6 surface, or a conventional workflow using the DFC sections.

“I like working in the box,” says Slater, “since it lets me retain all my sound ideas right through print mastering. For Baby Driver we premixed to a 9.1-channel bed with Atmos objects and brought this submix here to Goldcrest where we could open everything seamlessly on the S6 console and refine all my dialog, music and effects submixes for the final Atmos immersive mix. Because I have so much sound design for the music being heard by our lead character, including sound cues for the earbuds and car radios, it’s the only way to work! We also had a lot of music playback on the set.”

The supervising sound editor needed to carefully prepare myriad sound cues. “Having worked on all of his films, I have come to recognize that Edgar [Wright] is an extremely sound-conscious director,” Slater reports. “The soundtrack for Baby Driver needed to work seamlessly and sound holistic — not forced in any way. In other words, while sound is important in this film — for obvious reasons — it is critical that we don’t detract the audience from the dramatic storyline.”

Theater 1’s 55-loudspeaker Atmos array includes a mixture of Crown-powered JBL 5732s Screen Array cabinets in the front with Meyer cabinets for the surrounds. Accommodated formats include 5.1, 7.1 and DTS:X. Five Pro Tools playback systems are available with Waves Platinum plug-in packages, plus a 192-channel Pro Tools HDX 3 recorder. Each Pro Tools rig features a DAD DX32 audio interface, with both Audinate Dante- and MADI-format digital outputs. The latter can be routed to the DFC console for conventional mixing or to a sixth rig with a DAD AX32 converter system for in the box mixing on the S6 control surface. Video projection is via a Barco DP2K-10SX and an Integrated Media Server for DCP playback, and Pro Tools Native with an AJA video card. Outboards include a pair of Lexicon 960 reverbs, two TC 6000 reverb and four dbx Subharmonic synthesizers.

Hackenbacker Audio Post
Around the corner from Goldcrest, Slater’s former facility Hackenbacker Audio Post comprises a multi-room post facility that was purchased in July 2015 by Molinare from e-Post Media, owners of Halo Post. Hackenbacker handled sound for the TV series Downton Abbey, Cold Feet and Thunderbirds Are Go, plus director Richard Ayoade’s film, The Double (2013). Owner/founder Nigel Heath remains a director of the group management team for the facility’s three dubbing studios, five edit suites and a large Foley stage located a short distance away.

Hackebacker’s Studio 2

Hackenbacker Studio 1 has been Heath’s home base for more than a decade. It houses a large-format AMS Neve 48-fader MMC Neve console with three Avid HD3 Pro Tools systems, two iZ Technologies RADAR 24-track recorder/players and a Dynaudio M3F 5.1 monitoring system that was used to re-record Hot Fuzz, In Bruges, Shaun of the Dead and many other projects.

Studio 2 features Dynaudio monitoring along with an Avid Icon 16-fader D-Control surface linked to a Pro Tools HDX system. It is used for 5.1 TV mixing and ADR and includes a large booth suitable for both ADR and voice-over. Also designed for TV mixing and ADR, Studio 3 features Quested monitoring and an Avid ICON 32-fader D-control surface linked to a Pro Tools HDX system. Edit 1 and 2 handle a wide cross section of sound effects editorial assignments, with access to a large sound library and other creative tools. Edit 3 and 4 are equipped for dialog and ADR editing. Edit 5 features a transfer bay and QC facility in which all sound material is verified and checked.

Twickenham TWI Studios
According to technology development manager/re-recording mixer Craig Irving, Twickenham TWI Studios recently completed mixing of the soundtrack for writer/director Stanley Tucci’s Final Portrait, the story of Swiss painter and sculptor Alberto Giacometti, starring Armie Hammer and Geoffrey Rush. The film was re-recorded by Tim Cavagin and Irving, with sound editorial by Tim Hands on dialog and Jack Gillies on effects.

The lounge at Twickenham-TWI.

“Dialog tracks for Baby Driver were pre-mixed by Tim in our Atmos-capable Theatre 1,” explains Irving. “Paul Massey will be returning soon to complete the mix in Theatre 1 for director Ridley Scott’s Alien Covenant, which reunites the same sound team that worked on The Martian — with Oliver Tarney supervising, Rachel Tate on dialog, and Mark Taylor and our very own Dafydd Archard on effects.” Massey also mixed Scott’s Exodus: Gods and Kings (2014) at Twickenham TWI. He also worked on director Rufus Norris’ London Road (2015) and director Tim Miller’s Deadpool (2016). He recently completed the upcoming Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales. While normally based at Fox Post Production Services in West Los Angeles, Massey also spends time in his native England overseeing a number of film projects.

“Their stages have also been busy with production of Netflix’s Black Mirror series, which consists of six original films looking at the darker side of modern life. Episode 1 was directed by Jodie Foster. “To service an increase in production, we are investing in new infrastructure that will feature a TV mixing stage,” explains Irving. “The new room will be based around an Avid S6 control surface and used as a bespoke area to mix original TV programming, as well as creating TV mixes of our theatrical titles. Our Picture Post area is also being expanded with a second FilmLight Baselight Two color grading system with full 4K projection for both theatrical and broadcast projects.”

Twickenham TWI’s rooftop bar and restaurant opened its doors to clients and staff last year. “It has proved extremely popular and is open to membership from within the industry,” Irving says. The facility’s remodeled front office and reception area was designed Barbarella Design. “We have chosen a ‘’60s retro, Mad Men theme in greys and red,” says the studio’s COO Maria Walker. In addition to its two main re-recording theaters, TWI offers 40 cutting rooms, an ADR/Foley stage and three shooting stages.

Warner Bros. De Lane Lea
Just up the street from Goldcrest Films is Warner Bros. De Lane Lea, which started as a multi-room studio. It also has a rather unusual ancestry. In the 1940s, Major De Lane Lea was looking to improve the way dialog for film and later TV could be recorded and replaced in order to streamline dubbing between French and English. This resulted in his setting up a company called De Lane Lea Processes and a laboratory in Soho. The company also developed a number of other products aimed at post, and over the next 30 years opened a variety of studios in London for voice recording, film, TV and jingle mixing, music recording and orchestral-score recording.

De Lane Lea’s Stage 1.

Around 1970, the operation moved into its current building on Dean Street and shifted its focus toward film and TV sound. The facility, which was purchased by Warner Bros. in 2012, currently includes four re-recording stages, two ADR stages for recording dialog, voiceovers and commentaries, plus 50 cutting rooms, a preview theater, transfer bay and a café/bar. Three of the Dolby-certified mixing stages are equipped with AMS Neve DFC Gemini consoles or Avid S6 control surfaces and Meyer monitoring. A TV mixing stage boasts an Avid Pro Tools control surface and JBL monitoring.

Stage 1 features an AMS Neve 80-fader DFC Gemini digital two-mixer console with an Avid control surface, linked to a Meyer Sound EXP system providing Dolby Atmos monitoring. Six Pro Tools playback systems are available — three 64-channel HDX and three 128-channel HDX2 rigs — together with a 128-channel HDX2 Pro Tools recorder. Film projection is from a Kinoton FP38ECII 35mm unit, with a Barco DP2K-23B digital cinema projector offering resolutions up to 2K. Video playback within Pro Tools is via a VCubeHD nonlinear player or a Blackmagic card. Outboards include a Lexicon 960 and a TC 6000 reverb, plus two dbx Subharmonic Synthesizers. Stage 2 is centered around an Avid S6 M40 24-fader console linked to three Pro Tools playback systems — a pair of 64-channel HDX2 and a single 128-channel HDX2 rig — plus a 64-channel HDX recorder. Monitoring is via a 7.1-channel Meyer Sound EXP system.

Warner Bros. Studios Leavesden
Located 20 miles north west of Central London and serving as its UK-based shooting lot, Warner Bros. Studios Leavesden offers a number of well-equipped stages for large-scale productions, in addition to a large tank for aquatic scenes. The facility’s history dates back almost 70 years, to when it was originally acquired by the UK Ministry of Defense in 1939 as a WWII production base for building aircraft, including the iconic Mosquito Fighter and Halifax Bombers. When hostilities ceased, the site was purchased by Rolls Royce and continued as a base for aircraft manufacture, progressing onto large engines. It eventually closed in 1992.

Warner Bros. Leavesden’s studio layout.

In 1994, Leavesden began a new life as a film studio and over the following decades was home to a number of high-profile productions, including the James Bond film Goldeneye (1995), Mortal Kombat: Annihilation (1997), Star Wars Episode One: The Phantom Menace (1999), An Ideal Husband (1999) and director Tim Burton’s Sleepy Hollow (1999).

By 2000, Heyday Films had acquired use of the site on behalf of Warner Bros. for what would be the first in a series of Harry Potter films — Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (2001) — with each subsequent film in the franchise during the following decade being shot at Leavesden. While other productions, almost exclusively Warner Bros. productions, made partial use of the complex, the site was mostly occupied by permanent standing sets for the Harry Potter films.

In 2010, as the eighth and final Harry Potter film was nearing completion, Warner Bros. announced its intention to purchase the studio as a permanent European base, the first studio to do so since MGM in the 1940s. By November of that year, the studio had completed purchase of Leavesden Studios and announced plans to invest more than £100 million (close to $200 million at the time) on the site they had occupied, converting Stages A through H into sound stages. As part of the redevelopment, Warner Bros. created two entirely new soundstages to house a permanent public exhibition called Warner Bros. Studio Tour London — The Making of Harry Potter, creating 300 new jobs. It opened to the public in early 2012.

With over 100 acres, WBSL features one of the most extensive backlots in Europe, with level, graded areas, including a former aircraft runway, a variety of open fields, woodlands, hills and clear horizons. In addition, it offers bespoke art departments, dry-hire edit suites and VFX rooms, in addition to a pair of the largest water tanks in Europe, with a 60-by-60 foot filtered and heated indoor tank, and a 250-by-250 foot exterior tank.

Main Image: Goldcrest London’s Theater 1.


Mel Lambert is principal of Content Creators, an LA-based copywriting and editorial service, and can be reached at mel.lambert@content-creators.com. Follow him on Twitter @MelLambertLA.

G-Tech 6-15
Alvaro Rodríguez

Behind the Title: Histeria Music’s chief audio engineer Alvaro Rodríguez

NAME: Alvaro Rodríguez

COMPANY: Histeria Music (@histeriamusic)

CAN YOU DESCRIBE YOUR COMPANY?
Miami’s Histeria Music is a music production and audio post company. Since its foundation in 2003 we have focused on supporting our clients’ communication needs with powerful music and sound that convey a strong message and create a bond with the audience. We offer full audio post production, music production, and sound design services for advertising, film, TV, radio, video games and the corporate world.

WHAT’S YOUR JOB TITLE?
CEO/ Chief Audio Engineer

WHAT DOES THAT ENTAIL?
As an audio post engineer, I work on 5.1 and stereo mixing, ADR and voiceover recordings, voiceover castings and talent direction, music search and editing, dialogue cleanup, remote recording via ISDN and/or Source Connect and sound design.

Studio A

Studio A

As the owner and founder of the studio, I take care of a ton of things. I make sure our final productions are of the highest quality possible, and handle client services, PR, bookkeeping, social media and marketing. Sometimes it’s a bit overwhelming but I wouldn’t trade it for anything else!

WHAT WOULD SURPRISE PEOPLE THE MOST ABOUT WHAT FALLS UNDER THAT TITLE?
Some people might think that I just sit behind a console, pushing buttons trying to make things sound pretty. In reality, I do much more than that. I advise creative and copywriters on changes in scripts that might help better fit whatever project we are recording. I also direct talent using creative vocabulary to ensure that their delivery is adequate and their performance hits that emotion we are trying to achieve. I get to sound design, edit and move audio clips around on my DAW, almost as if I were composing a piece of music, adding my own sound to the creative process.

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE PART OF THE JOB?
Sound design! I love it when I get a video from any of our clients that has no sound whatsoever, not even a scratch recording of a voiceover. This gives me the opportunity to add my signature sound and be as creative as possible and help tell a story. I also love working on radio spots. Since there is no video to support the audio, I usually get to be a bigger part of the creative process once we start putting together the spots. Everything from the way the talent is recorded to the sounds and the way phrases and words are edited together is something I’ll never get tired of doing.

WHAT’S YOUR LEAST FAVORITE?
Sales. It’s tricky because as the owner when you succeed, it’s the best feeling in the world, but it can be very frustrating and overwhelming sometimes.

WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE TIME OF THE DAY?
During work it has to be that moment you get the email saying the spots have been approved and are ready for traffic. On a personal level, it’s when I take my nine-year old to soccer practice, usually around 6pm

Studio B

IF YOU DIDN’T HAVE THIS JOB, WHAT WOULD YOU BE DOING INSTEAD?
Wow, I have no idea how to answer this question. I can’t see myself doing anything else, really, although I’ll add that I am an avid home brewer and enjoy the craft quite a bit.

HOW EARLY ON DID YOU KNOW THIS WOULD BE YOUR PATH?
Ever since I was a kid I had this fascination with things that make sounds. I was always drawn to a guitar or simply buckets I could smack and make some sort of a rhythmic pattern. After high school, I went to college and started studying business administration, only to follow in my dad and brother’s steps. Not to anyone’s surprise I quit after the second semester and ended up doing a bit of soul searching. Long story short, I ended up attending Full Sail University where I graduated in the Recording Arts program back in 2000

CAN YOU NAME SOME RECENT PROJECTS YOU HAVE WORKED ON?
This year started with a great and fun project for us. We are recording ADR for the Netflix series Bloodline. We are also currently working on the audio post and film scoring of a short film called Andante based on a story from Argentinian author Julio Cortazar.

Also worth mentioning is that we recently concluded the audio post for seasons one and two of the MTV show Ridículos, which is the Spanish and Portuguese language adaptations of the original English version of Ridiculousness that currently airs in Latin America and Brazil.

WHAT IS THE PROJECT THAT YOU ARE MOST PROUD OF?
The first project I ever did for the advertising industry. I was 23 and a recent graduate of Full Sail. All the stars and planets aligned and a campaign for Budweiser — both for the general and US Hispanic markets — landed in my lap. This came from Del Rivero Messianu DDB (currently known as ALMA DDB, Ad Age’s 2017 multicultural agency of the year).

I was living with my parents at the time and had a small home studio in the garage. No Pro Tools, no Digi Beta, just good-old Cool Edit and a VHS player (yes, I manually pressed play on the VHS and Cool Edit to sync my music to picture). Long story short, I ended up writing and producing the music for that TV spot. This led to me unavoidably opening the doors of Histeria Music to the public in 2003.

NAME THREE PIECES OF TECHNOLOGY YOU CAN’T LIVE WITHOUT.
iZotope’s RX Post Production Suite, Telos Zephyr Xstream ISDN box and Source Connect. I also use the FabFilter Pro-Q 2 quite a bit.

WHAT SOCIAL MEDIA CHANNELS DO YOU FOLLOW?
Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn.

WHAT DO YOU DO TO DE-STRESS FROM IT ALL?
I live in Miami and the beach is my backyard, so I find myself relaxing for hours at the beach on weekends. I love to spend time with my family during my son’s soccer practices and games. When I am really stressed and need to be alone, I tend to brew some crafty beers at home. Great hobby!


Sound Lounge offers remote audio post between NYC, Boston

New York City-based Sound Lounge is now providing remote audio post and sound mixing services for clients based in Boston. Sound Lounge Everywhere was established to provide clients with the comforts of a mixing studio and seamless remote connection to Sound Lounge artists — along with video and audio for realtime sessions, all using premiere technology.

In creating this service, Sound Lounge partnered with Boston-based creative editorial company Editbar, who will manage the Sound Lounge Everywhere technology. Custom hardware allows Sound Lounge to stream high-quality audio and video from New York to Boston with virtually zero latency, meaning that clients can view their spots live while their talent records in the New York office. The technology also allows clients to speak face-to-face with their sound mixers to ensure their sessions are both efficient and effective.

“We believe that geography is now an opportunity rather than a boundary, and we’re excited to work with new brands and agencies in this unique fashion,” says Sound Lounge partner, COO and sound designer Marshall Grupp.

Sound Lounge and Editbar (pictured above) are also joining forces with creative studio Nice Shoes, who are in the same space as Sound Lounge, to offer sound, color and creative editorial all underneath one roof.

While Sound Lounge Everywhere is currently only being offered between New York and Boston, the studio expects to offer these services in other cities in the near future.


Netflix's Stranger Things

AES LA Section & SMPTE Hollywood: Stranger Things sound

By Mel Lambert

The most recent joint AES/SMPTE meeting at the Sportsmen’s Lodge in Studio City showcased the talents of the post production crew that worked on the recent Netflix series Stranger Things at Technicolor’s facilities in Hollywood.

Over 160 attendees came to hear how supervising sound editor Brad North, sound designer Craig Henighan, sound effects editor Jordan Wilby, music editor David Klotz and dialog/music re-recording mixer Joe Barnett worked their magic on last year’s eight-episode Season One (Sadly, effects re-recording mixer Adam Jenkins was unable to attend the gathering.) Stranger Things, from co-creators Matt Duffer and Ross Duffer, is scheduled to return in mid-year for Season 2.

L-R: Jordan Wilby, Brad North, Craig Henighan, Joe Barnett, David Klotz and Mel Lambert. Photo Credit: Steve Harvey.

Attendees heard how the crew developed each show’s unique 5.1-channel soundtrack, from editorial through re-recording — including an ‘80s-style, synth-based music score, from Austin-based composers Kyle Dixon and Michael Stein, that is key to the show’s look and feel — courtesy of a full-range surround sound playback system supplied by Dolby Labs.

“We drew our inspiration — subconsciously, at least — from sci-fi films like Alien, The Thing and Predator,” Henighan explained. The designer also revealed how he developed a characteristic sound for the monster that appears in key scenes. “The basic sound is that of a seal,” he said. “But it wasn’t as simple as just using a seal vocal, although it did provide a hook — an identifiable sound around which I could center the rest of the monster sounds. It’s fantastic to take what is normally known as a nice, light, fun-loving sound and use it in a terrifying way!” Tim Prebble, a New Zealand-based sound designer, and owner of sound effects company Hiss and A Roar, offers a range of libraries, including SD003 Seal Vocals|Hiss and A Roar.

Gear used includes Avid Pro Tools DAWs — everybody works in the box — and Avid 64-fader, dual-operator S6 console at the Technicolor Seward Stage. The composers use Apple Logic Pro to record and edit their AAF-format music files.


Mel Lambert is principal of Content Creators, an LA-based copywriting and editorial service, and can be reached at mel.lambert@content-creators.com. Follow him on Twitter @MelLambertLA.

 


Jon Hamm

Audio post for Jon Hamm’s H&R Block spots goes to Eleven

If you watch broadcast television at all, you’ve likely seen the ubiquitous H&R Block spots featuring actor Jon Hamm of Mad Men fame. The campaign out of Fallon Worldwide features eight spots — all take place either on a film set or a studio backlot, and all feature Hamm in costume for a part. Whether he’s breaking character dressed in traditional Roman garb to talk about how H&R Block can help with your taxes, or chatting up a zombie during a lunch break, he’s handsome, funny and on point: use H&R Block for your tax needs. Simon McQuoid from Imperial Woodpecker directed.

Studio C /Katya Jeff Payne

Jeff Payne

The campaign’s audio post was completed at Eleven in Santa Monica. Eleven founder Jeff Payne worked the spots. “As well as mixing, I created sound design for all of the spots. The objective was to make the sound design feel very realistic and to enhance the scenes in a natural way, rather than a sound design way. For example, on the spot titled Donuts the scene was set on a studio back lot with a lot of extras moving around, so it was important to create that feel without distracting from the dialogue, which was very subtle and quiet. On the spot titled Switch, there was a very energetic music track and fast cutting scenes, but again it needed support with realistic sounds that gave all the scenes more movement.”

Payne says the major challenge for all the spots was to make the dialogue feel seamless. “There were many different angle shots with different microphones that needed to be evened out so that the dialogue sounded smooth.”

In terms of tools, all editing and mixing was done with Avid’s Pro Tools HDX system and S6 console. Sound design was done through Soundminer software.

Jordan Meltzer was assistant mixer on the campaign, and Melissa Elston executive produced for Eleven. Arcade provided the edit, Timber the VFX and post and color was via MPC.


Behind the Title: Stir Post Audio sound designer/mixer Nick Bozzone

NAME: Nick Bozzone

COMPANY: Chicago’s Stir Post Audio (@STIRpost)

DESCRIBE YOUR COMPANY:
Stir Post Audio is comprised of engineers, mixers, sound designers and producers, who transform audio mixes into what we call “sonic power shots.”

WHAT’S YOUR JOB TITLE?
Senior Sound Designer/Mixer

WHAT DOES THAT ENTAIL?
As a post sound professional, there are many different disciplines of audio that I use on a day-to-day basis — voiceover recording/mic techniques (ADR included), creative sound designing, voiceover and music editing, 5.1 and stereo broadcast (LKFS) mixing, as well as providing a positive (and fun) voice in the room.

WHAT WOULD SURPRISE PEOPLE THE MOST ABOUT WHAT FALLS UNDER THAT TITLE?
The term sound designer envelops more than simply spotting stock sound effects to picture, it’s an opportunity to be as creative as my mind allows. It’s a chance at making a sonic signature —a signature that, most of the time, is associated with the product itself. I have been very fortunate through my career so far to have worked on these types of commercial campaigns and short films… projects that have allowed me to stretch my sonic imagination.

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE PART OF THE JOB?
My favorite part of the job is when its time to mix. Mixing can be just as creative, if not more so, as sound design. There are a lot of technical aspects to mixing heavy-hitting commercials. Most of the time there are a bunch of very dynamic elements going on at the same time. The finesse of a great mix is the ability to take all of these things, bring them all together and have them all sitting in their own spot.

WHAT’S YOUR LEAST FAVORITE?
It may be my least favorite part, but it’s a necessary evil… archiving!

WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE TIME OF THE DAY?
During work, it’s when the whole room gives my mix a thumbs up. During the weekend, it’s definitely around sunset. For whatever reason, no matter how tired I am, around sunset is when my body kicks into its second wind and I become a night owl (or at least I used to be one before my daughter was born five months ago).

HOW EARLY ON DID YOU KNOW THIS WOULD BE YOUR PATH?
“If you love what you do, you’ll never work a day in your life.” That was told to me when I entered college, and I took that quote to heart. Originally, I thought that I wanted to be a creative writer and then I had an interest in being a hypnotherapist. Both were interesting to me, but neither one was holding my interest for very long. Thankfully, I took an introductory class in Pro Tools. That one class showed me that there could be a future in sound. You never know where you’ll get your inspiration.

Nick creating sounds for Mist Twst.

CAN YOU NAME SOME RECENT PROJECTS YOU HAVE WORKED ON?
Many projects that come through our doors require quite a bit of strategy with regard to the intention or emotion of the project. I worked on the re-branding campaign for Pepsi’s Sierra Mist, which changed its name to Mist Twst.

There were a lot of very specific sound design elements I created in that session. The intention was to not just make an everyday run-of-the-mill soda commercial; we wanted it to feel crisp, clean and natural like the drink. So, we went to the store and bought a bunch of different fruits and vegetables, and recorded ourselves cutting, squeezing, and dropping them into a fizzy glass of Mist Twst. We even recorded ourselves opening soda cans at different speeds and pouring soda into glasses with and without ice.

I also worked on a really fun 5 Gum radio campaign that won a Radio Mercury Award. The concept was a “truth or dare” commercial geared toward people streaming music with headphones on. It allows the listener to choose whether to play along with listening to the left headphone for a truth, or the right headphone to do a dare.

We did campaign for Aleve with beautiful film showing a grandfather on an outing with his granddaughter at an amusement park and suddenly he throws his back out. The entire park grinds to a halt as a result — visually and audio-wise. There was a lot of sound design involved in this process, and was a very fun and creative experience.

Kerrygold

For a recent package of TV spots for Kerrygold, the Irish dairy group, created by Energy BBDO. my main goal for “Made for this Moment” was to let the gentile music track and great lyrics have center stage and breathe, as if they were their own character in the story. My approach to the sound design was to fill out each scene with subtle sound design elements that are almost felt and not heard… nothing poking through further than anything else, and nothing competing with the music, only enhancing the overall mood.”


Focusing on sound bars at CES 2017

By Tim Hoogenakker

My day job is as a re-recording mixer and sound editor working on long-form projects, so when I attended this year’s Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, I honed in on the leading trends in home audio playback. It was important for me to see what the manufacturers are planning regarding multi-channel audio reproduction for the home. From the look of it, sound bars seem to be leading the charge. My focus was primarily with immersive sound bars, single-box audio components capable of playing Dolby Atmos and DTS:X as close as they can in their original format.

Klipsch TheaterBar

Klipsch Theaterbar

Now I must admit, I’ve kicked and screamed about sound bars in the past, audibly rolling my eyes at the concept. We audio mixers are used to working in perfect discrete surround environments, but I wanted to keep an open mind. Whether we as sound professionals like it or not, this is where the consumer product technology is headed. That and I didn’t see quite the same glitz and glam over discrete surround speaker systems at CES.

Here are some basic details with immersive sound bars in general:

1. In addition to the front channels, they often have up-firing drivers on the left and right edges (normally on the top and sides) that are intended to reflect onto the walls and the ceiling of the room. This is to replicate the immersiveness as much as possible. Sure this isn’t exact replication, but I’ll certainly give manufacturers praise for their creativity.
2. Because of the required reflectivity, the walls have to be of a flat enough surface to reflect the signal, yet still balanced so that it doesn’t sound like you’re sitting in the middle of your shower.
3. There is definitely a sweet spot in the seating position when listening to sound bars. If you move off-axis, you may experience somewhat of a wash sitting near the sides, but considering what they’re trying to replicate, it’s an interesting take.
4. They usually have an auto-tuning microphone system for calculating the room for the closest accuracy.
5. I’m convinced that there’s a conspiracy by the manufacturers to make each and every sound bar, in physical appearance, resemble the enigmatic Monolith in 2001: A Space Odyssey…as if literally someone just knocked it over.

Yamaha YSP5600

My first real immersive sound bar experience happened last year with the Yamaha YSP-5600, which comes loaded with 40 (yes 40!) drivers. It’s a very meaty 26-pound sound bar with a height of 8.5 inches and width of 3.6 feet. I heard a few projects that I had mixed in Dolby Atmos played back on this system. Granted, even when correctly tuned it’s not going to sound the same as my dubbing stage or with dedicated home theater speakers, but knowing this I was pleasantly surprised. A few eyebrows were raised for sure. It was fun playing demo titles for friends, watching them turn around and look for surround speakers that weren’t there.

A number of the sound bars displayed at CES bring me to my next point, which honestly is a bit of a complaint. Many were very thin in physical design, often labeled as “ultra-thin,” which to me means very small drivers, which tells me that there’s an elevated frequency crossover line for the subwoofer(s). Sure, I understand that they need to look sleek so they can sell and be acceptable for room aesthetics, but I’m an audio nerd. I WANT those low- to mid-frequencies carried through from the drivers, don’t just jam ALL the low- and mid-frequencies to the sub. It’ll be interesting to see how this plays out as these products reach market during the year.

Sony HTST 5000

Besides immersive audio, most of these sound bars will play from a huge variety of sources, formats and specs, such as Blu-ray, Blu-ray UHD, DVD, DVD-Audio, streaming via network and USB, as well as connections for Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and 4K pass-through.

Some of these sound bars — like many things at CES 2017 — are supported with Amazon Alexa and Google Home. So, instead of fighting over the remote control, you and your family can now confuse Alexa with arguments over controlling your audio between “Game of Thrones” and Paw Patrol.

Finally, I probably won’t be installing a sound bar on my dub stage for reference anytime soon, but I do feel that professionally it’s very important for me to know the pros and the cons — and the quirks — so we can be aware how our audio mixes will translate through these systems. And considering that many major studios and content creators are becoming increasingly ready to make immersive formats their default deliverable standard, especially now with Dolby Vision, I’d say it’s a necessary responsibility.

Looking forward to seeing what NAB has up its sleeve on this as well.

Here are some of the more notable soundbars debuted:

LG SJ9

Sony HT-ST5000: This sound bar is compatible with Google Home. They say it works well with ceilings as high as 17 feet. It’s not DTS:X-capable yet, but Sony said that will happen by the end of the year.LG SJ9: The LG SJ9 sound bar is currently noted by LG as “4K high resolution audio” (which is an impossible statement). It’s possible that they mean it’ll pass through a 4K signal, but the LG folks couldn’t clarify. That snafu aside, it has a very wide dimensionality, which helps for stereo imaging. It will be Dolby Vision/HDR-capable via a future firmware upgrade.

The Klipsch “Theaterbar”: This another eyebrow raiser. It’ll release in Q4 of 2017. There’s no information on the web yet, but they’re showcasing this at CES.

Pioneer Elite FS-EB70: There’s no information on the web yet, but they were showcasing this at CES.

Onkyo SBT-A500 Network: Also no information but it was shown at CES.


Formosa Group re-recording mixer and sound editor Tim Hoogenakker has over 20 years of experience in audio post for music, features and documentaries, television and home entertainment formats. He had stints at Prince’s Paisley Park Studios and POP Sound before joining Formosa.


Stranger Things

Upcoming AES LA meeting features Netflix’s Stranger Things sound team

On January 31, the AES LA Section monthly meeting will showcase the sound editorial and re-recording of the Netflix series Stranger Things. Attendees will hear first-hand how the sound team creates the 5.1-channel soundtrack, including the eerie music that is key to the show’s look and feel. A second season from the Duffer Brothers is scheduled to start later this year, with its haunting ’80s-style, synth-based musical score.

For those of you not familiar with the show, it’s set in Indiana in 1983 and focuses on a 12-year-old boy gone missing and the resulting search for him by the police chief and his friends.

The editorial team for Stranger Things is headed up by supervising sound editor Brad North, who works closely with sound designer Craig Henighan, sound effects editor Jordan Wilby and music editor David Klotz. The re-recording crew, working at the Technicolor Seward stage, is Joe Barnett, who handles dialogue and music, and Adam Jenkins, who handles sound effects.

“We drew our inspiration — subconsciously, at least — from such sci-fi films as Alien, The Thing and Predator,” Henighan recalls. Part sci-fi, part horror and part family drama, Stranger Things is often considered an homage to 80’s movies like Close Encounters of the Third Kind and ET.

The joint AES/SMPTE January meeting, which will be held at the Sportsmen’s Lodge in Studio City on Tuesday, January 31, is open to both AES and SMPTE members and non-members.

Panelists will include Adam Jenkins, Jordan Wilby, Joe Barnett, David Klotz, Brad North and Craig Henighan.

Patriots Day

Augmenting Patriots Day‘s sound with archival audio

By Jennifer Walden

Fresh off the theatrical release of his dramatized disaster film Deepwater Horizon, director Peter Berg brings another current event to the big screen with Patriots Day. The film recounts the Boston Marathon bombing by combining Berg’s cinematic footage with FBI-supplied archival material from the actual bombing and investigation.

Once again, Berg chose to partner with Technicolor’s supervising sound editor/re-recording mixer Dror Mohar, who contributed to the soundtrack of Berg’s Deepwater Horizon (2016) and Lone Survivor (2013).  He earned an MPSE award nomination for sound editing on the latter.

According to Mohar, Berg’s intention for Patriots Day was not to make a film about tragedy and terrorism, but rather to tell the story of a community’s courage in the face of this disaster. “This was personal for Peter [Berg]. His conviction about not exploiting or sensationalizing any of it was in every choice he made,” says Mohar. “He was vigilant about the cinematic attributes never compromising the authenticity and integrity of the story of the events and the people who were there — the law enforcement, victims and civilians. Peter wanted to evolve and explore the sound continuously. My compass throughout was to create a soundtrack that was as immersive as it was genuine.”

From a sound design perspective, Mohar was conscious of keeping the qualities and character of the sounds in check — favoring raw, visceral sounds over treated or polished ones. He avoided oversized “Hollywood” treatments. For example, Mohar notes the Watertown shootout sequence. The lead-up to the firefight was inspired by a source audio recording of the Watertown shootout captured by a neighbor on a handheld camera.

“Two things grabbed my attention — the density of the firefight, which sounded like Chinese New Year, and the sound of wind chimes from a nearby home,” he explains. “Within what sounded like war and chaos, there was a sweet sound that referenced home, family, porch… This shootout is happening in a residential area, in the middle of everyday life. Throughout the film, I wanted to maintain the balance between emotional and visceral sounds. Working closely with picture editors Colby Parker Jr. and Gabriel Fleming, we experimented with sound design that aligned directly with the dramatic effect of the visuals versus designs that counteracted the drama and created an experience that was less comfortable but ultimately more emotional.”

Tension was another important aspect of the design. The bombing disrupted life, and not just the lives of those immediately or physically affected by the bombing. Mohar wanted the sound to express those wider implications. “When the city is hit, it affects everyone. Something in that time period is just not the same. I used a variety of recordings of calls to prayer and crowds of people from all over the world to create soundscapes that you could expect to hear in a city but not in Boston. I incorporated these in different times throughout the film. They aren’t in your face, but used subtly.”

Patriots DayThe Mix
On the mix, he and re-recording mixer Mike Prestwood-Smith chose a realistic approach to their sonic treatments.

Prestwood-Smith notes that for an event as recent and close to the heart as the Boston Marathon bombing, the goal was to have respect for the people who were involved — to make Patriots Day feel real and not sensationalized in any sense. “We wanted it to feel believable, like you are witnessing it, rather than entertaining people. We want to be entertaining, engaging and dramatic, but ultimately we don’t want this to feel gratuitous, as though we are using these events to our advantage. That’s a tight rope to tread, not just for sound but for everything, like the shooting and the performances. All of it.”

Mohar reinforces the idea of enabling the audience to feel the events of the bombing first-hand through sound. “When we experience an event that shocks us, like a car crash, or in this case, an act of terror, the way we experience time is different. You assess what’s right there in front of you and what is truly important. I wanted to leverage this characteristic in the soundtrack to represent what it would be like to be there in real time, objectively, and to create a singular experience.”

Archival Footage
Mohar and Prestwood-Smith had access to enormous amounts of archival material from the FBI, which was strategically used throughout the soundtrack. In the first two reels, up to and including the bombing, Prestwood-Smith explains that picture editors Fleming and Parker Jr. intercut between the dramatized footage and the archived footage “literally within seconds of each other. Whole scenes became a dance between the original footage and the footage that Peter shot. In many cases, you’re not aware of the difference between the two and I think that is a very clever and articulate thing they accomplished. The sound had to adhere to that and it had to make you feel like you were never really shifting from one thing to the other.”

It was not a simple task to transition from the Hollywood-quality sound of the dramatized footage to sound captured on iPhones and low-resolution cameras. Prestwood-Smith notes that he and Mohar were constantly evolving the qualities of the sounds and mix treatments so all elements would integrate seamlessly. “We needed to keep a balance between these very different sound sources and make them feel coherently part of one story rather than shifting too much between them all. That was probably the most complex part of the soundtrack.”

Berg’s approach to perspective — showing the event from a reporter’s point of view as opposed to a spectator’s point of view — helped the sound team interweave the archival material and fictionalized material. For example, Prestwood-Smith reports the crowd sounds were 90 percent archival material, played from the perspective of different communication sources, like TV broadcasts, police radio transmissions and in-ear exchanges from production crews on the scene. “These real source sounds are mixed with the actors’ dialogue to create a thread that always keeps the story together as we alternate through archival and dramatized picture edits.”

While intercutting various source materials for the marathon and bombing sequences, Mohar and Prestwood-Smith worked shot by shot, determining for each whether to highlight an archival sound, carry the sound across from the previous shot or go with another specific sound altogether, regardless of whether it was one they created or one that was from the original captured audio.

“There would be archival footage with screaming on it that would go across to another shot and connect the archive footage to the dramatized, or sometimes not. We literally worked inch-by-inch to make it feel like it all belonged in one place,” explains Prestwood-Smith. “We did it very boldly. We embraced it rather than disguised it. Part of what makes the soundtrack so dynamic is that we allow each shot to speak in its genuine way. In the earlier reels, where there is more of the archival footage, the dynamics of it really shift dramatically.”

Patriots Day is not meant to be a clinical representation of the event. It is not a documentary. By dramatizing the Boston Marathon bombing, Berg delivers a human story on an emotional level. He uses music to help articulate the feeling of a scene and guide the audience through the story emotionally.

“On an emotional level, the music did an enormous amount of heavy lifting because so much of the sound work was really there to give the film a sense of captured reality and truth,” says Prestwood-Smith. “The music is one of the few things that allows the audience to see the film — the event — slightly differently. It adds more emotion where we want it to but without ever tipping the balance too far.”

The Score
Composers Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross had a definitive role for each cue. Their music helps the audience decompress for certain moments before being thrust right back into the action. “Their compositions were so intentional and so full of character and attitude. It’s not generic,” says Mohar. “Each cue feels like a call to action. The tracks have eyes and mouths and teeth. It’s very intentional. The music is not just an emotional element; it’s part of the sound design and sound overall. The sound and music work together to contribute equally to this film.”

The way that we go back and forth between the archival footage and the dramatized footage was the same way we went from designed audio to source audio, from music to musical, from sound effects to sound effective,” he continues. “On each scene, we decided to either blur the line between music and effects, between archival sound and designed sound, or to have a hard line between each.”

To complement the music, Mohar experimented with rhythmic patterns of sounds to reinforce the level of intensity of certain scenes. “I brought in mechanical keyboards of various types, ages and material, and recorded different typing rhythms on them. These sounds were used in many of the Black Falcon terminal scenes. I used softer sounding keyboards with slower tempos when I wanted the level of tension to be lower, and then accelerated them into faster tempos with harsher sounding keyboards as the drama in the terminal increased,” he says. “By using modest, organic sounds I could create a subliminal sense of tension. I treated the recordings with a combination of plug-ins, delays, reverbs and EQs to create sounds that were not assertive.”

Dialogue
In terms of dialogue, the challenge was to get the archive material and the dramatized material to live in the same space emotionally and technically, says Prestwood-Smith. “There were scenes where Mark Wahlberg’s character is asking for ambulances or giving specific orders and playing underneath that dialogue is real, archival footage of people who have just been hurt by these explosions talking on their phones. Getting those two things to feel integrated was a complex thing to do. The objective was to make the sound believable. ‘Is this something I can believe?’ That was the focus.”

Prestwood-Smith used a combination of Avid and FabFilter plug-ins for EQ and dynamics, and created reverbs using Exponential Audio’s PhoenixVerb and Audio Ease’s Altiverb.

Staying in The Box
From sound editorial through to the final mix, Mohar and Prestwood-Smith chose to keep the film in Pro Tools. Staying in the box offered the best workflow solution for Patriots Day. Mohar designed and mixed for the first phase of the film at his studio at Technicolor’s Tribeca West location in Los Angeles, a satellite of Technicolor at Paramount’s main sound facility while Prestwood-Smith worked out of his own mix room in London. The two collaborated remotely, sharing their work back and forth, continuously developing the mix to match the changing picture edit. “We were on a very accelerated schedule, and they were cutting the film all the way through mastering. Having everything in the box meant that we could constantly evolve the soundtrack,” says Prestwood-Smith.

7.1 Surround Mix
Mohar and Prestwood-Smith met up for the final 7.1 surround mix at 424 Post in Hollywood and mixed the immersive versions at Technicolor Hollywood.

While some mix teams prefer to split the soundtrack, with one mixer on music and dialogue and the other handling sound effects and Foley, Mohar and Prestwood-Smith have a much more fluid approach. There is no line drawn across the board; they share the tracks equally.

“Mike has great taste and instincts; he doesn’t operate like a mixer. He operates like a filmmaker and I look to him to make the final decisions and direct the shape of the soundtrack,” explain Mohar. “The best thing about working with Mike is that it’s truly collaborative, no part of the mix belonged to just one person. Anything was up for grabs and the sound as a whole belonged to the story. It makes the mix more unified, and I wouldn’t have it any other way.”


Jennifer Walden is a New Jersey-based audio pro and writer.